Abstract. This article explores verbs-neologisms. It is known that the formation of neologisms is closely connected with both extra linguistic and intra lingual factors. The article refers to the point of view of linguists. The ways of formation of new verbs are studied briefly and special attention is paid to the verbs formed by the help of various prefixes, the analysies of specifically given examples are conducted. It is concluded that the formation of new verbs with different prefixes remains, as usually, relevant and is considered as one of the productive ways. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 2019 59


Ayublou Sujaddin Farman
Senior teacher
Azerbaijan University of languages (AUL),
department of phonetics and grammar of the Fre nch language
Azerbaijan , Baku


Эюблу Суджаддин Фарман
Старший преподаватель
кафедры фонетики и грамматики французского языка
Азербайджанский Университет Языков, Баку

Ab stract . This article explores verbs -neologisms. It is known that the formation of neologisms is closely
connected with both extra linguistic and intra lingual factors. The article refers to the point of view of linguists.
The ways of formation of new verbs are st udied briefly and special attention is paid to the verbs formed by the
help of various prefixes, the analysies of specifically given examples are conducted. It is concluded that the
formation of new verbs with different prefixes remains, as usually, releva nt and is considered as one of the
productive ways.
Аннотация . В настоящей статье исследуются глаголы -неологизмы. Известно что, образование
неологизмов тесно связано как с экстралингвистическими, так и с интралингвистическими факторами. В
статье дел ается с сылка на точки зрения лингвистов. Пути образования новых глаголов исследуются
вкратце и уделяется особо e внимание на глаголы, образованные с помощью различных префиксов, ведется
анализ конкретно приведенных примеров. Делается вывод о том, что образо вание н овых глаголов с
различными префиксами остается, как всегда, актуальным и считается одним из продуктивных способов.
Keywords : word formation, semantic derivation, prefixoid, parasynthesis, change of meaning
Ключевые слова : словообразование, семантич еская д еривация, полупрефикси, парасинтез ,
изменение значения

Modern French language, along with other
languages of continuously develops and always
enriches itself with new words and word combinations.
It is necessary to note that in the French language verbs
in comparison with nouns are less formed which find
their reflection in the word stock of the language. So,
only approximately 9 -10% of the new words contain
verbs, the remaining part mainly consists of nouns.
Certainly this fact is linked with a num ber of reasons.
As many of the scholars consider such a
percentage distinction between noun and verb
discovers the main elements of objective reality,
namely, before all an object (a thing) is created and later
on necessity of naming the action related to the ob ject
appears (1, 2004:5).
The investigators, during their study of the
semantics of the verbs specially note objective
difficulties linked with logical subject of verb -word
which they think of (2, 2004: 5). If a noun in lexemes
gets into combinatio n withi n the nominative meaning
of the same language sign in relationship with content
and subject (accordingly significant and denotant), the
mutual relationship between significat and denotant in
verbal lexemes goes beyond the verb -word phrame and
in the relati onship of own object or the subject of the
verb it is transferred to the sphere of the syntagmatic
relations which it expresses. While discriminating the
semantics of nouns and verb lexemes they explain the
difference in the formation of new words b elongin g to
this or that part of speech in this way.
As it is above mentioned verbs, being fewer,
compared with nouns, mainly are formed as to the
following models: N > V and Adj. > V. For ex. ,
palettiser < pallette, chiraquiser < J. Chirac, rigidifier
< rigide , fragiliser < fragile. Putting them in other
words, new words are formed either from verbs or from
nouns (in most cases) or from adjectives. The scale of
model of formation of nouns is wider, thus, they
practically are formed from any part of speec h,
including for ex. adjectives , verbs, adverbs etc.
We can conditionally group from the view of the
classification French neologisms formed of French
verbs in the modern French language in the period of
the end of the XX century up to the present time, a s
follows: morphological (word formation), semantic
(change of meaning) and borrowings [3, 1974:122].
In the French language the verbs formed from the
view of traditional ways of word formation can be
considered as morphological structure of such verbs
and their character of motivation , in the imagination of
French speaker are mainly cognized as ordinary,
standard words. That’s why; new neological formations
are consciously accepted only then, when their novelty
is felt by the French speakers. Among the pr incipals of
word formation we m ust specially note the role of
affixation and conversion.
New lexical -semantic variants of any verb,
existing already in the language belong to semantic
innovations and such variants appear as a result of
different semantic changes. To express such lexica l

60 American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 20 19
neologisms investigators of neologisms use such terms
as neologisms, neosemantism, neoseme etc. Formation
of new lexical -semantical variants without changing
the form of word is called semantic derivation.
Semantic derivati on, being the source of new ver bs
exhibits in itself such semantic changes as narrowing,
widening of meanings and metaphoric peculiarities. By
this time on the ground of same associations the process
of transition of meaning from one object into the other
one takes place.
Finally we ca n say that the French language
continuously expands on the account of other
languages, especially on the account of the English
language. Such verbs despite the fact that are
assimilated by the French language and accept the
forms and categories of the Fre nch language are
graphically different from the first ones. Borrowings
mainly serve to fill up the gaps in the language. To
name the new phenomenon in the native language the
fact that certain term is absent, or the need to g ive more
expressive and new nam e to the known phenomenon
creates favorable condition for the borrowings to enter
the language. In this work, we have aimed at dealing
with verbs formed with prefix and semi prefixes.
It is necessary to note that beginning w ith the end
of the last century up to the present day, more than the
half of newly -formed French verbs have been formed
the means of affixal word formation and by conversion.
In the French language there are sufficient enough front
morphemes of Greek and L atin origin. In the formation
of new verbs the following prefixes and semi prefixes
are of special importance:
- prefixes denoting negation: dé-(dés) -, a -;
- prefixes denoting intensivity: sur -, sous -;
- prefixes denoting place and time: en-, pré -,
inter - and télé - prefixoid;
- prefixes denoting repetition and
strengthening: ré-(re) -;
- semi prefix auto giving the reflective meaning
to the verb;
- Prefix co- giving the meaning of additional
suitability to the verb.
We think it necessary to discriminate prefix from
semi prefix. We th ink that the last front formant as if
carries out the function of creating transition stage
between the root morpheme and prefix. This means that
the mentioned morpheme has not yet completely lost
the signs of being root morpheme and has n ot
completely bec ome prefixized. For ex. The prefix télé
expressing long distance and the prefix auto possessing
the reflective meaning can be shown as visual
examples. These semi prefixes télé belonging to
television and semi prefix auto belonging to
auto mobiles should be distinguished from the root
morphemes, because by their help between the two
words, new words are formed. By saying prefix we
regularly understand a morpheme, forming a certain
structural -semantic model used before the root,
possessing a number of lexical -categorical meanings
and being able to create a number of new lexical units.
Among the above -mentioned prefixes the prefix
de-(des -) possesses the biggest volume forming verb -
neologisms. This prefix has originated from the Latin
prefix dis, having the me anings of “separation ousting,
depriving”. The new verbs, formed by means of this
prefix acquire two main meanings: a) confrontation of
the action expressed by the word -forming root with
another action, antonymity; b) liquidation of the ev ent
or subject ex pressed by word -forming root.
As the word -forming root of new verbs formed by
de-(des -) we can mention as follows:
1) Verbs used in literary language: motiver -
démotiver , also terms formed by suffixes is- and ifi-
belonging to different fiel ds of sciences, for ex.
Fiscaliser -défiscaliser, lignifier -délignifier ;
2) Nouns, for ex. Pigeon -dépigeonner and
relative adjectives, for ex. (acide)aminé – désaminer.
3) So, we may conditionally group the verbs
formed by prefixes de-(des -) as to three models:
1) de - (des -) + V 2) de - (des -) + N 3) de - (des -) +
In the verbs formed by the model de-(des -) +V the
prefix de-(des -) gives directly opposite meaning to the
action expressed by the word -forming verb root. For ex.
The ve rb -defragmenter (Le Petit Ro bert) has been
formed from the dé et fragmenter element and is used
in the meaning of “to unite” . Actually the main root of
this verb, namely fragmenter expresses the meaning of
“to disconnect”, “to shatter”, but when it is use d with
the prefix dé-, it giv es absolutely opposite meaning to
the initial meaning. The verb -dehierarchiser gives the
meaning “to liquidate hierarchy” but the main root of
this verb hierarchiser expresses absolutely an opposite
meaning, namely the meaning “to restore the
hierarchy” ( DMC).
The verb desinstaller (to erase the program from
the hard disk of computer) used without the use of the
prefix dé- , i.e (installer) expresses absolutely opposite
meaning, namely to enter a program into the hard disk
of t he computer (DMN). While the verb -desectoriser
is used in the meaning of putting an end in dividing
something into sectors, is used absolutely in the
opposite meaning, namely “to divide into sectors,
regions” (DMN).
The verbs déculpabiliser, déprotéger,
déréférencer, désamianter, dé sinscrire, déstresser,
déparasiter, dépolluer, desaliener are of this kind as
well (Le Petit Robert).
In the verbs formed as to the model de-(des -) +N ,
prefix de-(des -) gives the meaning of liquidati on of any
object, structure or natural phenomenon express ed by
the word forming verb root. It is necessary to note that
by this time the word -forming root can be both of
French and Latin origins. Let’s continue our thought
with the following examples given below:
-From the noun pigeon - dépigeonner (in the
town s) to slaughter the pigeons (DMC);
-From the noun amiante - désamianter to scrape
off the asbestos from the wall (Le Petit Robert);
- From the noun cholesterol - décholestéroler = to
extract choleste rol (from any product) (Petit Robert);
- From the noun historisme - dehistoriser = to
deprive from being historical (DMN).
Parasynthetic way of word -forming having a
certain familiarity in formation of new words also
causes our interest. During this langua ge phenomenon

American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 2019 61

to the word -forming root (mainly to the nou ns and
adjectives) at the same time dé-(des -) prefix, including
is- suffix is added. But this way of word formation is
not so productive. New verb -neologisms are formed by
means of dé -(des -) + N (adj ) + is model. Let’s consider
some examples:
- détrotzkiser - Lev Trotzki = to refuse from
Trotski’s view points (DMN);
- From the noun élite - désélitiser = to stop
giving admission papers only to elite layer of the
society (DMN).
- From RPR reduction of dé – RPR - iser = to
free from the influence of right RPR part y (DMN). As
it is clearly seen from the first and the third examples
in the role of word -formin g root not only noun or
adjective act, but also proper nouns (Trotski) and
reductions (RPR) act as well.
The number of verbs formed by means of prefixes
re-, su r-, -pré -, co -, inter -, en - is relatively few. As we
have mentioned above prefix re- (before the vowel re-
) expresses the meaning of repetition. At the same time
this prefix gives the reflective meaning to the initial
sign of the verb with which it is used . New verbs are
formed by re- (ré -) +V tr (the word forming root is a
transitive ver b) and re- (ré -) + Adj (word forming root
is an adjective) models. Examples:
-From the verb fonder -refonder (to found, put
foundation) = to found on the new principles (fo r ex. a
certain party) (Le Petit Robert);
-From the verb réguler - reréguler (to reg ulate) =
to pass to new regulation system (Le Petit Robert);
- From the verb réglementer - reréglementer (to
appoint reglament, to put order) = to appoint new
reglament, to put new order (Le Petit Robert);
- From the adjective parallelle - reparalléliser =
to make parallel again (Le Petit Robert).
The prefix sur - denoting intensity together with
newly -formed verb gives the shade of meaning of
intense position of movement an d by this a new verb is
formed as to sur + V tr model. From the verbs formed
by this way mainly adjectives are formed and they turn
to participles. Let’s consider some examples:
- From the verb encombrer - surencombrer (to fill)
= to fill too much (for ex . to fill the street with means
of transport) (Le Petit Robert);
- From the verb jou er - surjouer (to play) = to play
one’s role with great enthusiasm (Le Petit Robert).
Prefix sous - giving the meaning of intensity in the
same way is used in the antonymou s meaning to the
verbs formed by prefix sur - (survirer - sousvirer) and
gives new me aning to the newly -formed verb, the
meaning of insufficiency of the action. For ex. from the
verb payer - souspayer (to pay, to pay money) = not to
pay sufficiently, to pay a little (Le Petit Robert).
The prefix pré - denoting place -time gives the
meaning of “action carried out beforehand” to the
newly -formed verb and the new verb is formed by
means of pré - + V tr model:
-From the verb digérer - prédigérer (to digest) =
to p repare the product chemically to improve the
process of digestion (Le Petit Robert);
-From the verb encoller - préencoller (to cover the
surface with glue) = to cover up with the layer of glue
beforehand (Le Petit Robert);
-From the ver b sélectionner - présélectionner = to
choose beforehand (the candidate, sportsman etc.) (Le
Petit Robert).
The verbs formed by means of prefix co- denote
the mutuality of the action and are formed as to the
model co- + V tr, for ex. from the verb signer (to sign)
cosigner = to sign together (mutually); from the verb
financer (to finance) - cofinancer (to joint investment)
The verbs formed by means of prefix en- (em -
before b, m, p ) which denotes place (space) -time, gives
the meaning of putting someth ing in a certain ob ject,
thing and the new verb is formed as to the model en -
(em -) + N
-From the noun cagoule –encagouler (a cap
having holes to see) = to cover the head with a cap
having holes to see) (Petit Robert);
-From the noun code - encoder = to code (DM C).
The verb engazer , enricher , s’enjeaner ,
s’ensmokiner are of this kind as well.
The prefix inter - expresses the meaning of
connection between two things or mutual influence:
from the verb classer - interclasser gives the meaning
of to join in groups, t o assort (Le Petit Robert), from the
verb connecter (to connect) -interconnecter = to
connect within the composition of a system (Petit
As we have mentioned above verb -neologisms
along with prefixes are also formed by the help of semi
prefixes. T his means differs from the first one by the
fact that it somehow plays the role of transition chain
between the root morpheme and the prefix. This term
called prefixoid being of Greek origin consists of the
parts and gives the meanings of praefixus “prefix ” and
eidos “similar”. Here we speak of front morphemes
which have continuously lost their features a s root
morphemes and have acquired the features of prefixes
and which are regularly used in a certain context. As
examples to such front formats we can sho w tele
meaning “being far away” and semi prefix auto relating
to automobiles. By the help of tele new verbs are
formed as to the model télé - + V tr;
-From the verb charger - télécharger = by the
system of distant ruling to load one piece of information
fro m one computer onto the other computer (Petit
-From the verb enseigner - téléenseigner = to send
from a distance by correspondence (Petit Robert).
By the prefix auto - new verbs are formed as to the
model auto - + V tr:
-From the verb se répliquer (to be divided into
two) - s’autorépliquer to be created in the same form,
to be colonized (Petit Robert);
-From the verb dissuader (to refuse) -
s’autodissuader = to refuse from doing something
without being compelled, by his/ her own will (CPH).
It is n ecessary to note that all the verbs formed by
this way possess reflective meanings.

62 American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 20 19
Certai nly we have not been able to embrace all the
verb -neologisms formed by means of prefixes and semi
prefixes and it is impossible to do all this in one article.
Beside s, the process of new word -formation is
continuously and rapidly going on and the word -stoc k
of the language on the account of such words always
became newer and richer. In our next work we think to
deal with other means of formation of verb -neologisms.

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