The authors conducted a study on the differentiation of golden colors of cats and proposed the author's vision of the genetic rationale for the emergence of new variations of golden colors. As a result of the research, the authors have solved the following tasks: to describe the common features and differences between the "traditional" gold tipped colors and the "new" - Golden light; substantiated the proposed approach to the polymorphism of genes that determine tipped Golden colors of cats; described the phenotype and standard of the Golden Light color, justify the right to its existence as a separate color; substantiated the felinological coding of the Golden Light color. Скачать в формате PDF
4 American Scientific Journal № ( 39 ) / 2020


Krasnoselskaya S.and Silaev P.
judge of the international category on all breeds of cats

Annotation . The authors conducted a study on the differentiation of golden colors of cats and proposed the
author's vision of the genetic rationale for the emergence of new variations of golden colors. As a result of the
research, the authors have solved the following tasks: to d escribe the common features and differences between
the "traditional" gold tipped colors and the "new" - Golden light; substantiated the proposed approach to the
polymorphism of genes that determine tipped Golden colors of cats; described the phenotype and standard of the
Golden Light color, justify the right to its existence as a separate color; substantiated the felinological coding of
the Golden Light color.
Key words: color of cats, golden color, differentiation of golden colors of cats.

Formulation of the problem. Typical golden cats
are usually distinguished by the degree of coat - the
Gaudin Shade and Chinchilla Golden (identical name -
Golden Shell). The standards of felinological systems
are even consistent with each other. In the last decade,
the desire of bre eders to achieve "cleaner" and lighter
colors has led to new phenotypic features of golden
typical cats.
Such a lightening to almost white, more precisely
the ivory color, rightly baffled experts who did not have
an explanation of the genetics of this col or and were
afraid to allow animals with an unknown phenotypic
deviation from the standard to breed.
Objectives of this article
- describe the common features and differences
between “traditional” gold tipped colors and “new” -
Golden light; to substantiat e the approach proposed in
[1] to the polymorphism of genes that determine tipped
golden colors of cats;
- describe the phenotype and standard of the
Golden Light color, justify the right to its existence as
a separate color; substantiate the felinological coding of
Golden Light color.
Standardization of the indicated color of cats
- to place emphasis on the phenotypic
characteristics of such cats;
- to establish the boundaries of the clarified areas,
taking into account the juvenile characteristics of the
color and in order to avoid admission to breeding of
individuals with piebald spotting;
- to substantiate the genotype of the color;
- use the 'Golden Light' color standard in
felinological associations to assess the breeding
qualities of a signific ant pool of animals, separating
them into a new group among other gold tipped ones;
- to continue research on the genetic
characteristics of the color / s of cats, taking into
account the diversity of phenotypic characteristics.
Definitions, clauses and ge neral explanations for
this article.
A) This article considers only a narrow circle of
"work" of color -forming genes and their interactions.
Unless otherwise stated, "basic" means a generalized
black color. Questions related to red (sex -dependent)
colors and their variations, as well as questions of the
formation of drawings on the body - tabby are
completely excluded.
B) Definitions.

American Scientific Journal № ( 39 ) / 2020 5

Ticking - zonal hair dyeing, which is formed by alternating granules with pigments
- eumelanin (from black to brown) and pheomelanin (from almost red and yellow
to almost white).
Tipping - dyeing the upper part of the hair in the main one, one of the eumelinin,
with yellow or ticked and tipped hair of the "apricot" root part of the hair (the so -
cal led "Golden tipped").
C) The names of breeds and colors of cats in the
article begin with a capital letter to avoid confusion.
Part 1. Materials and methods. To solve the set
tasks, we studied and analyzed the following
A) Written, oral and video descriptions of the
phenotypes of 179 Golden cats of the British shorthair,
British longhair, Scottish fold / straight and Highland
fold / straight, Siberian, Burmilla, etc. The descriptions
were carried out by expert s-felinologists of the
international category from Austria, France, the
Netherlands, Poland, Russia - in total 12 experts at 17
international cat shows in 3 countries - China, Israel
and Russia. Including, with the distribution by
age. Четырехколенные родос ловные 43 кошек .
В) Standards of "traditional" tipped Golden colors
of cats - Golden Shaded and Chinchilla Golden (in
some felinological systems it is also called Golden
Shell) [2], [3], [4].
С) Fundamentals of pigmentogenesis in various
animals [5], [6], including dogs and cats [7], goats [8],
mice [9], etc.
2.1. Color formation, including Golden light.
Preface - about the name of the color. To study
pigment formation in Golden light cats, it was a great
temptation to draw an analogy with the color of the
Akita Inu dog (Fig. 3).

However, there is one significant circumstance that did not
allow us to do this - the black colored nose and lips, in
contrast to the cats of the color in question. In contrast, in
cats, a pink nasal specu lum and its edging is the first
mandatory phenotype of cats with active Agouti. It was this
significant difference that was the reason for the rejection
of the name "Akita" as the official color for Golden Light
cats. Рис.3.
https://zen.yandex.ru/media/ga vkusha/chem -
otlichaetsia -akitainu -ot-sibainu -
Color formation in cats in embryonic
development. As in all cats, in embryonic development,
the first groups of melanocytes enter the eye and ear in
the head region, as well as to the base of the tail on the
croup. Dorsal melanocytes then migrate along the
dorsolateral pathway. And the melanocytes of the head
region move from the poles to the equator: from the ear
and eye area to the center of the skull, in the direction
of the muzzle, to the back of the head and neck.

6 American Scientific Journal № ( 39 ) / 2020
The kitten (2 months old) in Fig. 4 demonstrates
the location of melanocytes in the skull from the
poles to the center, towards the muzzle; as well as the
"center of pigmentation" in the area of the base of the
tail. This raises questions about the causes of
unpainte d areas on the chest, face, legs, abdomen,
etc. The first impression is that something happened
during the migration that destroyed a group of

Fig. 4. Golden Light kitten, 2 months old.
Development of Golden light color as it
matures. Ho wever, as can be seen in the collage (Fig.
5), by the age of 11 months, the “white” parts of the
chest, paws and muzzles of the same kitten are
painted in a color from ivory to cream. This means
that the melanoblasts in embryogenesis have
successfully reac hed their goal, and the expression of
pheomelanin can change as the animal grows up. Fig. 5.
Of course, it is impossible to completely
exclude the manifestation of piebald spots in the
genotype of one of the Golden Light animals,
especially taking into account the “successful”
camouflage under the bleached areas of the coat.
Nevertheless, the manifestation of piebald spotting
should be looked for either on the skin epithelium
(Fig. 6), or included in the light areas of the coat in
adult animals aged 1.5 years.

Fig. 6. Spotted spot on the pad of the toe
Summing up, we can say that the color of Golden
Light cats, in general, is not associated with a violation
of pigment formation.
Part 3. Description of phenotypes of colors of
Golden tipped cats and correlation with their

American Scientific Journal № ( 39 ) / 2020 7

3.1. Phenotypes of Golden tipped cats. The three
types of Golden tipped cats phenotypically (in color)
differ in the proportions of colored hair tips, that is,
eumelanin granules (more in G olden Shaded) and
pheomelanin deposited at the ends. These proportions
are noticeable not only in the depth of the colored hair
tips (especially on the metatarsal parts of the hind legs),
but also in the degree of coloration of the epithelium.

Table 1
Description of the phenotypes of Golden Tipped cats
Golden Shaded Shell (Chinchilla golden) Golden Light
All three animals (fig. 7 -9) are representatives of gold tipped colors. The shade of the "golden" color depends on the
expression of pheomelanin (ivory / yellow to red), on the amount of eumelanin granules mixed with it and on the
"depth" of the ends of the hair painted in the base color.
Fig.7. http://animal.memozee.com/view.php?tid=3&did=14785

Fig. 8. Pi SAZo
K&S *RU (F).
Ow. Konstantin
Kargaltsev –
Ryazan, RUS

Fig.9. Ronigaldo the
Ow. Leonid Ruder - Israel

n individuals with Golden Shaded (Fig. 7) and Shell (Fig. 8), black pigment
(eumelanin) is deposited on the skin epithelium, including on the paw pads, eyelids,
and the edging of the nose;
in the coat - more brightly along the spine, on the metatarsals of the hind limbs, at the
tip of the tail, open single rings on the forelimbs are possible; dark interdigital hair
tufts, vertical stripes on the forehead and some other places.

Black pigment is deposited
on all paw pads (metatarsal,
metacarpals, etc.), visible at
the tip of the tail; slight
"plaque" a long the spine is
Closed edging of the mirror of the nose, brightly colored eyelids, lips and epithelium
on the anal and genitals. Painted hind limbs; dark hair on the lower limbs (in Golden
shaded up to the hock), especially between the toes.
The edging of the nose is not
closed or absent, the eyelids,
lips and other epithelium are
poorly colored; bleached hair
on the legs, especially on the
toes, on the cheekbones, on
the lower part o f the tail, chest
and abdomen.

3.2. Abstracts for the substantiation of
genotypes for the color of Golden tipped cats,
including the Golden Light color.
Determination of the probable genotype by
phenotypic traits allows you to draw a line between all
three Gold tipped colors, as well as to separate them
from ticked colors of Gold and non -Gold colors.
The whole variety of colors of mammals is
determined by the combination of two pigments:
eumelanin - from black to brown and pheomelan in
from red to yellow. Eumelanin is produced if MC1R is
activated by its α-melanocyte hormone ( α-MSH)
stimulating ligand, whereas pheomelanin is produced if
α-MSH is absent and / or displaced by binding of a
competitive antagonist ASIP to MC1R [9]. Both genes
- MC1R at locus E (Extension) and ASIP at locus A
(Agouti) - are widely known as genes with a large
number of alleles in many animals [10], for example,

8 American Scientific Journal № ( 39 ) / 2020
for dogs [11], minipigs [12], macaques [13], mice and
many others.
For cats, these two genes have long been regarded
as genes with a simple type of dominance. The
multiplicity of their allelism was first proved in works
on mutations in the ASIP gene (for th e Asian leopard,
Bengal, and others [14], [15] cats). This was followed
by work on mutations in the MC1R - ec gene (in the
Copal [16] or Carnelian [17] colors of Kurilean
Bobtail). A little later, hypotheses were put forward
about the polymorphism of both genes for cats of
golden colors [1]. The order of dominance of genes at
the E locus: E> ey> ec> e and genes at the locus А:
Genotype of Gold -tipped colors
Initially, the melanocyte cell is tuned to synthesize
black pigment. That is why the hair tips of Agouti cats
are dyed in the base color. Agouti signaling proteins
(ASIPs) are then activated, whose job is to [7.1 and
illustration], [11, pp. 44 -46]:
2.3 -a) "intercept" the signals coming from the
pituitary gland - molecules of melanostimulat ing
hormone (MSH);
2.3 -b) disable the MC1R receptor;
2.3 -c) start the process of pheomelaninogenesis.
The result of the dominant, "strongest" allele (Ay)
of the Agouti gene is the shortening of the blackened
hair ends. Moreover, in order for the animal to remain
with the Golden color, along with the "strong" Aguti,
the MC1R gene must remain sufficiently "weak" (ec or
ey). The genotypes of the colors of the cats shown in
Table 1 can presumably be written as follows: Golden
shaded ( рис .7) – Ay/A ey/ey, Chinch illa Golden
(рис .8) – Ay/Ay ey/ey.
All the above reasoning regarding mutations in the
MC1R and ASIP genes is also valid for the Golden light
genotype (Fig. 9). However, it is obvious that there are
additional factors that should answer questions about
the features in the phenotype of these particular cats:
- why does the cell, which is initially tuned to the
synthesis of black pigment, leave the border of the nose
without staining, the eyelids, epithelium on the genitals
and anal organs are poorly colored ?
- Why does a cat of this color have a strong
bleached coat on the chest, throat, cheekbones, fingers,
The answer, most likely, lies in the rate of
switching synthesis from eu - to pheomelanin,
prolonged at the micro -level. The enzyme tyrosinase
(Tyr ), a transmembrane protein, whose
intramelanosomal domain catalyzes the initial and rate
limiting synthesis of both eumelanin and pheomelanin,
is responsible for this rate. This enzyme is encoded by
the C (Color) gene. Allelic variations in the C gene
resu lt in several characteristic phenotypes. These
include the well -known Siamese (or Himalayan) allele
cs / cs, Sepia allele cb / cb, Mink (or Tonkin) allele cb
/ cs, which are associated with acromelanism
(limitation of pigment to the limbs of the body).
Thi s multiple allelism is known in cats, mice,
rabbits and many others. At the same time, in most of
the listed animals, other alleles of the C gene are well
studied, for example, ch (chinchilla). It is this mutation
that looks the most logical for the role o f a candidate
responsible for the phenotype in color Golden light.
We studied the pedigrees of 79 animals, which,
according to experts, corresponded to the description of
the Golden light color. The results of the studied
pedigrees of Golden light cats c an be seen in Table 2.
The left column of the table shows the alleles of the C
locus (from the father's side / from the mother's side)
found in the ancestral lines, which can be traced by the
Table 2
Analysis of the pedi grees of Golden light cats (by alleles of gene C).
genome by
longhair Burmilla Munchkin Highland fold
& straight
Scottish fold
& straight
cats Всего
Number of pedigrees with ancestors having a mutant gene at the locus (C)
cs/cs 12 14 6 1 6 39
C/cs 11 4 1 3 7 3 29
cb/cb 2 2
C/cb 3 3
C/C 3 1 2 6
Всего 26 18 2 4 10 10 9 79
From table 2 it follows that more than 92.4% of
animals of Golden light color are carriers of mutant
alleles of the Color gene. In our opinion, a closer further
study of the mutations of this locus in cats is necessary.
Perhaps, taking into account the "m ouse" mutation ch,
which could simultaneously explain the "weak speed"
of the tyrosinase enzyme - accordingly, it will explain
the absence of a fringing of the nose, and the expression
of bleached areas, with their gradual staining as they
grow older.

Fig. 10. The range of pheomelanin colors.

American Scientific Journal № ( 39 ) / 2020 9


The study of mutation ch, possibly new for cats, is all the more
interesting because some individuals of Golden light color have more
contrasting color schemes. Representatives of such colors live in China,
South Korea, in various regions of the Russian Federation (Vladivostok,
Novosibirsk, Rostov -on-Don, etc.), Ukraine, the USA and a number of
other regions of the world that are very distant from each other.
Representatives of this contrasting Urajiro effect are registered by
breeders and presented in competitions in various felinological systems
in the Chinchilla color.
In our opinion, these are cats with the Golden light genotype, but not
tipped, but ticked with 1 -2 bands at the ends of their hair.
Fig.11. From MariBessa
Ow. Marina Bessergeneva,
Rostov -na -Donu - RF
Part 4. Color standard Golden Light.
General description of the standa rd. The base
color is tipped or ticked by 1 -2 bands of the base color
- Black, Chocolate, Blue, Lilac. The general shade is
"gold". It is much more intense on the face and back,
with an urajiro effect - pads, cheeks, possibly part of
the cheekbones, chin, neck, chest, thighs, inner legs,
fingers, belly and underside of the tail are much lighter,
and from sandy straw color to almost white or ivory.
The tip of the tail is colored in the base color (tipping /
ticking color).
Base color tipping / ticking, takes from 1/8 to 1/4
hair; some cats have some gold or bronze / copper
pigment. Sometimes different hairs have different
colorings of the tip of the hair - one of them can be with
a basic tipping / ticking color, another is golden and
without tipping, and the third one with a bronze / copper
color tipping.
The color of the bleached areas ranges from
sandy -straw color to almost white or ivory. The color
around the eyes and the triangular area on the muzzle
may be significantly lighter; bright, with blurred edge s
marks on the eyebrows in the form of a flame; there
may be blurry whitish spots on the vertex; the lower
part of the forearm from the outside can also be
highlighted, but has smooth transitions from basic to
almost white or ivory. For ticked Golds, the c ontrast of
the lightened part is much more pronounced compared
to tipped ones. White patches of any shape on the
forehead are not permissible, except as described on the
Undercoat color - from sandy -straw, apricot -peach
to almost white / ivory.
Eye rims match the color of the tipping, lightened
but not colorless.
Eye color - all shades of green. A deep green color
is preferred.
The edging of the mirror (lobe) of the nose can
only be outlined, absent or significantly lightened. The
color of the nose i s pink or brick -colored.
The color of the paw pads corresponds to the base
color - black, chocolate and their lightened variations.
Features: around paws and fingers, on each of the
fingers around the claws - the effect of a "light glove",
the coat is almo st white / ivory. The inner part of the
hind legs is strongly bleached.
Note: The color appears in newborn kittens. As
they grow older, the color of the tipping becomes more
intense, especially on the apical parts. Defects in color
(PENALIZE) affecting the assessment. Minor residual
tabby (picture) along the hull. Defects in color
(DISQUALIFY) leading to disqualification. Brown in
color, stripes on the legs, white piebald on the pads, not
green eyes in adults. Spotted spot on the forehead.
Rationale for color coding. Most felinological
associations with a “European” style of judging [18]
use the letter “n” for the short designation of Black
color, and the letter “y” for Golden colors. After the
color lettering, the numerical designation of a gouti and
/ or tabby is used. For example, ny 11 - Golden shaded,
ny 12 - Golden shell (Golden chinchilla).
Following the generally accepted tradition, with
the gratitude of FIFe, it is logical to propose a new
coding for the color Golden Light – ny 13.

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We are grateful to all experts of the international
category, who carried out cat examinations according
to the A.SuperCats rules.
Special thanks to the breeders who provided
photos, their animals and their pedigrees for
examination - D. Andrjukova, M. Bessergeneva, V.
Goldobin (Israel), S. Kamraz, K. Kargaltsev, O.
Kostrikina, E. Litskevich, N. Pinchuk, T. Polischuk, L.
Ruder (Israel), N. Sertakov a, A. Shaura, Son Aurika
(Republic of Korea), S. Steshina, M. Udimova, G.
Vorobiyova, M. Vorontsova, Wang Pana (Chine), S
.Zabavkina, etc.
Photographers - Richard Katris Chanan (CA,
USA) https://chanan.smugmug.com/Cat -Photos,
E.Koschina (RU), http://fluffyk.ru/.