Американский Научный Журнал SEMANTIC STRUCTURE OF PHRASE LOGICAL UNITS OF CULT IN TURKIC LANGUAGES (37-43)

This article deals with phrase logical units connected with nature from the point of view of "Linguistic map of the world" theory. Bases of "the cult concept" in Turkic languages, including Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek are described and their ethno-linguistic and ethno-cultural features of use in languages have been under analysis. In any people, the "cult" concept takes the place in system of the spiritual and cultural concept. The spiritual culture is a view of people of world around, religious knowledge, character, beliefs and the ability to learn through other concepts. By itself, a word cult description is very complicated according to the abstract. The lexeme of the word "cult" is grouped in wide group of such concepts as, "to trust", "to pray", "to admire", "to respect". The cult is a part of traditional religion, religious trust, customs and traditions. The meaning of the lexeme the cult is abstract, not material, respect for any subject, worship of holy things, worship of saints, prayer, relationships, and the ability to offer information parts. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 37

SEMANTIC STRUCTURE OF PHRASE LOGICAL UNITS OF CULT IN TURKIC LANGUAGES
1Rysbayeva .G.
Doctor Of Philology 2 Doszhan R.
Doctor Of Philology 3Abdualiuly B.
Doctor Of Philology 4Smailov A.
Candidate Of Philology 5Manabayev B.
PHD 1,2 NUR -MUBARAK EGYPTIAN UNIVERSITY OF ISLAMIC CULTURE 2 REGIONAL SOCIAL -INNOVATIONAL UNIVERSITY 3EURASIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY GUMILEVA 4REGIONAL SOCIAL -INNOVATIONAL UNIVERSITY

Abstract . This article dea ls with phrase logical units connected with nature from the poi nt of view of
"Linguistic map of the world" theory. Bases of "the cult concept" in Turkic languages, including Kazakh, Kyrgyz,
Uzbek are described and their ethno -linguistic and ethno -cultural features of use in languages have been under
analysis. In any people, the "cult" concept takes the place in system of the spiritual and cultural concept. The
spiritual culture is a view of people of world around, religious knowledge, character, beliefs and the ability to learn
through other concepts. By itself, a w ord cult description is very complicated according to the abstract. The lexeme
of the word "cult" is grouped in wide group of such concepts as, "to trust", "to pray", "to admire", "to respect".
Th e cult is a part of traditional religion, religious trust, customs and traditions. The meaning of the lexeme the cult
is abstract, not material, respect for any subject, worship of holy things, worship of saints, prayer, relationships,
and the ability to o ffer information parts.
Keywords: linguistic map of the wor ld, the structure of frame, phrase logical units, "Cult " concepts , Cult of
the Fire, Cult of the Water, Cult of Tree , Cult of the Moon, Cult of the Sun .

Introduction . At present, the consideration of the
linguistic picture of the world in general human
cognition is the unity of the world model and with the
same conceptual view of the world it is a philosophical
and philological concept. The study of the "Language
world" and the "Language map of the world" in the
trinity "language -thought -world" is one of t he urgent
problems of modern linguistics. The language of the
world is a specific method for the language of reflection
and representation of reality in linguistic forms and
structures in its relat ion to the person who is the central
figure of the language . Every person has a picture of the
world, because language is not only a means of thinking
and communication, it is also a reflection of the culture
and spiritual statement of the whole ethnos. Th erefore,
the study of cult phraseological units, created o n the
basis of ethno -cultural heritage and national knowledge
from the ethno -linguistic point of view.
Material and Methods
Descriptive, comparative, comparative -historical
methods, analysis, synt hesis, generalization, as well as
system -structural, class ification and ethno linguistic
methods were used in the study . Determination of the
portable meanings of names, terms, lexical -phrase
logical , pareomiological units, proverbs and sayings
related to the cult in our language, as well as numerous
motives that formed the basis for the formation of these
values, confirms the relevance of the work. Along with
this, the aim is to ascertain, from the point of view of
anthropocentrism, the level of use in the Turkic peoples
of names and linguacultural units related to cults and
based on concepts related to the ancient worldview,
beliefs, customs and traditions and important socio -
political events.
Phraseology is a branch of linguistics that studies
different types of stable expressions that, like words,
denote diffe rent objects and phenomena. They exist in
the language as ready -made units. Phras es are units
language that we use all of the time. This scientific
work of one of the researchers of mythological,
historical, ethnographic aspects of the emergence,
propagati on of religion and types of religion - the
famous Soviet scientist S.A. Tokarev, "Early forms of
religion" (Tokarev, 1964) is devoted to the problem of
the appearance of the first religious beliefs and the
types of cults in the culture of the peoples of th e
world.In it, the scientist examines from the religious
and ethnographic position such early beliefs as
totemism, shamanism, nagualism, magic, animism,
healing, cult of burial, the cult of the firs t communities,
craft cult, agrarian cult, family cult, sac rifice cult,
mountain cult, etc.
In ancient times, all the concepts of the cult were
based on religious beliefs, therefore in scientific works
they were considered from the point of view of
theology , mythology, ethnography.Thus, S.N.
Akatayev, in his candi date's thesis "Ancestor cult of the
Kazakhs and their ethno genetic and historical and
cultural origins" explored the cult of aruahs, the sun's
cult, the cult of mother earth (Akataev, 1973), the
researcher of Uzbeks of Khoresm,G.P. Snesarev in the
researc h work "On the reasons for conservation
religious habits of life among the Uzbeks of Khoresm
"(Snesarev, 1957) considers the philosophical

38 American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020
foundations of the religions of Islam, shamanism,
animism, magic, as well as cult of aruahs, nature, saints.
Importan t information on the research topic was
found in the collections "Myths, Cults, Rites, Peoples
of Foreign Asia", "Symbols of Cults and Rituals of
Peoples of Foreign Asia" (Myths, cults, rituals, peo ples
of foreign Asia, 1986; Symbols of cults and rituals o f
the peoples of foreign Asia, 1980). Valuable data on
ancient beliefs, customs, mythological beliefs are
presented in such works as "Relics of pre -Islamic
beliefs in the family rites of Kazakhs (ХІ Х beginning
of the 20th century)" by A.T. Toleubaeva (Tol eubaev,
1991), "Pre -Islamic beliefs and their survivals from the
Kirghiz" T.D. Bayalieva (Bayalieva, 1972), "Relics of
pre -Islamic beliefs and rites among the Uzbeks of
Khoresm" G.P. Snesarev (Snesar ev, 1969),
"Mythology and beliefs of the Altaians. Centra l Asian
influences "by A.M.Sagalayev (Sagaliev,1984).
Religious concepts, types of cults, information
about the myths and legends of all nations of the world,
including Turkic -speaking peoples, are given in the
world's mythological dictionary.
If we talk about the study of numerous religious
concepts and cults, cult phraseological units in the
culture of related Turkic peoples, namely, in beliefs,
mythological worldviews, customs and traditions, life
activity, it should be noted that these issues are not
ignored by scientists. They can be found in the works
of such scientists as G.N. Potanin, V.V. Radlov, Sh.
Valikhanov, A. Margulan, A. Divaev, M. A dji, A.
Konyratbaev, A. Amanzholov, K. Zhubanov, R.
Syzdyk, K. Baipakov, T. Zhanuzakov, H.Argynbayev,
S.A.Kask abasov, A.Mahmutov, B.Sagyndykuly,
S.Akataev, O. Suleimenov, A.K.Akhmetov,
S.Kondybay, A. B.Salkynbay, K.Aronov,
K.Gabithinuly and others.
Customs, rituals, cultural life of the Turkic -
speaking peopl es were common. The total number of
Turkic -speaking peopl es reaches forty.Among them
there are six sovereign states: The Republic of Turkey,
Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan,
Kyrgyzstan. The languages and ethnography of the
Turkic -speaking peoples have not been fully studied.
The scientist A.K.Ak hmetov wrote the historical
and comparative ethnolinguistic work "Taby and
euphemisms in Turkic languages" (Akhmetov, 1995)
about the ethno -linguistic system of taboos and
euphemisms occupying a spec ial place in the customs
of the Turkic peoples and their ethno -cultural
basis.This large -scale, very valuable ethnolinguistic
research work is directly connected with comparative
linguistics, cognitive linguistics, sociolinguistics,
language culture and et hnography.In the thesis of K.
Gabithinuly "Stable combina tions in the Kazakh
language associated with beliefs", ethnographic aspects
are considered stable combinations in the Kazakh
language, related to popular beliefs and signs
(Gabithinuly, 1995).
Resul ts and Discussion
The history, culture, similarity of th e Kazakh,
Kyrgyz, Uzbek languages were generalized by the
notions of cults that seemed similar and peculiar. The
concept of a lexeme "cult" in phrase -logical,
paremiological conceptual unit, as par t of a frame, is
shown in the form of a scheme, an ethno -cultural table
of contents . The sun, the moon, the water, the fire , the
mother, cult of spirits and the conceptual phraseology,
proverbs -sayings, folk expressions, legends, tales,
artistic compositio ns are considered as a richness of
language. The above a ssociative functions of concepts,
all this proves that it is possible to distinguish the
characteristics of linguistic images in the world and the
universe. Language includes general and national
soci al historic experience so we can say that enrichment
hap pens in two directions: 1) life conditions and
welfare determine people’s behavior and consciousness
which reflect on language, especially in its grammar
and semantics; 2) person understands the world through
native language which determin es his behavior a nd
cognition (Maslov , 2004) .
During the research it was shown that the word
"cult" and its descriptions are stable combinations.
According to its understanding and the main pattern,
the cult "is a c ognitive model of the ethno cultural
concept". "Cult " - an abstract category - worship -
respect - prayer, tried to distinguish with the above -
mentioned system. Let’s analyze the appropriate
elements of the linguo -semeotic units of the cult.
"Cult" concept s appeared in early times and meant
"worshiping, ado ration, praying", which are associated
with the Latin word "cult". A cult is a RELIGIOUS
GROUP or other organization with deviant and no vel
beliefs and practices (Stark, Rodney, 1996) , how ever,
even any particular group's beliefs are sufficiently
deviant or novel enough to be considered as a cult is
often establishing a precise definition of cults is
problematic . The term 'cult' was origin ally used to
describe a group of people who worship ed a DEITY .
The term was first used in the early 17th century
denoting homage paid to a deity and borrowed via
the French cult from Latin cults (worship), from the
adjective cult’s (inhabited, c ultivated, worshiped),
derived from the verb cooler (care, cultivate) .
There are a lot of phraseological units connected
with the traditions and ceremonies of the cult. They
are:"Cult of the Moon","Cult o f the Sun","Cult of the
Sky","Cult of the Stars","C ult of worship the
Nature","Cult of the Fire","Cult of the Water","Cult of
Trees" and"Cult of Worship the statues" and etc.
Cult of the Fire is considered to be the most
important one among all other cult s. Most Turkic
people evaluated the fire, respected and worshipped it.
The fire is called "ot (от) " in Kyrgyz, Uyghur, Kara
kalpak, Karachai -Balkar languages; "Ut (Ут) " in
Uzbek, Tatar languages ; "Od (Од) " – in Azerbaijan
language. Fire has been an importa nt factor, occupying
almost all aspects of life.
Th e wide usage of fire for domestic, technical,
religious and other secular purposes shows is ready
availability i.e. the word "fire" is highly appreciated,
and it is seen from the phrase "ot -ana" ; this word is
equivalent to the word "Kudai" - God. The woman god
of fire in Kakas language is called "ot atan" , and it is
explained in the dictionary by Butanayev as
"pochtitelnoe obrascheniye k bogine ognya
«почтительное обращение к богине огня» (an

American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 39

honorable address to the woman god of fire )"
(Butanaev, 1999 ).
Having the same meaning there are more phrases
like "От ине" - "Ot ine", "От инезі" - "Ot inezi" which
mean in Kazakh "Mother of the Fire, The host of the
Fire". The word combination "Ot iesi (От иесі) – The
host of Fire" is left from the times of matriarchy.
According to the Kazakhs traditions God of Fire -
"Ot ine – Ot ene" , could supply with light and warmth.
It was believed that it could protect the family from all
evils, bring wealth and happiness. The Kakas thought
that fire had some kind of relation to the family
members. It helped the host of the family that’s why it
was also called as "Zhurttin iesi, zhurttin kuzetshisi,
adamdi saktaushi, maldi k orgaushi".
The Kazakhs also worshipped and appreciated it
like their neighbors – the Turkic people. Fire
worshipping had been handed down since ancient
times. It is considered to be the basis of
ZOROASTRISME . The fire is merciful god as one part
of the s un on the earth. At the background of fire
worshipping lies sun worshipping. Ancient people
understood the benefit of the sunlight and warmth and
as a symbol of the sun they made a fire on the earth.
The people who lived in northern parts of the planet
val ued the fire more than anybody else, as winter came
here earlier and the weather was too cold. That’s why
they constantly kept the fire as a symbol of the sun to
get warmer. Hence, they celebrated the fire holiday not
in summer but in winter.
In the main book of ZOROASTRISME religion
"Avesta" the god of fire is described as merciful,
supporting, goodwill and considered to be the greatest
among all other gods. "Yasna" is the biggest part in the
book of "Avesta". There is a prayer glorifying t he fire
at the beginning of the ZOROASTRISME religion
development, the god of fire was the basement of it and
it was the first step in the formation of the religion
(Braginsky, 1956) . Some instances relating to the fire
in the book of "Avesta" are traced in Kazakh beli efs as
well. For instance, there are songs sung during the
wedding fire worshipping:
Ottai ystyk dostyk ber,
Zhubyn zhazbai uzak ber
Zholdaryn zharyk, zharkyn et,
Ot-ana zharylka!
saying these lines the Kazakhs beg the fire mother
to protect the young cou ple. Consequently, asking for
help and begging the fire is the tradition of the Kazakh
people coming down from ancient times and it is still
kept alive.
It was identified that the fire place of the "eternal
fire" is situated in central Asia, Khoresm. All the
scientists who were investigating Khoresm and central
Asia on the whole assumed that was where the fire was
born. S.P. Tolstoy said that the saint fire of
Zoroastrism e started at this place and he writes in his
work: "in ancient times there was exactly here , as
academician V.V.Struve justly stated, the main center
of the sak -massaget tribes settlement who were
persistent adversaries of ancient conquerors kir and
dariay (Tolstov , 1948) .
At the places of Khorezm there were found some
fireplaces of loc al peopl e called Alaukhana. There was
also a temple "Dashly - 3" in the xvii century b.c. All
three temples were like circles, without ceilings having
nine domes. Ancient people came here to pray to the
fire (Bulatov, 1988) . Topyrakkala situated on the
ter ritory o f Khorezm was the oldest castle. There are
fire houses for sermons. The palace of Khorezm kings
is situated in Kara kalpak Biruny region. It is
surrounded by the walls of towers. From the right -side
wall gates there is a street till the sermon fir e houses .
In ancient times Khorezm had a holiday called
Adzhgar. A.Biruni says that this holiday was celebrated
when there began agricultural works in this area and it
was when Akhmed Ibn Mohammed took part in
completing the calendar in 959. Adzhgar means
"wood" a nd "flame" (Biruni Aburaihan, 1988) . It is
connected with the Kazakh word " ot zhagar - firing ".
Y.G.Gulyamov in his work about the history of
watering Khorezm lands wrote: "in ancient times there
was a calendar of rivers flooding in Khorezm and i t had
some types as the first one, which is " Kok kamysh
tashuvi – flood of blue reed ", - it was when the blue reed
was growing. Approximately it was on the 20 th of
march.
The second one is " Ak balyk - tashuvi" – "The
flood of white fish ", the time of white fish whic h went
along the river Amudaria from the Aral sea in April and
spawned . The third one is " Yulduz - tashavi" – "the
flood of stars " – taking place in the middle of may, the
fourth is " Khyrk – chilgav tashavi " – "the flood of 40
days heat", took pl ace from t he second half of June till
the first half of august and lasted for forty days
(Gulyamov ,1957) . It is similar to "40 days of heat" in
Kazakh language. This means that this concept existed
long times ago as well. S.P.Tolstov said: "the complex
in Tashkent h elped to find out the key, elements of the
sak culture who inhabited the down region of the
Syrdaria river in the first half of 1000 bc. The town of
slaughtered sheep is a fabulous monument to the
classical blood shedding culture (the khanha trib e) in
Khor ezm (Tolstov , 1962) . At that time when there
began agricultural works near this temple, i.e. During
the flood of yulduz tashuvi people celebrated the
holiday Adzhgar. It coincides with the 8, 9 may by our
calendar.
Traditions, customs, beliefs re lating to the fire
have been existing since the ancient times. It played an
essential role in people’s life. First , it was used in
cooking, keeping warm, lightening the darkness. There
is a proverb in this connection: "If you are cold, make
a fire; if you are afraid , make a fire; if you are hungry
make a fire".
Second , the fire has a feature of getting rid of bad.
People think that it can protect from evil and clear up
from the sins. According to it, when people moved to a
new place, they made a fire the re and made the people
and the cattle pass between two fires. This custom of
getting rid of bad is called "alas". During this process
people used to say: " Alas, alas, ar paleden khalas, Ot,
ot tazart bizdi ar paleden ". And saying "alas, alas, keep
us from every evil; fire -fire, get us cleaned from
everything bad," they get rid of the bad from the sick

40 American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020
man’s bed, the pram of a baby with the fire smoke. At
the beginning of the new year, it is the 22 nd of March,
people made fire and divided into separate grou ps
according to their ages kept in hands the sticks with fire
and passed between two fires. They sang songs in
chorus. "Alas, alas, keep us from every evil" and
cleaned the surroundings with fire and young people
jumped over it. As for the last action it also had its o wn
meaning. It was done for cleaning from different kinds
of evil. There was also a custom to make a fire in the
middle and dance, entertain around it. Such holidays
were celebrated during the longest days in June. They
are similar to those o nes of the Rus sians "Ivan cupola",
the Belarusian's "Yanka cupola", the French "the St.
Sean". Following two words in – n – "young" n -iu
"new" are met in the German language and iung
(young) in English. In Turkish languages there is added
an affix "i" to t hese words and having new ones in
Uzbek as "aingi – new, eni – new in Turkish. And in
the Kazakh language ian -a means new as well. It could
have been the reason of only the youth taking part in
this holiday.
Third , the fire has a feature of clearing. The
Kazakhs, the Ky rgyz worshipped fire and considered it
a safeguard against evil. According to the animistic
beliefs a mortal body is scared of fire, and the fire is
afraid of candle.
Fire can both support the person and be an enemy
as well because it is dum b, merciless en emy. It makes
people scared and frighten, that’s why a dead body was
guarded and a fire was put above his head not to have
him come back home. Our ancestors believed that the
soul didn’t go out from the body for 40 days after death,
so makin g the place lig hter they put a fire for 40 days
every day. This custom appeared due to the belief of
worshipping fire and that is had the features of keeping
warm and clean. Sh.Ualikhanov said: "The Kazakhs
passed between two fires when they made a promise ,
swore and to clear themselves from sins… at the same
time they worshipped the fire and were frightened of it,
and swore having it (Sh.Ualikhanov). At first it was
necessary to clear up with fire before swearing. The
ancient custom of the Turks began dur ing Avesta.
Abou t fire worshipping much is said in a mythology
about siyauish, that is common for the people of central
Asia and Parsi. Professor S.P.Tolstov says about this
story: "Siyawish, who was wearing a golden helmet and
riding a black horse, to try himself in the fire clearing
had to pass between two flames". The process of
passing it is described in the work of Firdausi called
"Shakhnama" in detail as well. Burning a mortal body
is based on the belief of clearing by fire. The ancient
people thought that this way w ould help the mortal
body to get rid of sins. Gordizi who lived in the xi
century wrote about the following: the Kazakhs like the
Indians burnt a mortal body anal said at the same time:
"Fire is the cleanest thing, everything that is put in to
fire can be c leared, and mortal body can also get rid of
sins" (Bartold ,1963) .
According to the archeological data found out on
Kazakh lands, the tribes of the bronze period
worshipped the fire; it is obvious by a widespread
custom of burning a mortal b ody as there wer e found a
lot of burnt people bones of that period. To the ancient
people’s mind, fire could clean the body from the evil
and protect a dead body from bad spirits. Sometimes
you could find the odds of ashes and coal at the tombs,
it can als o prove the cust om of worshipping the fire.
"During the bronze period there was a widely spread a
tradition at the funerals when people put some ochre on
a mortal body and onto his tomb while they were
burying. To the people’s mind a red color meant fire
equivalent to the sun, the greatest force of fire can
protect from bad spirits.
Fourth , fire has a feature of threatening.
"appreciating fire people are at the same time afraid of
its power that’s why they curse saying the words of
fire… they think that mo st diseases are because of the
fire curse, so they are treated by fire". There is one of
such treatments as to cut out seven pieces of meat from
seven different parts of the animal body and after
grilling them on fire, put on aching places of the body.
To get rid of the i llness people also heated a copper
scoop until it was red, then poured some oil into it and
put some part of blue fabric, after both of them began
to burn, they got it close to the face of a sick man and
poured some cold water into the scoo p there was vapo ur
out of it. This kind of treatment was called "Zhelushyk"
(Sh.Ualikhanov).
Fifth , fire was considered as a "totem". As fire was
connected with oil, the Kazakhs might have considered
fire as a "totem" as well. Professor K.Zhubanov shows
the meaning of th e word "mai" in Kazakh as " Mai ana
k kotoroi obraschayutsya zhenschiny za pomoschyu v
trudnye momenty ih zhizni – vo vremya ih rodov, ne
mogla byt nikem inym, krome kak pokrovitelnitzy
zhenschiny - Umai. No ee imya proiznositsya
kazakhami n e kak v sibiri, a kak mai bez nachalnogo
glasnogo u " (Zhubanov , 1966). Consequently there
appeared a custom of pouring some oil on the fire.
In ancient times this custom, i.e. Adding oil to the
flame had an important role in the beliefs of the Turkish
peo ple and it is st ill kept. The Kazakhs believe that the
fire is a beacon of the house, that’s why a just married
woman has to worship it. It is as one kind of the fire
worshipping, as the last one could protect the family
like "god of sun". This custom, the background of
which lies in the ancient guns, has been kept with most
Turkish people (Sh.Ualikhanov). A just married
woman is taken to the house of her father -in-law. As
soon as she enters the house she has to kneel and bow
greeting at the same time. Then she is ordered to sit on
the leather rug, as it means to be as soft as that leather.
After it she pours oil on the fire and several times she
bows in front of it saying "Ot ana, aiana, zharylka" and
prayed. Sometimes these were replaced by those ones
"Ot aulie, mai aulie ". For example, a young just
married woman while entering the house of her
husband has to bow three times till she reaches the fire
place and then pours a scoop of oil on the flame. The
old women stretched their hands towards it saying " Ot
aulie, mai aulie " and stroke their faces (Y.Altynsarin).
The custom of pouring oil on the flame is done not only
by daughters -in-law but by sons -in-law as well. It was
performed when a young groom first came to his
parents -in-law. The people call it " Otka kuyar ".

American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 41

Accordin g to this custom "the groom while crossing the
threshold bows three times and as he reaches the fire
place, he is given a scoop of oil" (Y.Altynsarin).
Kazakh people consider the fire as scared. Every
family had the tradition of respecting the fire. That’ s
why there appeared the word phrases like " oshak " – a
fire place. "Oshaktyn ush butynan suraimyn" – it is said
while prayng for the welfare of your family. "Otynyn
basynan, oshagynnyn kasynan ber!" – wish not to be
dependant on somebody. "Oty ore zhanbady " – it
means that somebody is miserable and in despair; and
"Ot basynan ort shyksyn!" – curse meaning to say when
you wish someone to end up in broke and to be
destroyed. There are also word combinations connected
with fire – "ot" in kazakh as "ot basy = o t basy oshak
kasy" – being among the members of your family. "Ot
zhagyp, kul shygardy = ot zhagyp – su tasydy" – being
busy with the domestic chores. "Ot zhurek" – veru
brave and courageous. "Ot keship, muz tosendi" –
having a lot of calami ties in life. "O tka itermedi" –
causing failure. "Otyn oshirdi" – demolishing the
hearth, to destroy the zeal. "Otaskan da bar, ot baskan
da bar", "ot basyna ort salma, ozegine dert salma",
such phrases also represent the culture of the people.
We can see that Turkish pe ople have a lot of
similar meaning proverbs and word combinations
connected with "ot - fire" . "Eki ottyn arasynda kaldy ",
it means that you are between two fires. In the Kyrgyz
language it sounds as following " Bir zhak zhar, bir zhak
suu ", in Azerbaijan – "Ikl od arasynda ", in Uzbek " Ikki
ud arasynda kolmak", karachai -balkar "Eki otnu
arasynda tururcha" , Uigur " Iki balanyn otturisida".
"Ottan kashsan – zhalynga, enbekten kashsan
donbekke" sounds in Kyrgyz " Angekten kachsa
dongokko "; in Uigur "Bir baladin ku tulup, unindinmu
yaman bir balaga tutulmak ", Karachai -balkar " Otdan
chyk ta dzhalyna degencha ". Turkic people have had
proverbs in their everyday life since ancient times such
as " Ot teas agyz koima" - "Ot degenge auiz kuimes";
"Otug ozguch birla ochurmas" – "Otty jalynmen
oshirmes"; "Ot tutunsuz bolmas, iyigit yazuksuz
bolmas" – "Ot tutinsiz bolmas, jigit jazyksyz bolmas";
"Kul urguncha, koz ursa iyg" – "Kul urlegennen, shok
urlegen jaksy".
Cult of Water . In the ancient times people
worship ped water and va lued a well. They considered
that even water had a god, owner of water is Suleiman.
For instance, the statements like " Owner of Water is
Suleiman", "Owner of water is the prophet", "Suleiman
of water", "Don’t spit into the water which you d rink "
were made up due to its value. Worshipping the owner
of water Suleiman is represented in the poems devoted
to the sun god in the book "Avesta".
Cult of Tree . In the ancient times Turk people had
a tradition of honoring trees. One of such saint trees is
the universe tree. Universe tree is the most important
mythical cult object.
The universe tree in Kazakh people’s lives is –
Baiterek. According to the legend, Baiterek owns an
essential and symbolic meaning. For example, people
had proverbs like "Bir tal kessen on ta l ek", "Zhalgiz
agashti kima". The slavs used the birch - tree as a
medicine. They put a sick man under the tree and
poured him with cold water. This legend shows us the
importance of trees and people’s lives. The Kazakhs
believed that the tree " archa " cou ld protect from all evil
and fired it in the iron dish taking round the house and
the cattle. A.M.Sagalaev who investigated the myths of
Altai people said: "the tradition of cleaning with the fire
by ‘ Archa -tree’ was kept at the Yakuts"
(Sagalaev ,1984 ).
The Kazakhs believed that this tree brought
happiness, protected from diseases, and prolonged the
lives, that’s why it was considered as the greatest sin to
cut it. While passing it they stopped, kneed and prayed.
Cult of the Moon was appea red in the times of
stone century. The signed symbol of the moon is as
following: the half moon sign – the sign of night light
and the saint sign of Muslims. The moon is the symbol
of beauty and gentleness. Horns of the bull, image of
snake, round mirror, names of tribes are also the signs
of the moon.
Kazakh people thought that the moon could
impact not only on the people’s lives but on four types
of cattle as well. Usually they likened their favorite or
saint horns to the moon and called them " Ay tuyakti
tulparim", "Ay m uizdi syirim", "Ay muizdi koshkarim",
"Ay muizdi ak koshkar", "Ay muizdi kok (ak) serke",
"Ay muizdi, asha tuyakti". "Ay muizdi, asha tuyakti" –
they call four forms of cattle except horse " asha tuyak "
or " ayir tuyak " and in Kyrgyz language the horse is
called "ay tuyak". "Ay muizdi ak koshkar", "Ay muizdi
kok (ak) serke" mean strong and powerful.
There are quite many poems of Turkic people
which were sent to us from " guns ". One of them is the
poem of blessing children:
Ay muizdi ak koshkari m seniki bolsin.
Kamistay tik kulagi bar aigarim seniki bolsin.
Shudalari togilgen kara tuyem seniki bolsin .
Likening hooves and horns of the cattle only to the
moon means that our people respected and worshipped
the moon and asked the safety of people and the cattle.
Whe n people saw the new -born moon they said:
Ay kordik aman kordik,
Zhana ayda zharilka,
Eski ayda esirke.
Image of the new born moon paid an important
role in the lives of not only the Kazakhs but of the
Kyrgyz as well. While seeing the moon the Kyrgyz
bless ed, the Tatars of west Siberia danced, the Bashkir's
asked goodness from the moon and worshipped and as
for the Altais , they thought that it is the worst time to
begin something. While most of the Turkish people
worshipped the moon, the Yak ut's asked for s afety and
goodness until the next the full moon.
Cult of the Sun . The symbol of the sun was
represented on the signed stone: "The sun god is riding
bull with horns", "Small people dancing around the sun
god", "Many handed sun god". The h at of the king of
saxes, snake -lights, horn, "Umai ana", red color and fire
are the symbols of the sun. The sign of the sun was the
symbol of the nomads who used it for a long time:
round kiyiz ui, shanirak, oshak, fire, formation of the
dishes, wheels of the cart, mirror, etc. The sun is the
symbol of the beauty, warmness. The horse is the sign
of the sun god, because our ancestors sacrificed with

42 American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020
horse. In ancient Turkish language horse means the god
(Rysbayeva , 2009) .
The sun’s shine, light were used ins tead of the sun
itself, that’s why we can see the respect the sun from
the usage of these words. The Kazakhs call people
whom they love "my moon", "my sun", "my light".
They praised the cleverest, the most talented, and the
smart one as "created from the s un light".
Signs o f worshipping the sun is given not only in
written form but you can see them as well. In
Kazakhstan most people in the ancient graves were
buried with their heads towards to the sun. It can be
seen in all places where Turkish people lived .
During research the theory "image of language of
the universe" was taken cognitive linguistics. Similar
historical and comparable characteristics, systematic,
grouping, comparison, etymological explanation, ethno
linguistic analysis, composite and conc eptual,
application of the method analysis on the frame. With
the help of a comparative method of studying Kazakh,
Kyrgyz and Uzbek languages in their language history,
culture, as well as religious, it became clear. The origin
of cult phrase logical units in the language, i s the
history of the century, mythological and various
popular beliefs, traditions and customs, is associated
with the peculiarities of ancient culture, as well as
manifestation in linguistic units. Kazakhs believed that
this tree brough t happiness, protec ted from disease and
prolonged life, so it was considered the greatest sin to
cut it. As they drove along, they stopped, kneed and
prayed.
Conclusion . In conclusion, we found out the
symbolic and cognitive properties of the creation of
concepts, discovere d the past history of strong concepts
of gods and the meaning of symbolic (semiotic) signs,
superstitions and rituals of the whole Turkic the Cult of
the Fire, the Cult of the Water, the Cult of the Tree, the
Cult of the Moon, the Cult o f the Sun. During t he
research it was shown that the word "cult" and its
names, stable combinations, its understanding and
basic pattern, the cult "is a cognitive model of the ethno
cultural concept." Cult " - an abstract category - worship
- respect - wors hip, tried to disti nguish with the above -
mentioned mythemes. Analyze the appropriate
elements of the lingvosemeotic units of the cult.
The concept of the cult was defined, and the
associations of these tokens were divided into 3 groups.
The cult’s concept was determined and the associations
of these lexemes were allocated to groups. Firstly, we
see that the basis of spiritual -ideological worldviews in
Kazakhs' life customs, religious signs and superstitions
lies deep, written records and archeological recor ds
complement each other without any conflicts.
Secondly, the cult phraseologisms were grouped into
lexica -semantic groups concerning to the cult’s
concept. Thirdly, they was given ethno -linguistic
descriptions by the classifications given above and
there was determined and proved the connotation
property of the Kazakh national being and was
determined the anthropocentric paradigm of the
distinguished cult phraseologisms. Fourthly, the cult
phraseologisms originated from mentioned familiar in
structure an d content concepts ar e often found. We
understand it as it because of the historical interrelation
of the Turkic nations. Thanks to the cult of the Moon,
the cult of the Sun, the cult of Umai mother, the cult of
Fire, the cult of Water, the cult of the Tr ee, the cult of
solar power, the interrelation of cult phrase logical units
and collusion of Turkic languages in synchronous
development was manifested.
In conclusion we can confirm that we tried to
determine the Cult and the names concerning it in the
process of investigation, an example of the phrase
logical units from cognitive side, especially the most
actual " CULT " ethno -cultural concept’s cognitive
model myphologemes as "Cult" → Abstract category
→ Pleading → Veneration → Worship → Begging.
Concerning this there was divided lingua -semiotic units
of the cult elements and the motivation related to its
structure of names was regarded by socio -cultural,
nature -historic environment connection.

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УДК 821.512.122

Ә.НҰРПЕЙІСОВТІҢ «СЕҢ» РОМАНЫНДАҒЫ АДАМ ЖӘНЕ ТАБИҒАТ МӘСЕЛЕСІ

Тлеубекова Б отако з Ту ргамбаевна
Канд.фил наук, Казахстан,г.Караганда
Центрально -Казахстанская академия
DOI: 10.31618/asj.2707 -9864.2020.1.40.19
Аннотация . В статье дается анализ художественно -идеологиче ских исследований в романе
А.Нурпеисова «С ен», взаимоотношений человека, взаимоотношений человека и природы, авто рского
представления о природе человека, природе в зглядов.
Abstract . The article gives an analysis of artistic and ideological research in the novel by A. Nurpeisov "Sen",
the relationship of man, the relationship of man and nature, the author's idea of the nature of man, the nature of
views.
Ключевые слова : Поэтика, роман, символика, сюжет, природа, человек, время, экология, трагедия .
Keywords : Poetics, romance, symbolism, plot, nature, man, time, ecology, tragedy.

«Сең» романы − ел мен жер тағдырын арқа у
еткен шығармалар легінде шоқтығы биік тұрған
шығарма. Жазушы кейіпкерлер болмыс -бітімін
бейнелеуде, ішкі әлемін ашуда табиғат көріністерін
психологиялық паралеллизм тұрғысынан ғана емес,
туындының идеялық өзегін ашу мақс атында да
барынша шебер пайдаланад ы. Оның бір мысалын
төмендег і жолдардан да аңдауға болады: «Сонан
бері ел өзгерді. Жер өзгерді. Содан бері
Сырдарияның суын кең арнаның екі бетін ала
қоныс тепкен диқан елдер мақта деп алды, күріш
деп алды. Малыма, жаныма деп жырымшылып ала -
ала, сағасына к елгенде сыңар тамшы да қалмады »
[1,21]. Бұл жерде жазушы Орта Азия мен Қазақстан
үшін өмірлік мәні бар экологиялық проблема Арал
мәселесінің туындауының түп тамырына
үңілдіреді. Сол мақта мен күріш өнімін арттыру
үшін қаже тті игілікті іс деп танылған арты сұраусыз
шаруалардың көпшілігі Ара лға қасірет болып төнді
емес пе? Ол аздай, оған тағы бір зардап таңылды.
Оның да зиянын екшеп жатқан жан жоқ.
Жазушының жан күй зелісі кейіпкер ойына
ұласады: «Сонан бері Амударияның ағысын а қайық
салсаң ала қашатын баяғы ж ойқын сары лай суын
құдіреті жетке н кісілер ары қарай теріс ағызып,
қайдағы Қарақұмға бұрып әкетті. Ол ол ма, ай мен
күн астындағы тірлік орнында тұрғанда бұл
жалғанда мұрты шағылмастай көретін кәрі
Аралдың қазіргі с иқы ан ау» [1, 21]. Байқап
тұрғанымыздай, кейіпкер толғанысынан Аралды ң
мүшкіл халі, қыл үстінде тұрған тағдыры ғана
танылмайды, оның туу себебі мен ертеңгі
эволюциясы да шынайы суреттеледі. Өмір
шындығы өнер шындығына ұласа отырып, жер
тағдыры не болмақ деген ой ағымына, сана
арпалысына жетелейд і. Қазіргі қазақ романының
поэтикасын зерттеуші Т.Рақымжанов көркем
шығармалардағ ы пейзаж ерекшеліктер жайында:
«Қазақтың сөз шеберлігі психологиялық пейзажда
кейіпкердің жан құбылыстарын табиғат
көріністерімен сабақтастырып немесе
контрастылы, қарама -қарс ы қалыпта алып
сипаттаса, лирикалық пейзаж автордың сезімдік
түйсік -қабылдауы арқылы беріледі. Ал
символикалық мә ні бар пейзажда жазушы бейнелі
образбен өзінің дүниетанымдық көзқарасын
білдірсе, объективтік -заттық пейзаж тек фондық
міндет атқарады. Оның ке йіпкердің көңіл -күй
құбылыстарына қатынасы аз » [2,65], - деген пікір
айтады. Осы орайда ой қозғар болсақ,
Ә.Нұрпей ісов романында ұшырасатын
пейзаждардың лирикалық саздылық үстейтін
көркемдік тәсіл ретінде қолданылуынан гөрі,
дүниетанымдық көзқарасты айшықта йтын
символикалық мәні бар пейзаж үлгісінде жиі
пайдаланылатынын аңғарамыз. Бұл − шығарманың
сюжеттік желісі мен композициялық құрылымында
қаһармандардың рухани жан дүниесін, іс -
әрекеттерінің мәнін ашуда табиғат көріністерін
мақсатты қолдану үлгісі. Мәселе н, Арал
бейнесімен қатарласа берілетін Жәдігер − Бәкизат
желісі немесе Жәдігер толғаныстары олардың өмір
– өзен ағысындағы тағдырын баяндаумен
шектелмейді. Олардың қай -қайсы да − идеялық
салмақ арқалаған сюжеттік желілер.Туған жермен
тамыры біте қайнасқан елдің теңіздің тартылуы
салдарынан үдере көшіп, тамырынан ажырап
жатқан сәттегі жан тебіреністері, көшкен ел
суре ттері адам мен табиғат сабақтастығын санада
тағы бір жаңғыртады. Шындығын айту абзал, кір
жуып, кіндік кескен және сол жермен тағдыры
байлаулы жандардың бейбіт күнде атамекенін