Американский Научный Журнал SECONDARY NAMING IN AVIATION TERM SYSTEM

Abstract. The features are considered of the secondary name in Ukrainian aviation terminology. The onomaseological base and the onomaseological feature have been determined of the secondary naming in the aviation term system; lexical-semantic groups of words have been identified that served as a basis for metaphorical rethinking; the motivation have been analysed of the aviation terms Скачать в формате PDF
46 American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 20 19
ФИЛОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

SECONDARY NAMING IN AVIATION TERM SYSTEM

Klimchuk Halyna Petrivna
Cand. Sc. Philology
Kovaliuk Olga Kostiantynivna
National Aviation University
Kyiv

Abstract . The features are considered of the secondary name in Ukrainian aviation terminology. The
onomaseolog ical base and the onomaseological feature have been determined of the secondary naming in the
aviation term system; lexical -semantic groups of words have been identified that served as a basis for metaphorical
rethinking; the motivation have been analysed of the aviation terms.
K e y w o r d s : term, secondary naming, onomas eological basis, onomaseological feature.

The active study of scientific terminology in
general and industry terminology in particular is the
priority direction of the modern Ukrainian linguis tics.
In this aspect, research is of great relevance into the
terminological fun d of various fields of knowledge
related to human technical and industrial activity, from
which the Ukrainian language has been artificially
removed for a long time through Sov iet policy
directives. The aviation industry holds a prominent
place among the f ields of scientific knowledge, which
“belongs to those complex fields of engineering and
technology (production) that are actively developing,
thus requiring a clear naming of new concepts,
thorough analysis and systematization of existing
terminological f und, its further streamlining
improvement” [8, p. 1].
The modern linguistic studios show a noticeable
increase in the level of interest of scientists for the
formation and deve lopment of Ukrainian aviation
terminology. However, the coverage of the outlined
scientific issue is largely fragmentary. Thus, the
specifics of translation and adaptation of the English
etymology aviation terms in the Ukrainian linguistics
and resulted pr ocesses of normalization in the national
terminology are considered by G. G. Fes enko [7];
semantic structure and formation peculiarities of
aviation terms -phrases are appropriately analysed by
D. Kh. Barannyk [1]; O. Kovtun outlines the issue of
formation of Ukrainian aviation terminology [4];
L. A. Khalinovska integrally researches U krainian
aviation terminology as a separate branch system of
terms in the general terminology structure [8].
The latest studies of term systems are based on the
combination of two approaches to the understanding of
the language system – semasiological and
onomaseological. Where the semasiological aspect of
the term is directed from the word to its meaning, the
onomas eological aspect – from the meaning to the
word. The main purpo se of the onomaseological
approach in modern terminological science is to find
among the nominative resources available in the
language the most accurate and clear names for
reflecting new scientific concepts. The secondary
naming holds a prominent place a mong the
onomaseological means of term formation, the study of
which increasingl y generates interest among modern
researchers of the industry terminology (S. Z. Bulyk -
Verkhola [2], N. Gymer [3], G. O. Morozova [5],
N. Z. Tsisar [9] et. al.).
Term units gen erated through the secondary
naming form a noticeable layer of Ukrainian aviatio n
terminology. However, the outlined terminological
material has not yet been the subject of special
linguistic research in Ukrainian Studies, which makes
our research relevant .
The purpose of the proposed paper is to analyse
the peculiarities of secondary naming in Ukrainian
aviation terminology, the implementation of which
involves the following tasks: identify the
onomaseological base and the onomaseological feature
of the av iation concepts naming on the basis of
associations by similarity; identify lexi cal -semantic
groups of words that served as a basis for secondary
naming; analyse the motivation of aviation terms
formed as a result of secondary naming.
The national linguist ic literature identifies the
secondary naming as the use of nominative means
alr eady available in the language in a new role –
naming [6, p. 129]. Our secondary naming study in the
aviation term system is based on the principles of
onomaseological doctrine developed by the Czech
linguist M. Dokulil, the essence of which is the
recogni tion of the onomaseological category as the
central notion of the naming theory, which covers the
onomaseological bases and onomaseological feature.
The external form of the wo rd present in the language
serves as onomaseological basis in the process of
sec ondary naming, acting as the name for a new
concept, and indicators that motivate the choice
between the variety of nominative means of a particular
material complex serve as o nomaseological feature to
indicate a new concept [10].
Based on our observations , the commonly used
words and terms of other term systems, which, due to
metaphorical rethinking, have acquired new
terminological meanings, serve as the onomaseological
basis for the secondary naming in the aviation term
system. The selected factual mater ial gives grounds to
state that the following lexical -semantic groups of
common words are the motivational base for the
aviation terms formation:

American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 2019 47

1) names of household items, f or example:
kachalka (rolling pin) – “a round, smoothly carved
stick for rolling laundry, dough, ironing, cloth
smoothing, etc.” (VTSSUM, p. 421) and kachalka
(walking beam) – aviation, “control system element;
made in the form of a lever that can rotate at a certain
angle according to the fixed axis of rotation” (TSAT,
p. 37); shtopo r (corkscrew) – a “screw -shaped rod with
a handle intended for bottle opening” (VTSSUM,
p. 1407) and shtopor (nose -spin) – aviation, “airplane
movement along a downward spiral trajectory of small
radius at significant closed angles of attack, which
develop s as a result of wing autorotation and
destabilizing moment of inertia; acrobatic maneuver”
(TSAT, p. 96). The mean ing of the commonly used
word kachalka was transferred based on the ‘stick
shape’, ‘ability to rotate in a certain direction’, and the
common ly used lexical item shtopor – based on ‘spiral,
helical’;
2) names of vessels, for example: a barrel is a
“large w ooden or metal cylindrical vessel, mostly
convex in the middle, with two flat bottoms” (TSAT,
p. 61) and a barrel (rolling maneuver ) – aviati on, “air
maneuver in a horizontal flight, where the aircraft
rotates fully around its longitudinal axis; acrobatic
maneuver” (TSAT, p. 12); a box is “a small container
of various shapes made of cardboard, plastic, plywood,
etc.; usually with a lid” (VTSSUM , p. 455) and a box –
aviation, “general name of a part of an airplane’s
structure or its basic functional systems, in which the
devices of automation systems, controls, structural
elements, various units, etc. are compactly mounted”
(TSAT, p. 43). Metapho rical transfer of the meaning of
a commonly used word barrel → aviation, barrel,
occurred due to formal resemblance based on ‘cylinder -
like shape’, and commonly used box → aviation, box –
due to functional similarity (based on ‘to place
something’ );
3) nam es of structures, construction devices, for
example: a barrier – “low -level handrails, fence, lattice,
enclosure” ( VTSSUM, p. 37) and a barrier – aviation,
“flight velocity, at which the heating of a rocket, spacecraft,
etc. due to air friction reaches a c ritical point and may cause
failure” (SIS, p. 152); a lock - “a device for locking doors in
rooms, doors of cabinet s, chests, drawers, etc.” (VTSSUM,
p. 312) and a lock – aviation, “device for connecting or
securing, locking moving parts of machinery and
mechanisms preventing their relative movement, rotation,
etc.” (TSAT, p. 29). The metaphorical transfer of the
meani ng of the commonly used words barrier and lock
occurred due to the similarity of functions based on
‘obstacle’ (barrier), ‘lock → connection’ (lock );
4) names of interior details, for example: blinds –
“shutters or draperies made of narrow boards or metal plates
to regulate light and air flow indoors” (VTSSUM, p. 272)
and blinds – aviation, “ventilation grilles with fixed or
rotating elements o r multi -leaf air permeable shutters or
plates in aircraft radiators and hoods that regulate airflow to
cool an airc raft engine or other structural elements, or to
protect against radiation, atmospheric precipitation, dust,
etc.” (TSAT, p. 26). The onomaseo logical feature resulting
in a new, terminological meaning – ‘draperies – shutters –
lattices for air flow regulati on’;
5) names of clothing and accessories, for example:
mufta (muft) – “kind of female dress made of fur or cotton
wool to warm up hands” (VT SSUM, p. 545) and mufta
(coupling) – aviation, “device for connecting shafts of
machines, pipes, ropes, cables, etc.” (TSAT, p. 55); kozhukh
(mantel ) – “long mantel without felt pad and with a large
collar, usually sewn of sheepskin with a fur to the middl e”
(VTSSUM, p. 438) and kozhukh (casing) – aviation, “shell ,
case, cover, etc. to insulate or prevent damage to
mechanisms and their parts” (TSAT, p. 40); a belt –
“leather, fabric, knit, etc., long band for girdling clothes on
the waist” (VTSSUM, p. 915) and a belt (cap) – aviation,
“farthest from the neutral axi s longitudinal element of the
beam, which perceives longitudinal forces during its
bending” (TSAT, p. 72). The formation of new
terminological meanings of the commonly used words in
aviation termin ology was based on the following features:
‘cylindrical’, ‘ ability to connect something’ ( muft/
coupling ); ‘protective cover’ ( kozhukh/ mantel ); ‘long band
– longitudinal element’ ( belt );
6) names of hairstyles, for example: a kok (bun ) – “a
hairstyle in t he form of a beaten or curled strand of hair
sticking up ov er the forehead” (VTSSUM, p. 439) and a kok
(spinning -top) – aviation, “conical or hemispherical spinner
that closes the windmill sleeve, fan disk, etc. to smooth the
flow lines at the inlet and re duce aerodynamic drag”
(TSAT, p. 40). The emergence of the aviation term kok
caused associative links based on formal resemblance of the
hairstyle and windmill shape by the feature of ‘convex’,
‘conical’;
7) names of entities and their associations, for
example: imitator (mimic ) – “one who parodies someone,
anythi ng; variety actor -sound -inheritor” (VTSSUM,
p. 396) and imitator (simulator device ) – aviation, “device
(system of devices) that simulates given “flight” conditions
(mostly under laboratory conditi ons) and used in the
preparation of flight crews” (TSAT, p. 32); generation – “a
set of relatives of the same degree of affinity with respect to
a common ancestor” (VTSSUM, p. 842) and generation –
aviation, “a set of aircraft of the same degree of affinit y for
technical and operational data over a period of time”
(TSAT, p. 67). The meaning of the aviation term imitator is
based on the semantics of the corresponding commonly
used word, in particular, on the basis of ‘play something’;
aviation term generatio n meaning based on ‘aggregate’,
‘affinity’, ‘same degree’ ;
8) names with quantitative meaning, for example:
eight – “name of the figure 8” (VTSSUM, p. 148) and
eight – aviation, “maneuver: the movement of the aircraft
along a closed curve in the form of a figure 8. Runs in the
horizontal or vertical planes as two turns of different
directions” (TSAT, p. 15); index - “indicator, list of
something” (VTSSUM, p. 398) and index – aviation,
“digital or alphabetical indicator of aviation units and
enterprises, ai rcraft systems and their components and
parts, flights, etc .” (TSAT, p. 33). The meaning of the
aviation term eight is based on the meaning of the
corresponding commonly used word due to
metaphorization of formal resemblance, in particular
‘shape of figure 8’; the meaning of the term index – based
on the archiseme of the commonly used lexical unit index
‘indicator’);

48 American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 20 19
9) names of properties, for example: zhyvuchist
(vitality) – property by the meaning of viable; zhyvuchyi
(viable) – “able to endure hardships , survive in difficult
conditions, support and preserve life” (VTSSUM, p. 275),
and zhyvuchist (ruggedness ) – aviation, “ability of the
aircraft to continue flight after damage received in the air,
failure of important assemblies, units or parts” (TSAT,
p. 26); zhorstkist (stiffness) – aviation, “ability of an
element or the entire structure to resist deformation”
(TSAT, p. 26) and zhorstkist (rigidity) – noun for rigid ;
rigid – “having a hard, uneven surface // with a thick,
rough skin; rough” (VTSSUM, p. 278). The
terminological meaning of the words zhyvuchist ,
zhorstkist occurred due to the secondary naming of the
features ‘endurance’ → ‘ability to continue flight’
(zhyvuchist (survivability) ) and ‘hardness’, ‘resilience’ by
the similarity of certain prop erties of the object.
The linguistic material shows that the parallel
functioning of the word in the common use and in the
aviation industry produces its polysemy, which is an
obstacle to the accurate and correct expression of
thoughts. It is common for te rm inologisation of the
commonly used lexical units, in some cases, the
specification of their meanings, in other cases – extension
of semantics, which in both cases often causes changes in
the compatibility of such words. Thus, a commonly used
word bochka (barrel ) is combined with the following
specifiers : large barrel, wooden barrel, oak barrel, metal
barrel, cylindrical barrel , etc. Whereas, the aviation term
of bochka (rolling maneuver) – with the following
specifiers: multiple rolls, ascending roll, con trolled roll,
one and a half roll, slow roll , etc. The lexical item of
kozhukh (mantel) in the syntagmatic conditionality of
choice forms the phrases of long mantel, warm mantel,
new mantel, sheep mantel, natural mantel , etc.; whereas,
the aviation term kozhukh (casing) – protective casing, fan
casing, combustion chamber casing, compressor casing,
blowing casing, windmill casing, ring casing, control
knob casing, nozzle casing, turbine nozzle casing, turbine
casing, turbocharger casing and the like.
Sometim es we come across the transition of the
commonly used words to the category of aviation lexical
items, which in general use have a distinct emotional -
evaluation pattern, for example: korobochka (small box ) –
diminutive of korobka (box ) (VTSSUM, p. 456); korobka
(box ) is “a small container of various shapes made of
cardboard, plastic, plywood, usually with a lid”
(VTSSUM, p. 455) and korobochka (racetrack ) –
aviation, “formation of planes (helicopters)”; “single -
aircraft flight maneuver” (TSAT, p. 44); girka (small
mountain ) – diminutive of mountain (VTSSUM, p. 183);
gora (mountain) is “a significant rise over the surrounding
countryside or among other elevations” (VTSSUM,
p. 191) and girka (nose -up maneuver ) – aviation, “flight
maneuver that represents the s hort-term movement of an
aircraft along an ascending trajectory” (TSAT, p. 18);
zmiika (snake) – diminutive of snake (VTSSUM, p. 373);
zmiia (snake ) – “a reptile with an elongated body covered
with a scale” (VTSSUM, p. 374) and zmiika (bank -to-
bank reversa l) – aviation, “ acrobatic maneuver ” (TSAT,
p. 31). Usually such words contain in their structure a
positive evaluation of diminutive suffixes, which in the
process of secondary naming lose their inherent
connotative pattern .
The secondary namings in aviat ion terminology
often result from metaphorical transfer or semantic
displacement in terms of other fields of knowledge. In
particular, the lexical units from the following term
systems became the onomaseological base for secondary
names in aviation termino logy:
1) anatomical, for example: horlo (throat) – anat.
“front of the neck, in the middle of which there is an origin
of the esophagus and respiratory tract; the cartilage canal,
which is the origin of the esophagus and respiratory tract”
(VTSSUM, p. 192) and horlo (neck) – aviation,
“narrowest cross -section of the flow part in the inlet
diffuser (air collector) or turbine nozzle” (TSAT, p. 18) –
transfer based on formal resemblance in shape, in
particular by the feature of ‘narrow channel’; diaphragm
– anat. “midriff separating the thoracic cavity from the
abdomen” (VTSSUM, p. 226) and diaphragm (disc) –
aviation, “partition inside the shell of an airship or balloon,
which divides the space occupied by gas into several parts;
in some cases, a partition tha t separates the gas space from
the air space (TSAT, p. 21) – transfer by formal
resemblance and functional similarity based on the
features of ‘partition’, ‘line separating something from
something’; tooth – anat. “bone formation in the oral
cavity of huma ns and many vertebrates, intended for
grasping, biting and grinding food, as well as for
protection” (VTSSUM, p. 388) and tooth – aviation,
“projection on a part to convey movement by interacting
with the corresponding projections of another part”
(TSAT, p . 32) – transfer based on formal resemblance by
the feature of ‘formation’ → ‘projection’; wing - anat.
“flying organ of birds, insects and some mammals”
(VTSSUM, p. 465) and wing – aviation., “fixed plane
surface of the aircraft supporting it during fligh t”
(VTSSUM, p. 465) – transfer based on formal
resemblance and functional similarity by the features of
‘flying organ’ → ‘flat surface for air support’; tail – anat.
“appendage on the back of the animal's body that is an
extension of the spine from the sac ral bone” (VTSSUM,
p. 1341) and tail – aviation, “name of the rear of the
aircraft from the wing back” (TSAT, p. 90) – transfer
based on formal resemblance “back of something”;
2) zoological, for example: amfibiia (Amphibia) –
zool. “an amphibian, whose la rvae breathe through gills, a
mature specie – with lungs” (VTSSUM, p. 16) and
amfibiia (scooper) – aviation, “airplane adapted to take -
off and land on water surface” (TSAT, p. 10) – a
secondary naming based on the similarity of functions by
the feature of ‘adapted to water’; kachka (duck) – zool. “a
waterfowl and wild bird, valuable for its meat, eggs and
feathers; female cock duck” (VTSSUM, p. 421) and
kachka (canard ) – aviation, “airplane with a horizontal
fins placed in the fore -body of the aircraft in f ront of the
wing” (TSAT, p. 38); cherviak (worm) – zool. “an
invertebrate animal that moves around, bending its soft
elongated body” (VTSSUM, p. 1374) and cherviak (slide
screw) – aviation, “a gear wheel in the form of a screw for
the transmission of movem ent in some mechanisms”
(TSAT, p. 92) – metaphorical transfer based on formal
resemblance of aircraft or aviation devices to the
representatives of the animal world by the feature of

American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 2019 49

‘horizontal feathering (for kachka ), ‘number of rings’ (for
cherviak );
3) botanical, for example: root – bot. “part of the
plant contained in the earth by which the plant absorbs
nutrient water from soil” (VTSSUM, p. 455) and root –
aviation. “basis of the structural element of the aircraft or
its functional unit” (TSAT, p. 43) – onomaseological
feature is the ‘basis of anything’ ;
4) theatrical, for example: sufliuvannia
(prompting) – theatre “to prompt text to the actors of
the role during rehearsal and performance” (VTSSUM,
p. 1219) and sufliuvannia (breathing ) – aviation,
“m aintain certain pressure in the crankcase, fuel tanks,
etc. by removing gases from them with the help of a
special valve” (TSAT, p. 84) – transfer on the basis of
functional similarity of ‘prompt’ → ‘maintain’;
5) military, for example: eshelon (echelon ) – milit.
“a separate part of in -depth separated combat order or
column of troops moving at some distance one from
another” (VTSSUM, p. 268) and eshelon (flight level)
– aviation, “flight altitude reserved for a cruise flight of
a particular aircraft” (TSAT, p. 25) is a secondary
naming on the basis of ‘move at some distance’ →
‘given flight level’.
Therefore, the most motivating base for formation
of aviation terms is the term units of the distant from
aviation natural term systems. Semantically codified
ter ms that have changed the scope of their functioning
are changing their syntagmatics accordingly.
The main onomaseological features for naming a
new concept in the aviation industry are t hose that
express: 1) formal resemblance ( bochka, eight, girka,
horlo, zmiika, tooth, kachka, kok, box, belt, tail,
cherviak ); 2) functional similarity ( amfibiia, barrier,
survivability, rigidity, lock, eshelon, imitator, index,
kozhukh, root, box, pilon, generation, sufliuvannia,
mufta ); 3) formal resemblance and functional similarity
at the same time ( diaphragm, kachalka, wing, mufta ).
Most often, functional similarity forms the basis for
semantic change and rethinking (47%), somewhat less
often – formal resemblance of nominees (41%), and
even less often – formal resemblanc e and functional
similarity at the same time (12%). Secondary naming
terms make up a notable layer of Ukrainian aviation
terminology.
D. Kh. Barannyk Semantic structure of
terminologic al communication (based on the material
of the aviation and rocket spa ce terminology systems)
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S. Z. Bulyk -Verkhola Secondary naming as a way
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N. Gymer Secondary naming as a way of creating
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Lviv, 2012. – P. 101 –103.
O. Kovtun Development of Ukrainian aviation
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G. O. Morozova Secondary naming as a way of
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LIST OF CONSOLIDATED
ABBREVIATIONS OF USE D SOURCES
VTSSUM - The Great Definition Dictionary of
Modern Ukrainian Lang uage / Author and Ch. Ed.
V. T. Busel. – K. ; Irpin : VTF “Perun”, 2003. – 1440 p.
SIS - Dictionary of Foreign Languages / Authors
L. O. Pustovit, O. I. Skopenk o, G. M. Siuta et. al;
editor L. O. Pustovit. – K. : Dovira, 2000. – 1017 p.
TSAT - Aviation Ter ms Definition Dictionary /
Authors L. F. Verkhulevska, S. S. Kiral, V. M. Lutsiuk
et. al; gen. ed. M. S. Kulyk. – K. : NAU, 2007. – 100 p.