FROM ANTHROPOECOLOGY’S THE POINT OF VIEW
Leonel Chacón Anchondo
Industrial Engineer, Technological Institute Cd. Juárez
Cd. Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua, Mexico, Tepeyac street # 4030, 31520
Definition so far (2019 AD) of economically active population is mainly aimed at generation of wealth weighted in money, regardless of whether type of activity carried out is positive, negative (drug trafficking, liquor, armament) or superfluous (paid sport, beauty articles, bottled drinks) and INACTIVA (home care, student, retirees), completely ignoring sustainable aspect.
Anthropoecology, defines the economic population as PRODUCTIVE, which can be positive, negative or superfluous and ACTIVE, which can also be positive, positive, unpaid, negative or superfluous, and INACTIVE, implicitly taking the sustainable aspect.
Keywords: Productive economic population positive, negative, superfluous. Active, positive unpaid, negative, superfluous, Inactive, sustainable
ECONOMY AND WORK
A set of human beings economically and socially strong and with good distribution of material wealth; is that in which all or almost all individuals perform economically productive tasks and the economically active are a complement and are distributed among all individuals. This implies a horizontal and non-pyramidal social and administrative structure.
The current classification to the economic activity of human being is specific to define two types of population within the economy:
Economically active population: people who are of determined age to attend work centers from which to provide labor in the production of economic goods and services, or of which they are available and continue to make efforts to be included in this category.
Unemployed or unemployed population: This category includes individuals aged 16 and over who meet all the conditions necessary for a job but are without it.
Economically inactive population: All persons 16 years of age or older who do not qualify are included. for work actions for various reasons and others, such as the care of a person, home care, student, retirees, unable to perform work, etc. They are considered people who are neither busy nor unemployed.
ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION,
PRODUCTIVE AND NOT ACTIVE.
- Economically active population: positive, superfluous and negative.
- Economically productive population: positive, superfluous and negative.
- Economically population: neither active or productive.
Within each area of activity of human being;
Which activities are indispensable?
Which are necessary?
Which are superfluous?
Has any census been made about activities of human being according to this reclassification of economic population?
SUCH AS: farmers, factory workers, business managers, vendors, housewives, housewives who work, parents or single mothers, musicians, diverse artists, professional athletes, students, army, police, politicians, drugs dealers, liquors, beauty articles, film critics, commentators of all kinds of events, video game testers, creators of computer movies, etc. etc.
Objective or Marxist. Classic definition of objective current comes from Federico Engels who states: «Political economy is the science that studies laws that govern the production, distribution, circulation and consumption of material goods that meet human needs.»
Subjective or marginalist. Classic definition of subjectivist definition is of Lionel Robbins, who says: «Economy is the science that is in charge to study satisfaction of human needs by means of goods that being scarce have alternative uses among which it is necessary to choose».
a). «Economics study how people use resources to meet their needs … Basic problem that studies economy is the problem of scarcity.» [Van Sickle, John V. and Rogge, Benjamin, A.]
b). «Political economy is the science of development social relations of production; that is, of economic relations between men. It studies laws that govern production and distribution of material goods in human society throughout the various phases of its development. » [Borisov, Zhamin, and Makárova. Dictionary of Political Economy. U.R.S.S.]
c). Marshall (Alfred) defined economics as, «… the science that examines part of individual and social activity especially devoted to achieving and using material conditions of well-being».
d). «Economics is the science that has as its object the administration of scarce resources available to human societies: it studies the ways how man behaves in faces the difficult situation of the external world caused by tension between unlimited needs and limited means available to agents of economic activity «. [Raymond Barre.]
As this text shows, there are some definitions where there are points of agreement, but aspect of sustainable development is very open, which may have a different meaning for each author.
Current human being bases his subsistence on development of an economic activity and measure the performance of this activity is accumulation of material goods obtained from it, measured in money. Although money is an efficient vehicle for exchange goods and services; by itself, it does not contribute anything to the economy or wealth, much less to sustainability of human being.
Systems of free economy or market have taught and in some cases shown that saving money (paper) can stop working in the last years of life; Nature does not say the same thing. How far and until when can the human being be superimposed on nature?
Work. It is a human activity through which elements of nature (production) are adapted and transformed in order to satisfy human needs.
Adam Smith said: «that earth (nature) is the mother and work is the father. Work and nature are two elements that make up value of merchandise. If particular characteristics of different goods are eliminated, work is what they all have in common».
According to Marx. «All work is at the same time concrete work and abstract work; this is the double character of work».
Concrete work: «refers to amount of physical energy invested to perform tasks necessary to obtain a product.»
Abstract work: «is a source of exchange value and is related to merchandise or service that was created.»
Qualified work: «is one whose performance requires a very careful preparation and previous training that in some cases equals some years of formal education in classroom or an intense experience».
Unqualified work: «refers to the person who works in positions that, although they require care, responsibility and security, do not require extensive prior preparation compared to qualified jobs». [Gustavo Cruz Soto.]
Definitions of qualified and unqualified work obey a system of concentrating economy and centralist government systems (which are called democratic). With premise that bigger the better.
e.g. it is enough to see great and gigantic works and constructions of human being that would not be possible without concentrated economy.
Therefore, a category is lacking in the definition of work; and this is integral or multidisciplinary work. Currently (2019 A.D.) we do not take work as a means of subsistence or philosophy of life; we take it illusive and dreamily as a means to accumulate material goods and above all money and live ostentatiously. Thinking that that is happiness.
Integral or multidisciplinary work. In this text, it is defined as a set of tasks where knowledge of diverse disciplines of planning, administration and execution is required to carry out an activity, which can be achieved with positive instructional education.
e.g. in construction work there are very few with the ability to plan, manage and execute construction of a house from start to finish. This type of people has become extinct due to concentrated economic system, centralized and massive production systems; In this specific activity, by the volume of construction, work can be divided into specific tasks, requiring unskilled workers instead of integral or multidisciplinary workers. It does suppose, a multidisciplinary worker requires certification. This is just one example of many possible.
Multidisciplinary worker is one with capacity to build a complete entity; e.g. build a house.
Industrial engineering is responsible for the division of labor into mass production, undoubtedly reducing costs and making products more accessible to a greater number of consumers; bringing as a consequence people who have lived all their lives doing a single task, feeling the same a specialist in this task and acquiring fixations of behavior very difficult to change.
Skilled worker will learn to do just one task; that requires specific training; he could be called a specialist; if in addition to knowing how to perform the task, he knew
everything peripheral about it, without forgetting the aspects that are known as quality work. Likewise, it is to be assumed that a specialist requires a certification. Specialization can cause stress, uncertainty and frustration in the individual in situations of reduced activity or economic crisis.
What is routine? An activity or a mental attitude? Every form of work is a
routine, life itself is a routine as an activity.
Every living being requires working to survive. The human being needs to do it in a team where each person has a function to fulfill. And core part are individuals that in this text are classified as economically productive population; since they are the ones that truly make things transform from raw materials to consumer goods or execute a service through transporting goods; even when in industry movement of material is considered a non-productive activity and the personnel who carry it out are considered indirect. Starting from this premise, said movement must be properly planned and minimum possible. According to previous concept, that moving material is a non-productive activity.
Globalization such as is first mistake it commits even without including other
Globalization does not see the individual as a society, but as an economic factor. Sometimes cheaper labor is available elsewhere; Is it really cheap or poorly paid?
ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION POSITIVE,
SUPERFLUOUS AND NEGATIVE
It is defined in this text as the group of individuals that contribute indirectly to production of goods and services, through administration and control of material resources and economically productive population. Some examples:
POSITIVE ACTIVE: administrative staff, vendors in general, workers in public sector, media, police, musicians, students, politicians, street vendors, etc. etc.
SUPERFLUOUS ACTIVE: army, professional athletes, shows, diverse artists, beauty salons, beauty products sellers, movie critics, commentators of all kinds of events, video game testers, advertising, cinema, television, etc. etc.
NEGATIVE ACTIVE: administrative staff and sellers of drugs, liquors, weapons, pornography, crime, etc. etc.
The way in which concepts are shown on this subject, does not intend at any time to deny the necessity of its existence; However, if we want to make it as clear as possible that when it surpasses a certain proportion, an excessively expensive organization is created.
Human being has given great importance to all activities that motivate vanity and vainglory; likewise paying a lot of attention to result of productive process and forgetting almost all motivation and adequate compensation to the labor that really does work.
Administrative staff. Percentage of individuals that are within this group increases when companies get bigger. Although it is thought otherwise, because companies, especially multinationals, are not enough to conquer the commercial and labor market, but they need to influence tendency of individual to prefer one product to another only by the name of the brand.
At this level companies need a complete marketing system to create an image of the brand, most of the time that image is reinforced or supported by a sports or entertainment idol. This marketing system requires another advertising company equal or greater than normally outside the company, but depends on it.
Another example of this is that large transnational companies originate needs for standardization of machinery, equipment, services and procedures that they require for their companies, so an office and personnel are needed.
Merchandising. This activity does not contribute in least to productivity, and in another sense its fundamental premise is to obtain the greatest advantage in any economic transaction.
At individual level, many traders increase price of products beyond fair price; depending on how they see client, this happens day by day, this is greed. Is this a mental
In normal situations, marketing is competitive under certain parameters; However, in none of cases does a competitor supersede another, when competitive situation is critical, a price agreement is reached.
Merchandising of products and services even in normal situations; sometimes uses bribery tactics, also known as tithe, share, whisper, (depending on the region where this happens) when acquirer is part of an organization.
On other occasions the acquirer manipulates the suppliers to favor the one that suits him and best to himself.
Sometimes, marketing takes advantage of critical situations in society, such as shortages of a product due to natural events where goods are lost and there is a sudden shortage of products and services; sometimes speculation is reached by hiding and retaining products to raise prices or as an instrument to manipulate political situations, either by retaining or doing opposite, invading market with large «offers» of some product to affect one or some companies and even some governments, This attitude of greed, could be classified as mental illness.
Marketing methods are aimed at flattering human vanity and motivating laziness such as: «with this you have more power», «with this you are the distinguished one», with this, you are the only one «,» with this you will work less «,» with this you will be more beautiful «, just to mention a few of phrases used.
With a marketing aimed at consumer manipulation, trying not only to sell their products but also to create a culture to the brand of product in question through idols. Directed artfully to children and young people, who are most vulnerable and who quickly accuse those consequences.
Marketing uses all kinds of tricks to sell, from lie of offers, discounts and gifts to trials and pressures to client, pretending another client interested in the same product. Scoring is a dishonest way to measure loyalty, friendship, honesty, fidelity or any other form of relationship between two or more human beings. Scoring is learned and the person who executes it, seeks, in most cases, to make sure of the future attitudes of the one or defendants. A trial is based on distrust, it can be surreptitious and it is unilateral. The scoring is an ancestral practice since biblical times.
A test; it is the demonstration of something, openly and with bilateral commitment.
Public sector. Governments are the largest contributors that contribute individuals directly to economically active population; Governments in many cases take tasks, activities or responsibilities that should be left to society. When a task is performed by society that task is dispersed and each sector or small group solves it with the opinion of their individuals according to their wishes, style, possibilities or according to real and not manipulated law of supply and demand. When government centralizes and concentrates an activity, society has no voice or vote. Control of this activity is exercised by public sector with influence of the economic power sector, which is the one that is truly executing this task, which, because it is global, requires large economic resources, so society has to follow and support what economic power dictate, through the public sector.
Another dependence of governments with a very specific task is army, used for good or for bad but that invariably falls within the economically active population. To which is built equipment and machinery exclusively for it, with deception of achieving peace.
With a system of government subordinated to economic power, manipulation and conflict are continuous, where there is some servility, which are enough to hurt and silence of others. With dishonest attitudes, having as consequence inefficiency in administration of resources of society.
Centralization of political power has resulted in interference and execution of many local tasks since we have to wait for approval of lofty in turn. Human being can not physically be in two or more places or do two or more tasks directly at the same time; although it can have the designation of many positions: president of here, counselor of there, honorary member over there etc. despite the fact that some only attend them every now and then; due to the technological advance it is possible for a human being to control the degree of performance at a distance, but his decision will be attached to his experience or whim, but hardly to reality; added to this, it makes the
system bureaucratic, since said group has to wait for the «authorized» opinion, delaying the planned actions.
Sports. This is an activity that has attracted many children and young people because stars earn large amounts of money and mass media raises them to category of idols, causing a large number of participants (dreamers) who by thousands are left on the road and old people are still daydreaming and in the worst cases involve their children. This economic activity that handles large amounts of money, nothing contributes to productivity, but contributes to manipulation of people through merchandising.
In addition, athletes live their pride without caring the group of followers or fans who are due; There comes a time when they only see the amount of money they can earn and public is only the means to obtain it. Sports do not contribute anything to peaceful coexistence and subsistence; rather, they exacerbate competition and rancor disguised as sportsmanship.
For this economic reason, a goal is awarded more than the writing of a good book or good performance of an agricultural community.
Entertainment. Shows of all kinds; it is an activity similar to sports that in no way contributes to productivity, but if it handles large amounts of money and exacerbates the vanity of human being.
Sports and shows are considered great sources of work and in some way is real but price that society pays to have them as they are handled in late twenty-first (A.D.) is very high, both economically, morally and socially.
Economically, it is people who contribute large amounts of money earned by protagonists of these activities, reducing their family economy and in many cases boasting about the amounts they obtain. Some people say they are from the village, but they bring a bodyguard.
People only keep dreams and illusions out of all reality and that contribute nothing to their livelihood; motivating him to any other thing but not to be productive, without providing any positive learning towards life and to his social group. Since what is exacerbated are behaviors of arrogance, egoism and vanity, among others.
Normally morbid, pornography, prostitution and vices go hand in hand with
A comedian said: «You can live without a comedian; a plumber is more
necessary than a comedian. » [Jack Mason]
The more people live by the word and other active activities, but not productive, that implies that they live of productive work of the rest of human beings.
Where is the equilibrium point, at what moment can it break?
Still not including superfluous and harmful activities, such as: production of beauty articles, intoxicating drinks and drugs among others.
When the group of people of an entertainment area is scattered; e.g. comedians, for a whole country to hear a story or a joke, these have to be said many times; However, when that group of people is integrated into a large administrative system and a means of communication of great scope is used; Many people hear the joke in a single event, so the material runs out very quickly; forcing the system to create new stories and jokes and it is at this point that in order to generate new material, verbal comedy distorts the use of language in an exacerbated way, abusing the double meaning, screaming nonsense and in many cases obscenities.
Mass media. Some of these, both voice and video, are currently gigantic businesses with great economic power and influence on political power, being in some other cases government itself. One of major criticisms of these media is that they filter information and only inform the people what is appropriate when it comes to matters concerning society, especially in those media that belong to governments.
Advertising as part of media is an instrument of marketing for the promotion and sale of products. Language is also abused and prostitution of the woman’s body.
The prostitution of the woman’s body is a source of temptation in such a way that a lonely man, with few economic resources, with shyness towards woman and being continually bombarded by this type of publicity, without a doubt, a possible sexual abuser is being generated. it can be presented in many ways, from the rapist to the seducer; the cases of rape are made public knowledge and not those of seduction that
may remain hidden. In these cases, only the bad behavior of the rapist is exacerbated, but never the sources that contributed to provoke it.
Beauty products. Undoubtedly the production promotion and sale of beauty products generate sources of employment; However, the handling and advertising of these products go directly to flattering the vanity of women, including some of the male sex, cataloged as metrosexual. Making woman instead of showing her true beauty disguises herself to shelter of said products.
It can be said that this type of product does not generate a beautiful woman,
but an aesthetically attractive woman.
How far some negative or superfluous activities make us mentally ill?
Various activities. There are some services whose individuals fall into this classification, among others are tourist services and recreational parks, writers of novelties, professional speakers, religious services, banking services, and even charlatans who with astrology, letter readers, mediums, and others like they say cure everything; In all these tasks a very significant percentage of the population is occupied, whose standard of living in most cases is much higher than those belonging to the economically productive population.
Tourist areas and recreational parks and ecological reserves, these are considered sources of work and fun and according to current standards at the beginning of the XXI century (A.D.) fulfill their objective. These creations of human being have little more than half a century of activity and are already considered as indispensable in some economic societies and in fact their creation is promoted; when in fact they are sources of superfluous economic movement, since with any minimum crisis or simple manipulation (known as falls) or alarm in the stock exchanges, they are the first affected.
Retired, in this group there is a great diversity of criteria or feelings with respect to the event itself; Some think that they are already ended and there is nothing to do and the one who thinks like this actually happens to him.
In advanced countries there are companies that offer all kinds of wonderful plans for retirement, of course with money of retired. Explicitly promoting retirement 40
years before through their raffles, with the following slogan: «Retire 40 years before», this is just one example of many similar promotions, many other companies offer money to «hands full»; as long as……
Nature did not create living systems to work a part of their life and then they could retire in their old age. This artifice of human being could become a problem when economies are restricted for any reason. This happens because the economic system is not sustainable.
Retirement systems in old age have created a lax mentality in oldies and curtailed leadership of family group, instead of taking advantage of that wisdom to create a more sensible world.
Writers of novelties, fashion literature or spectacular biographies; but with nothing that truly enriches the reader, books of read and throw away; as well as publication of fashion magazines, inconsequential events for society, where a high percentage are only explicit gossip.
It is necessary to keep quiet and get to work in a positive productive activity.
Professional speakers in this activity there are a large number of areas or topics in which these individuals perform. And everyone who uses the word to live carries the risk of going beyond limit and becoming a parasite of society.
ECONOMICALLY PRODUCTIVE POPULATION POSITIVE,
SUPERFLUOUS AND NEGATIVE
It is defined in this text as the group of individuals that contribute directly to development of human being, through labor, transforming raw materials into products.
Within economically active activities, the following examples can be listed:
POSITIVE PRODUCTIVE: farmers, factory workers, workers in general,
housewives (unpaid), public sector workers, technicians in all kinds of workshops etc. SUPERFLUOUS PRODUCTIVE: producers of sweetening beverages, army,
producers of beauty articles, workers in beauty salons, creators of computer movies and video games, etc.
NEGATIVE PRODUCTIVE: workers producing tobacco, drugs, liquors, and weapons, transporting drugs, liquors and weapons etc.
At the beginning of the XXI century A.D. direct labor jobs are poorly paid and manipulated through excessive benefits that should be given as wages (in Mexico). Likewise, their social status is considered the lowest and least educated, perhaps because it suits the economic-political class. On the other hand, everyone wants a high academic degree, forgetting the importance of a well-trained workforce through a positive and well-paid instructive education,
Technological progress facilitates the accumulation and control of resources and engineering divides work in such a way that an activity is repeated thousands of times a day, making work little or no motivating. And the solution is not necessarily automation.
Some companies in advanced countries look for other countries with lower academic levels where they can pay lower salaries.
In some cases, the tactic used is manipulation of the political system of the host country. This possibility exists because centuries ago, conquest was with sword in hand; today it is the same but executed in another way since the technological advance has provided the tools to achieve it.
The advanced countries that have companies outside their borders carry out activities of administration and control, as well as development and application of technologies that once proven in mass production are sent to other countries for their application; normally labor in advanced countries is highly qualified and in most cases satisfied and motivated with their job.
Perhaps a false perception of some who carry out an independent productive activity is to wait for «gains» and if there are no profits then this activity is not worth it. Most appropriate approach would be that such activity provides a way of life, certainty and independence.
ECONOMICALLY NOT ACTIVE OR PRODUCTIVE POPULATION
It is defined in this text as that sector of human beings that do not have an
officially remunerated job.
It seems that economists forgot this important workspace, dictating all kinds of rules and laws about activities that ultimately generate money and forgetting the source of generation of the most important element in production.
Retirees become part of this group.
In nature, all living being that stops dies.
Occupational therapy is good when you have the habit of work and not as a remedy for someone who does not want to work.
AT PRESENT. Mothers and housewives fall into this category; nevertheless,
their work more than important is transcendental in the life of human being.
In economically strong countries, retirees base the financial support of their retirement on personal savings, on government aid and on the shares they bought in companies listed on the stock exchange. In any way, any case and in any country, the withdrawal is based on money and not on sustainable productivity. Currently some countries and many people have suffered in their own flesh the fallacy of the value of money.
HONESTY IN DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH. The political system is not as relevant as honesty of politicians, businessmen and population in general in distribution of wealth.
Seen from afar; countries of ExUSSR show a per capita income that is much lower than other countries in America and Asia; nevertheless, the standard of living of population in general, is higher than those countries.
Countries of ExUSSR must remain united to level the global uncertainty, in spite of their internal problems and differences between countries; otherwise, they will be economically conquered one by one.
- Socio-cultural and recreational activities, such as sports and entertainment, have
become economically preferable.
- The «solve problems» in its effect generates an economic gain and not in its cause.
- An immediate revaluation of the salaries of the economically productive population and an adjustment to those of the economically active population is required.
- The law of supply and demand, widely accepted by marketing philosophies and
techniques, is an immoral law
- Currently leaders of countries have and continue to give convenient solutions and not the correct ones to diverse problems; e.g. Social problems are given economic-political solutions; technical-economic ones are given political solutions. When someone truly proposes something beneficial, it is blocked to prevent sympathy and to avoid exposing the badness of the control group, this is a perverse game performed
by the mentally ill.
- Direction of behavior and problems of human being have been the same throughout ages; current difference is the concentration of human beings in large cities, power,
as well as economic resources, making systems more vulnerable.
- Money as an easy instrument of exchange is one that has contributed most in
generation of problems; and therefore, will be the least contributing directly to solution of these.
- For a society to be fair and sustainable it must focus primarily on mental healing, changing our paradigms towards honesty and eliminating greed and corruption.
Political corruption and social corruption are concomitant.
- Economic population, reeducate entrepreneurs to eliminate corruption and monitor politicians. Make the «socially responsible» slogan a reality by investing its profits in infrastructure that industry needs and that sometimes they fraudulently make with the resources of the country. We should not sacrifice social responsibility for the sake of technological progress.
- When social activists appear, NGOs like «human rights» or others are a clear indicator that rulers are not fulfilling their task, or else, it is a well-orchestrated farce, so that people have a way of relief.
Fundamentals of economics, José Silvestre Méndez Morales, McGraw Hill 1996
Basic Microeconomics, Gustavo Cruz Soto ITCJ 2001 TV Magazine NOTES, November 13, 2002 A.D.
Lic. Bernardo Stamateas, Posted by Sandra Pc at 9:14 PM, Mar 12 2012, «Everything starts in your head»: Mental fixation. [nosvemosenlacima-clavedesan.blogspot.com/2012/03/fijaciones-mentales.html].