emissions of most of them far exceed the established norms. In addition, the size of the sanitary protection zones, determined several tens of times, does not sufficiently improve the condition of the soil beyond. It is now necessary to revise these standards and create new ones that will fit the transition zone from the source of pollution to clean areas. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 2019 49



Nyk ytiuk P.A., Nykytiuk Yu.A.
Zhytomyr National Agroуеcological University
Zhytomyr , Ukraine

Abstract . In recent years, livestock farms have been the most widespread source of environmental pollution.
The emissions of most of them far exceed the established norms. In addition, the size of the sanitary protection
zones, determined several tens of times, does not sufficiently improve the condition of the soil beyond. It is now
necessary to revise these standards and create new ones that will fit the transition zone from the source of pollution
to clean areas.
Keywords: sows, pollution, microbiological parameters, sanitary protection zones.

Pig -breeding – one o f the main branches of
Ukraine livestock of which production is 1/3 of the
gross meat production in th e country. According to
analytical department data from the Association of “Pig
Farmers in Ukraine” in 2018, there were 217 thousand
tons of pork produced in Ukraine, which is 4.1% more
than for the same period in 2017 year.
In the scientific literature, a considerable amount
of information describes the processes of breeding,
keeping and feeding pigs. However, the assessment in
the ecological position of the environment due to the
impact of pork production compares the condit ions of
intensive farming techn ology, with various capacity, in
the regions where enterprises is located with a complex
of criteria, is not described enough.
Microbial numbers. It should be noted that there
was a significant (by twice -thrice) growing of
microbial organism numbers in th e stuied soils near the
livestock farms, comparing the values of the microbial
soil number in Sanitary Protection Zone (SPZ) farms
with the control variant value. It has been established
that there is a positive c orrelation between the capacity
of livestoc k farms and soil pollution in controlled areas.
In the investigation of inexes above, specific sanitary
soil condition outside the SPZ entreprises, is
Seasonal dynamics is also observed in soil
micro biological pollution . There is a considerab le
increase of microbial organism amounts in the SPZ
soils of studied livestock farms and control index is
increased by 2.4 - 3 times, in summer.
Microbial numbers are significantly lower in
spring and autumn compa red to summer, although they
still exceed t he control indicators by 1.3 -2.3 times, in
addition, the autumn indicators are much lower than the
spring are.
The lowest indexes are typical for the winter
period, but even in this time they are exceed the contro l
by 1.6 -2.1 times.
In the soils outside o f SPZ livestock farms and the
control section, microbial number are typified by slight
fluctuations during the year: this indicates microbial
organism amounts in the summer period exceed winters
by 1.6 -2.1 times.
The total quantity of soil microflora. Acco rding
to the results of conducted researshes, it may be
concluded that there is a sharp increase in the soils near
the studied farms (by 7 -15 times in comparison to data
obtained from outside the SPZ and controlle d areas) of
the total number of microflora in the soil within the
SPZ, is evident by the presence of a significant amount
of animal waste.
Pollution of surrounding areas increased with
growing numbers of livestock populations on the farms.
It should be no ted that the livestock farms SPZ’s sizes
are provided by the self -cleaning of studied soils
Growth rate in summer is increased (by 8–13
times compared to data showing growth rates in winter)
for the livestock farms SPZ soils in seasonal dynam ics
of the soil microflora total amount, by means of
conducted researches. Off -season values of soil
microflora amount in studied SPZ farms soils, except
low power enterprises, exceeds the winter values by 4.1
– 4.5 times in spring and 8 times greater in a utumn.
A characteristic decrease of micro flora amount
only in winter for low -capacity SPZ livestock
enterprises. Spring and autumn indeces are lower than
summer only by 1.3 and 1.6 times accordingly. In this
case, the control values of soil microflora is comparable
with the corresponding indeces of SPZ livestock farms,
exceeds in 4 -15 times in summer, in 12 -16 times in the
off -season and 6 -11 times -in winter.
Significantly lower fluctuations are observed over
the year in soil microflora values outside SPZ and
control soil: summer indeces exceeds that of winter by
6-9 times, spring and autumn exceeds winter by 2 -3
Micromycetes . The activity of livestock farms
significantly degrades the conditions of micromycetes
activity: within the SPZ of the studied enterprises the
amount of micromycetes a re 2.1 -4.5 times lower than
outside them and are 6 -12 times lower than the control
It is established that the size of SPZ does not
sufficiently provide the purification of soil, which is
confirme d with the decrease of CFU micromycetes
amounts in th e studied soils outside of livestock farms
SPZ, than in control soil version (by 1.2 – 3.2 times)
Around the farms, the level of soil pollution
increases according to livestock farms capacity
increasing , as evidenced by the decrease of

50 American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 20 19
micromycetes amount in surrounded territories soils.
The seasons are very important for the level of soil
pollution; in the summer period micromycetes amount
in the soil decrease sharply in comparison to winter by
10 -25 ti mes, within livestock farms SPZ and by 20 -50
times ou tside them.
Values of micromycetes amounts are closely
related to each other in the off -season (though spring
values are slightly lower than the autumn one) but
increases the winter values by 1.6 -2.5 tim es.
However, as for studied soils, the control soil i s
characterized by the same seasonal dynamics.
Micromycetes CFU value amounts increase by 5 times
in summer, by 5 -12 times in off -season and by 5 -11
times in winter for SPZ soil farms, and also by 2 -6, 2 -4
and 1.5 -2.8 times accordingly for the outside SPZ soils.
Streptomycetes . It has been established by
experimental investigations , that the amount of
streptomycetes increases by 2.7 -5 times within
livestock SPZ farms in comparison to outside SPZ
values and the control . The level of soil pollution with
strep tomycetes increases in direct proportion to the
growth in livestock farms capacity.
It should be noted, that sufficient soil purification
is provided by the size of SPZ farms.
Seasonal dynamics is also inherent for the
streptomycetes amount in the soils ar ound livestock
farms. In particular , in studied soils outside livestock
SPZ farms , the fluctuations of these microorganisms
amounts during the year is a lot more than in SPZ soils;
In the first case, the values in summer period of this
index exceeds the wi nter by 18 -22 times, in others - 3.6
times. Such differences may be explained by the fact
that the size of SPZ livestock farms outside them
provides good soil purification in the winter period,
while the soils within SPZ are polluted even in winter,
althou gh much less than during other seasons.
Streptomycetes values in the studied soils of
spring and autumn seasons are bigger than winter’s by
1.6 -3.8 times within SPZ livestock farms and by 5 -8
times outside them.
It is established, that the control area ind exes are
close to received values outside the SPZ over the year,
but relative to the values of streptomycetes amount in
the soil of livestock farms SPZ they are lower by 2.2 -
5.3 times in summe r, by 2.8 -5.2 times in spring and
autumn and by 9 -22 times in wi nter seasons.
Ammonifying microorganisms. On the basis of
some conducted research, it may be established, that is
still overweight their negative impact. The
ammonifying soil ability within t he SPZ livestock
farms in comparison the control is reduce by 2. 1-3.5
times and by 1.4 -1.8 times compared to soils outside
the SPZ.
The ammonifying area soil’s ability is increase in
inverse proportion to the growth of livestock farms
capacity of the surro unded to the farms areas. That is,
soil pollution by the studied farms exceeds according to
growth of that farms capacity.
It should be noted, that established sizes of the
studied SPZ livestock farms do not provide index’
increase, and outside the SPZ enterprises ammonifying
soil ability is lower by 2.5 -3.4 times tha n the control
Ammonifying soil ability has a clear seasonal
dynamic. In winter, the titer of ammonifier is close to
zero almost in every studied area, but within the SPZ of
livestock enterprises it exceeds the corresponding
control value by 5 -13.5 t imes. The titer of ammonifier
is significantly increase in warmer seasons: in summer -
80 -176 times depending on capacity of the livestock
enterprise relative to winter and by 1.1 -1.8 times i n
comparison to the control; in spring and autumn – by
45 -150 time s and 2.2 -5.3 times accordingly.
Therefore, the ecological soil condition around the
livestock farms of various capacity is deteriorating, and
within the SPZ, soils belong to the category of “little
polluted”. Outside the SPZ farms, incomplete soil
purification was observed, according to
physiochemical and sanitary -microbiological indexes.

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