Американский Научный Журнал CLUSTER POLITICS OF REGION DEVELOPMENT: THE BEST PRACTICES OF USA

Abstract. The article analyses the experience of successful development of regional clusters of the USA. We describe the best practices of the cluster policy of the following states: Minnesota, Oregon, Massachusetts, South Carolina. We show the change in the role of managing subjects during the evolution of regional business clusters. We prove the need for training facilitators within the framework of professional cluster management. We suggest the system of organizational roles for ensuring inter-firm cluster interactions. The article is intended for researchers in regional economy, cluster policy and experts engaged in the management and development of regional clusters Скачать в формате PDF
42 American Scientific Journal № ( 30) / 20 19
ЭКОНОМИКА, ЭКОНОМЕТР ИКА И ФИНАН СЫ

CLUSTER POLITICS OF REGION DEVELOPMENT: THE BEST PRACTICES O F USA

Maia Chechelashvili
Doctor of Economic (PhD), Professor
Georgian Technical University,
Tbilisi, Georgia
Lia Berikashvili
Doctor of Economic (PhD), Professor
Georgian Technical University,
Tbilisi, Georgia
Elisabed Malania
Doctor of Economic (PhD), Professor
Georgian Technical University,
Tbilisi, Georgia
Tamar Rostiashvili
Doctor of Economic (PhD), Professor
Georgian Technical University,
Tbilisi, Georgia
Maia Soselia
Doctor of Economic (PhD), Professor
Georgian Technical University,
Tbilisi, Georgia

Abst ract. The article analyses the experience of successful development of regional clusters of the USA. We
describe the best practices of the cluster policy of the following states: Minnesota, Oregon, Massachusetts, South
Carolina. We show the change in the r ole of managing subjects during the evolution of regional business clusters.
We prove the need for training facilitators within the framework of professio nal cluster management. We suggest
the system of organizational roles for ensuring inter -firm cluster interactions. The article is intended for researchers
in regional economy, cluster policy and experts engaged in the management and development of regiona l clusters.
Keywords: regional economy, clusters, cluster policy, cluster approach, facilitator, thema tic cluster

Thematic clusters are a new trend that requires
understanding and adjusting the standard approach of
cluster policy. The experience of the European CLOE -
project (which is an inter -cluster cooperation network
in the field of cluster management existing since 2004)
shows that thematic tools do not have to cover the
activities of the cluster as a whole; they may be
selective. For example, participants in this network
hold regular thematic workshops (interactive seminars)
on specific topics relate d to cluster management and
involve representatives of clusters and experts from
different EU countries. During the worksho p,
scientists, experts and practitioners discuss various
innovations and best practices in cluster management,
while establishing inf ormal contacts.
Cluster Policy: US Experience
In the United States, different states pursue a
rather specific cluster polic y. For example, in
Minnesota, the cluster approach (as in several Asian
countries) is seen as a framework concept for all
economic po licy. At first, the cluster approach was
applied to solving one, albeit a complex, problem - the
development of knowledge a nd competencies of the
workforce demanded by business - but gradually began
to be used in almost all areas of the state economic
poli cy, becoming the basis of the regional development
strategy. In this regard, the lessons learned by the
Minnesota authoriti es deserve special attention. First of
all, according to experts, it is important to form a
common language for dialogue between regi onal
leaders of government, business and civil society (the
language means unambiguously understood
terminology, identical ideas and expectations), which
increases the role of training programs and discussions
at the preliminary stage of cluster projects.
Further, Minnesota's cluster leaders proceed from
identifying key regional needs in formulating cluster
development program s. Thus, the activity of clusters is
initially aimed at solving the systemic problems of the
region. Of particular importance for the success of
clusters in the region are its institutional assets, in
particular, the headquarters of large corporations, the
involvement of which requires special efforts. An
important role at the stage of preliminary work on
developing a cluster developmen t strategy for the state
was played by such a tool for obtaining primary
information as an interview in the “director -direc tor”
format (CEO2CEO), which made it possible to increase
the level of confidence of the interviewees and obtain
realistic data.
In t urn, the experience of the state of Oregon
shows the key importance of discussion platforms for
stakeholder communications and the development of
agreed plans and solutions. So, in the early 2000s. the
Oregon Business Plan was created - an annual forum of
experts, politicians and businessmen to develop state
economic development policies. Between the holding
of this forum, its organizing committee conducts

American Scientific Journal № ( 30) / 2019 43

interviews and focus groups, on the basis of which
specialized reviews are prepared. In addition, Oreg on
has a regional cluster network, which includes
representatives of business clusters developing in the
state.
As experts emphasize, speaking on behalf of a
cluster rather than a private company, the participants
in this network begin to interact not as c ompetitors in
the market, but as partners. It is in this format that
regional cluster development strategies become
possibl e, within the framework of which it is necessary
to coordinate the interests of different clusters. In
addition, cluster networks are easier to attract the
attention of federal politicians and regulators, as well as
regional authorities. In addition, it wa s at this level that
complex issues were raised and received certain
solutions, which are simply impossible to solve at the
level of individual clusters; it is, in particular, training
of professional personnel, marketing and branding of
the region, etc.
As the experience of the Massachusetts high -
precision manufacturing cluster shows, a private
regional coordinating institution can pla y an important
role in the process of cluster formation; in this
particular case, we are talking about the Institute of
Inn ovation. It was this structure, on the one hand, that
allocated the funds of regional grants to specific
startups within the cluster; on the other hand, it
cultivated the leadership and cohesion of the cluster
stakeholders. For example, a prerequisite for
supporting new projects within the cluster was the
participation of other cluster members in it, as well as a
positive impact on the competitiveness of the cluster as
a whole.
The main lessons of the Massachusetts industrial
cluster (which serve as the basis for future best
practices) are related to the emphasis on increasing the
intensity of interactions between:
- the internal stakehold ers of the cluster (much
more than with other actors in the region);
- regional grant programs should be based on
realist ic cluster needs;
- special attention should be paid to the non -
financial support of cluster members from the
intermediary institution.
In the state of South Carolina, a special body also
played a key role in cluster development - the State
Competitiveness Council, branded New Carolina,
which initially included more than 100 representatives
of small and large businesses, regional authoritie s,
universities and nonprofits. This body was created in
2005, and in 2013, the organization of a regional
Competitivene ss Network was required, which
included clusters located in South Carolina. Thus, from
the stage of supporting individual clusters, the state has
evolutionarily moved to the coordination of inter -
cluster initiatives and cooperation.
In addition, the experi ence of this state shows:
- the importance of balancing the short and
long -term goals of the clusters (in particular, the
vagueness of lo ng -term goals has become one of the
main reasons for the stagnation of the tourism cluster
of South Carolina);
- the feas ibility of introducing paid posts of
infrastructure (service) personnel, as the experience of
attracting volunteers was not entirely suc cessful;
- informing about the activities of the cluster, its
projects, participants, initiatives and achievements
should be carried out in a constant mode of PR activity
and be informal in nature of the so -called “story -
telling”.
The need for a profession al cluster secretariat is
also confirmed by the experience of clusters in the
North Rhine -Westphalia region (Germany). T hese
infrastructural bodies include 2 -10 employees and
perform a wide range of functions, from database
management (for products, custom ers, partners, events,
etc.) to the organization of training, presentation and
PR events.
The evolution of professional cluster
management
As the results of analysis of the best practices of
33 clusters from 23 EU countries have shown,
professional cluster management is becoming
increasingly important, and the training of relevant
specialists (their function is also called the “facilitator”,
that is, an intermediary in the field of interactions) is
one of the key areas of activity institutions of regional
development. For example, in Serbia, where more than
40 business clusters have been created, education and
training for f acilitators are an important function of the
Cluster Chamber, a specialized organization for
supporting cluster initiatives.
The facili tator training program is based on an
interdisciplinary approach (from project management
to psychology and emotional in telligence), a
combination of theoretical and applied knowledge, and
the involvement of local and foreign experts.
Both the functions an d the competencies of cluster
facilitators corresponding to them differ depending on
the stage of the life cycle of a pa rticular cluster (Table
1).
Cluster organizational role system
Many scientists note a high degree of uncertainty
in the distribution of positions in modern clusters. The
intercompany division of labor within the cluster
creates a system of organizational r oles, from the
position of which the cluster can be understood as a
meta -firm, i.e. a company combining a number of
companies that carry out certain interrelated activities.
The examples of the Spanish cluster of ceramic
manufacturers (Molina Morales, 2005 ) and the Danish
biomedical cluster (Gjerding, 2012) include the
following key organizational roles:

44 American Scientific Journal № ( 30) / 20 19
Table 1
THE LIFE CYCLE OF PA RTIC ULAR CLASTER
Facilitator Options Potential
Cluster
Growing
Cluster
Mature
Cluster
Functions
Attracting new members,
Stimulating
communications
Network shaping,
Building trust
Development of relations
with authorities and
partners,
Promotion of a cluster i dea.
Involvement of local
stakeholders,
Intensification of cooperation
and collabor ation,
Building confidence
The development of
entrepreneurial activity,
Cluster brand formation.
Diversification of the
wound,
Intercluster cooperation
Integration into glob al
value chains,
Development of an
international brand cluster.
Competencies
Fundrising
Event Management
Lobbying.
Relationship management and
marketing,
Branding
Knowledge management
Stimulating business initiatives
and innovations.
Full cycle innovation
management,
Business process
integration
Cluster Reengineering
International branding.
Source: compiled by the author (Ingstrup, Damgaard, 2013; Jungwirth, Grundgreif, Müller, 2011)

1. Knowledge generators (companies and
organizations focused on research and development,
professiona l education and training, commercialization
of innovations).
2. Facilitators (intermediaries in the interactions
between participants and stakeholders of the cluster),
including: GR coordinators (a special category of
facilitators whose function is to establish and
strengthen ties with authorities and regulators of
individual markets.
3. Cluster managers (clustepreneurs, ie
entrepreneurial firms within the cluster), including
three groups of entities:
- Industrial entrepreneurs whose act ivities are
associated with the creation of goods and their delivery
to markets;
- Service entrepreneurs whose business is
concentrated in the field of services and supply of
turnkey solutions (starting from repair and IT -business
and ending with legal suppo rt, marketin g and finance);
- Commercial entrepreneurs who act as
intermediaries between producers of goods and
services, on the one hand, and sellers (wholesale and
retail trade) or consumers, on the other;
- Social entrepreneurs implementing non -profit
proje cts in the s ocial, cultural or environmental fields.
2. Marketers and sales agents whose functions
are associated, on the one hand, with the analysis of
market niches and opportunities for the development of
new types of business in a cluster or the release o f new
goods and services; on the other hand, with the
promotion of products, branding, advertising and PR -
activity, logistics and sales management.
3. Ambassadors - “ambassadors” of the cluster in
the external environment, promoting the idea of the
cluster in the local community and on a larger scale, as
well as contributing to the formation of a positive image
of the cluster.
Conclusion
1. Foreign experience shows that thematic
cluster policy should not be opposed to industry or
technology models as an uncond itional alte rnative.
2. Thematic clusters require a fundamentally
different management based on distributed leadership,
when leadership in different areas of the cluster's
activity belongs to different organizations and does not
cause conflicts between them.
3. The proposed system of key organizational
roles allows us to advance in solving the difficult
problem of leadership within the cluster, which arises
in connection with the specifics of cluster development.

References :
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Milojkovic_New_challenges_in_
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СОВЕРШЕНСТВОВАНИЕ МОТИВАЦИИ ТОРГОВЫХ ПРЕДСТАВИТЕЛЕЙ КАК
ИНСТРУМЕНТ ПОВЫШЕН ИЯ КАЧЕСТВА ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕ СКИХ РЕСУРСОВ ДИСТРИ БЬЮТОРА

Воронина Евгения Васильевна
Доцент, канд. экон. наук,
доцент кафедры менеджмента и бизнеса,
Институт экономики и управления,
Сургутский государственный университет,
г. Сургут
Хадасевич Наиля Ракиповна
Доцен т, канд. экон. наук,
зав. кафедрой государственного
и муниципального управления и управления персоналом,
Институт экономики и управления,
Сургутский государственный университет,
г. Сургут
Сергеева Ирина Владимировна
Канд. экон. наук,
старший преподавател ь кафедры государстве нного
и муниципального управления и управления персоналом,
Институт экономики и управления,
Сургутский государственный университет,
г. Сургут

Аннотация. Цель – совершенствование мотивации представителей торговой фирмы - дистрибьютор а.
Методы – анализ, синтез, экономико -математическое моделирование. Результат – повышение качества
человеческих ресурсов дистрибьютора, повышение эффективности дистрибьюции. Выводы - эффект от
совершенствования системы мотивации торговых представителей выр ажается в со кращении фактических
удельных затрат (на единицу объема продаж) на оплату труда, в приросте фактической доли компенсации
производителей более чем на 70%.
Ключевые слова: дистрибьюция, мотивация, качество человеческих ресурсов, ключевые показате ли
эффективн ости KPI.

В отрасли торговли развитие трудового
потенциала является одним из основных
источников повышения эффективности
финансовых результатов деятельности и
обеспечения конкурентоспособности фирмы [4; 5].
Фронт -офисом в этой сфере являются работники
«первой линии» - торговые представители.
Стремясь к повышению эффективности
работы торгового отдела (отдела продаж) фирмы,
первостепенной следует рассматривать задачу
управления качеством человеческих ресурсов,
которыми обладает организ ация [4].
Качество человеческих ресурсов – это степень,
с которой совокупность характеристик рабочей
силы организации и ее организационной культуры
выполняет требования, выдвигаемые внутренней и
внешней средой при формировании конкурентных
преимуществ [4].
Система управления качеством человеческих
ресурсов организации торговли включает
следующие элементы [4]: объект и субъект
управления, механизм управления.
Объектами управления качеством
человеческих ресурсов организации торговли
являются: реальная и поте нциальная рабочая сила;
организационная культура; виды деятельности,
осуществляемые руководителями подразделений и
менеджерами по персоналу, работниками HR -
службы; инфраструктура рынка труда [4].
Субъектами управления качеством
человеческих ресурсов органи зации торг овли
являются: реальный или потенциальный работник
организации; орган либо лицо, осуществляющее
управляющее воздействие на уровне организации;
орган либо лицо, осуществляющее управляющее
воздействие на государственном и муниципальном
уровне власт и и управл ения [4].
Как механизм управления качеством
человеческих ресурсов организации торговли
выступает специфический способ воздействия
субъекта управления на объект, который включает
в себя определенные формы и методы воздействия
[4].