Американский Научный Журнал CURRENT ISSUES IN THE USE OF MEDICAL TERMS (15-18)

The article is devoted to medical terms. Medical terminology is intended to express in precise terms the complexes concepts and ideas from the world of medicine. It also has the purpose of unifying criteria. Each term must possess a unique meaning accepted by the scientific community, thus facilitating the exchange of information at the international. Medical terms are generally made up of radicals (root) which is the main part of the term, supplemented with prefixes and suffixes derived from the Greek and Latin languages. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № ( 42) / 2020 15


УДК : 801.316.4:61:612.843.311


Rasulova Nilufar Abduvossiyevna
Tashkent medical academy Fergana branch
712000, Fergana city, Yangi Turon street, house 2

Abstract . The article is devoted to medical terms. Medical terminology is intended to express in precise terms
the complexes concepts and ideas from the world of medicine. It also has the purpose of unifying criteria. Each
term must possess a unique meaning accepted by the scientific community, thus facilitating the exchange of
information at the international.
Medical terms are generally made up of radicals (root) which is the main part of the term, supplemented with
prefixes and suffixes derived from the Greek and Latin languages .
Аннотация . Настоящая статья посвящена медицинским терминам. Медицинская терминология
предназначена для точного выражения сложных понятий и идей из мира медицины. Он также призван
унифицировать критерии. Каждый термин должен иметь уникальное значение, принятое научным
сообществом, что облегчает обмен информацией на международном уровне.
Медицинские термины обычно состоят из радикалов (корня), которые являются основной частью
термина, дополненных приставками и суффиксами, происходящими из греческого и латинского языков.
Key words : medical terminology, denominative variation, doctor -patient communication, situated cognition,
visualization of specialized knowledge.
Ключевые слова : медицинская терминология, именные вариации, общение между врачом и
пациентом, ситуативное познание, визуал изация специализированных знаний.

The appropriate and precise use of a specific
vocabulary about an area of knowledge is crucial for
communication among specialists in that field, and
medicine is not an exception: either the observations
collected on patients, the results of preventive or
curative actions about them, or scientific knowledge
that allows analyze and explain each other, medical
information is transmitted mainly through its own
language, based on in a specific terminology that
designates the characteristic concepts of your area of
interest. Medical information retrieval systems (CRS)
therefore depend on the use of and treatment of
terminology to adequately comply its functions, and in
this sense the terminological problems oc cupy a
referential place within the field of medical
documentation, and have largely justified their
appearance as applied science.
As a documentary maker, when you review the
bibliography appeared on the subject in recent years, it
does at the same time w ith amazement and dismay. The
cause of wonder comes from unusual increase in the
number of articles that, during the last decade, have
appeared in the medical literature consecrated to the
topic of vocabulary control, indexing and coding of
medical informa tion and other aspects related to
terminological problems.
When contemplating why a standardized medical
terminology would be useful, just considering the
importance of consistency takes you far. The same
condition being described in the same way in any
me dical record would make the medical records easier
to interpret. Consistency in medical records would in
turn make communication between different care
providers clearer, and malpractice due to
misunderstandings could be easier to avoid. To make
consistenc y in medical records realistic, however, some
kind of aid is necessary.
Every branch of human knowledge or science
needs to create its own terminology appropriate to its
needs of communication and expression. Medical
terminology is intended to express in precise terms the
complexes concepts and ideas from the world of
medicine. It also has the purpose of unifying criteria.
Each term must possess a unique meaning accepted by
the sci entific community, thus facilitating the exchange
of information at the international.
Medical terms are generally made up of radicals
(root) which is the main part of the term, supplemented
with prefixes and suffixes derived from the Greek and
Latin langu ages .
The main processes for the formation of new
words are by Derivation and Composition.
The derivation can be:
• Prefixed: Use Greek and Latin prefixes.
• Suffixed: Also called progressive, it uses
nominal suffixes tha t form nouns, and adjectives and
verbal suffixes that form verbs.
• Parasynthetic: It consists of the simultaneous use
in the same word of a prefix and a suffix.
• Regressive: Find the primitive word from the
The composition can be:
• By juxtap osition: Words are joined with or
without a hyphen, without any of them undergoing any
• By agglutination: Modification of one or both
words occurs.

16 American Scientific Journal № ( 42) / 2020
Most medical terms can be broken down into one
or more parts:
• Root: it is the primitive core element of the word
that gives it its meaning or central idea.
• Radical: it is the part of the word devoid of
suffixes, it can be the root itself or be linked to another
• Prefixes: elements or particles that prece de the
radical by modifying its meaning. Most are
prepositions or adverbs.
• Suffixes: element or particles that postpone the
radical forming derivations of the same word. They
may be nominal (nouns and adjectives) or verbal.
• Desinence: elements at the e nd of the word
indicative of a nominal inflection (gender, number) or
verbal (mode,time, number, person, etc.).
Most of the terms are a combination of words that
describe body parts, function, or condition. There are
basic terms (root) that are repeated wi th different
meanings using prefixes and suffixes. Medical terms do
not they must necessarily contain prefixes or suffixes.
The word pericarditis, which denotes inflammation of
the membrane external part of the heart, called the
pericardium, can be divided into three parts: peri - card
- itis. The prefix peri implies the surroundings or
something located around it. The root card refers to the
heart. He suffix itis is used to indicate inflammation.
Therefore, pericarditis is an inflammation of the areas
surr ounding the heart, in this case, from its outer
membrane called the pericardium . Medical terms have
at least one root or more roots. To the root card (or
cardio) you can add different prefixes and suffixes to
give the term more specificity or special meaning. For
example, it can be done by adding the prefix BRADI
which means slow, to create the word
BRADICARDIA, which denotes a heart that beats at a
slower rate sl ower than normal. The term
sternocleidomastoid (a muscle that attaches to the
sternum, clavicle, and mastoides) can be divided into
three parts (three roots in this case):
sternocleidomastoid. Note that there are a series of
vowels between the roots that a re called links or
combining vowels. The most used vowel it is O, but
also I and A are used regularly. Combining vowels are
often used to join roots and suffixes, but they are NOT
used between roots and prefixes 66% of medical terms
are of Greek origin. Th e Greeks were the founders of
Rational Medicine in the Golden Age of their Greek
civilization (500 years BC). The schools of Hippocrates
and Galen formulated theories that dominated the
practice of medicine until the 18th century.
Furthermore, Greek is a l anguage that facilitates the
formulation of new terms .
We will start by learning how words are formed.
All words have a root that is their base.
Let's see examples:
trans | plant | ar - im | plant | ar - su | plant | ar
The base or root of these words is plant
tonsil | itis - amigdal | ectomy
The base or root is tonsil (amygdala)
We define a root, as the common nucleus to the
different forms of a word.
In some cases, the root can have two or more
Let's see examples:
aden - adeno (ganglion)
In the word aden | itis the root is aden
In the word adeno | patia the root is adeno
We can also find words that have more than one
root, which we call compound words. Let's see
compound words:
to. gastro | enter | it is - (inflammation of the
stomach and intestine of the gado)
b. rhino | pharynx - (portion of the pharynx that
communicates with the nose [nostrils])
c. gastro (stomach) and enter (small intestine) are
d. rhino (nose) and pharynx (canal) are roots.
We can change the meaning of a word by adding
particles that are placed in front of or behind the root.
anthropo - (anthropos -man)
or anthropogenesis - origin of man
or anthropometry -measurements of the human
• bio - (bios -life)
or bio logy -the science of living organisms
or biopsy -examination of tissue obtained from a
living organism
• broncho - (bronchos -esophagus or tube)
or bronchocele -watery tumor of the bronchus,
o Bronchopneumonia -inflammation of the bronchi
and lung
• cardi -, cardio - (kardia -heart)
or cardiology -science that studies the activity of
the heart
or cardiogram -electrical recording of heart
• Chiro - (cheir -hand)
• Chiropractor - whose practice is based on
• Cyto - (kytos -cell)
or cytoprotective -which protects the cells
o Cytotoxic -toxic to cells
• Derma, dermato - (derma -skin)
o Dermatologist -skin specialist
or dermatology -study of the skin
• Whole - (ente ron -the intestine)
or enterectomy -resection of a segment of the
o Enteropathy - bowel disease
• gastro - (gaster -stomach)
o Gastroenterology -medical specialty that deals
with diseases of the stomach and intestines
or gastrodynia -pain in the stomac h
• gyneco - (gynecology, gynecological -feminine)
or gynecomastia -breast enlargement in men
gynecologist -who studies the female organs Hema -,
hemato -, heme -, (haima, haimat -blood) or
hematemesis -vomiting blood or hemorrhage -bleeding
• hepato -, (hepar, hepat -liver) or liver disease -liver
disease or hepatocyte - liver cell Hydro (hydor, hydr -
water) or hydrocephalus -water on the head o

American Scientific Journal № ( 42) / 2020 17

Hydrogen -a gas that is part of water or hy drotherapy -
treatment through the use of water Hypno - (hypnos -
sleep) or hypnotic -inducing sleep or hypnosis -artificial
sleep induction • hyster - (hystera -uterus) or
hysterectomy -surgical excision of the uterus or
hysteroptosis -prolapse or fall of the uterus • litho -
(lithos -stone) o Lithotripter - device used in lithotripsy
o lithotripsy -removal of kidney stones with ultrasound
Morpho - (morpho -form) or morphology -the science of
structure or morphogenesis - the evolution of form •
Mia -mio - (mys -muscle) or myas thenia -muscle
weakness or myocarditis -inflammation of the muscle
wall of the heart • narco - (narko -numbness, stupor) or
narcolepsy -numbness or drug addiction -dependence on
narcotics Nephro - (nephros -kidney) o Nephropiosis or
pyonephrosis - pus in the kidney or nephrosclerosis -
hardening of the kidney • neuro - (neuron -cord, tendon,
nerve) or neuralgia -pain of nervous origin or
neurasthenia -weakness resulting from a nervous
condition • odont - (odys, odont -tooth) o pediatric
dentistry -children's dentistry o Dent ist-who treats teeth
Ophthalmo - (ophthalmos -eyes) or ophthalmoplegia -
weakness to eye movements or ophthalmoscope -
instrument to see the eye • osteo - (osteon -bone) or
osteomalacia -softening of the bone or osteonecrosis -
death of bone • ot- (ot -ear) or otomyco sis - a fungal
infection of the ear or otorrhea - discharge from the ear
• pod - (pod -pie) or podiatrist -who studies the foot o
Podagra -seizure affecting the foot, gout Pio - (pyon -
pus) or pyogenic -pus -forming or pyocele - cystic cavity
containing pus • pir -, pyro - (pyr -fire, heat,
inflammation) or pyrexia -an acute inflammation or
uncontrollable pyromania desire for arsonism
Sphygmus - (sphygmos -pulse) Sphygmomanometer -
instrument to measure blood pressure • zoo - (zoon -an
animal) or zoology -study of animals o Zo onosis -animal
disease or epidemic.
Pepsi - digestion
Pharmakon - drug
Pharynx - throat
Pleura - membrane that covers the lung
Pneuma - air, respiration
Pyon - pus
Pyro - fire, fever
Soma - body
Spasmos - spasm
Spleno - related to the spleen
Estoma - mouth
Estomachos - stomach
Tracheia - airway
Trauma - injury
An increase in the number of papers that address
medical terminological problems leads to the belief that
at least there are new elements of judgment that
influence a different conception of the problems.
After a careful reading of the bibliography, anyone
can see that the problems are the same as always, and
that the only circumstance that perhaps has changed, or
is in the process of doing it, it is the support of the
information. Is In other words, the need for a
standardized and universally accepted terminology is
lacking and arises (that is, what which we would call a
nomenclature), in relation to a computerization of the
support, not only o f the publications scientific, but also
and very particularly, of the primary medical assistance
documents, that is, the medical record.
Certainly, from an adequate computerization of
the clinical history, one can expect not only a more or
ordered dat a, but also and in a special way, a n
adequate retrieval of clinical information that allows
attend to the different foreseeable uses of it (primarily
healthcare, but also for research purposes, teaching,
planning and resource management, evaluation of
qual ity of care, etc.).
Within the swarm of specialized texts, medicine
forms, without a doubt, a very peculiar field. As
Navarro15 writes:
But they are not the foreign words, the bad ones
translations and the exaggerated dependence on
academic recommendations the only problems
faced by the language of medicine.
This observation shows on the one hand that the
language of medicine, whatever the language
considered, it must be analyzed from a historical,
diachronic view - I would add discursive -, and not
synchronous, coagulated, as we find it in terminology
databases. On the other, contrary to what most
terminologists claim, the medical text consists of
abundant synonyms and polysemic words. The exact
science status, or at least the scientificit y of its
vocabulary and turns, is countered by doctors and the
practice itself textual.
As Marcel Proust (Le Côté de Guermantes, 1921)
said, very interested as is known in the medicine:
Because medicine being a compendium successive and
contradictory error s of doctors, calling on the best of
them we have a great chance to impose a truth that will
be recognized as false some years later. So that believe
in the medicine would be the supreme madness, if there
was no to believe was no greater, because of this p ile of
errors has emerged in the long run some truths.
I am going to comment on two very simple cases:
1. The phrase cervical tumor does not refer to a
cancer of the neck or neck, but refers to cancer of the
cervix. The correct terminological expression would be
uterocervical tumor.
2. The word anemic has lost its proper meaning,
due to its recovery by the common language; in
"scientific" medicine, anemic should mean bloodless.
Indeed, anemia is defined etymologically by a «total
loss of the blood », when it actually designates an
erythrocytopenia, that is, a deficit quantitative of red
blood cells. For the non -specialist public, anemic is
synonymous with weak or skinny.
We see that denominative a ccuracy is not the rule
in medicine, far from it. Also they foreign words are a
difficult obstacle to overcome.
In Spanish, the term randomization, from the
English randomization that has also contaminated to
the French language with randomisation, it is used
everywhere, whenever it is .
Try a clinical trial protocol. The term appears in
all medical dictionaries, what which shows that it has

18 American Scientific Journal № ( 42) / 2020
been integrated into the language without any
difficult y. Note in this regard that this method, the work
of the English statistician R. A. Fisher, is used for the
first time in medicine in 1948, in England, to find out
the efficacy of streptomycin in the treatment of
pulmonary tuberculosis.
A Spanish equivale nt could be "random
distribution" or even the neologism "alloy."
But who will be the doctor who uses the term
"Alloy" to signify the random separation of two groups
of patients in a clinical trial to double blind study or
rather, In an attempt to avoid Ang licism, undercover
trial? In my opinion, the most important thing here for
the translator is not the hypercorrection of the language,
something of linguists, but rather the frequency of use
by field experts. Has no sense use "screening", a word
that does n ot awaken any concept in the mind of the
clinical investigator, instead of screening, anglicism
yes, but unequivocal. The important thing is not what
should be said, but what is actually said.
At this point also lies the famous difference
between language and speech. Scientific discourse is
alive and resists any normative fixation within the
petrification of dictionaries and glossaries. The best
terminologists are users, that is, specialists in the field
studied who practice their discipline on a daily basis.

1. Medical terminology. It can be visited on the
web page:
2. Manual of Introduction to medical terminology,
it can be visited on the website:
3. http://html.rincondelvago.com/terminologia -
5.Basic medical terminology:
ia-medica/terminologia -medicabasica.html
6. Suffixes: can be visited on t he website: