Американский Научный Журнал CALCULATION OF THE ROUTES OF THE SPREADING RADIO WAVES WITH ACCOUNT ELECTROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS LAYING UNDER SURFACES

Abstract. Considered model of the spreading radio waves with account electrophysical parameters under lying surfaces. Represented calculations of the loss function module for different radio routes. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № (2 8) / 2019 45

ФИЗИКА И АСТРОНОМИЯ

CALCULATION O F THE ROUTES OF THE SPREADING RADIO WAVE S WITH ACCOUNT
ELECTROPHYSICAL PARA METERS LAYING UNDER SURFACES

Schegolevatykh Alexander
candidate of technical sciences
leading engineer JSC "Concern "Constellation"
Voronezh, Russia
Voronkov Boris
candidate of tec hnical sciences
Associate Professor of Voronezh State University
Voronezh, Russia

Abstract . Considered model of the spreading radio waves with account electrophysical parameters under
lying surfaces. Represented calculations of the loss function module fo r different radio routes.
Keywords: function of the losses, fields of the terrestrial waves, electrophysical parameters underlying
surface

Ensure by reliable communication with objects,
residing on average and greater distances, requires an
installation of the intermediate radio stations, which
together with communication l ink, form the network.
Radio stations are situated on significant distances one
from one so for ensuring reliable communication
follows to take into account the radio signal losses
depe nding on morphological and electrophysical
parameters routes of the spr eading radio signals.
In figure 1 is brought card of the territory Russian
Federation (RF) and adjoining region (the Morgan
chart). Through these territories occur the radio signal
tran sfer. Surface radio waves spread in close proximity
surfaces of the lan d, but exercised by them absorption
is defined by electrophysical parameters of ground, i.e.,
values of permeability and conductivity [1].
Electrophysical parameters different typ e surfaces
were presented in table 1 [2]. In the last column are
brough t values of the frequencies, under which the
current density of the offset is equal to the conductivity
current density. The most influence upon parameters
extreme right column renders conductivity laying under
surfaces, which most for sea water. . In acco rdance with
that maximum values reach under this frequencies
Fig. 1. Distribution to conductivities of ground RF and close territories, where numeral is marked: 1 ‒ 5…20
mmho/m; 2 ‒3 0…40 mmho/m; 3 – 40…50 mmho/m; 4 – 50…70 mmho/m ; 5 – 70… 90 mmho/m.

46 American Scientific Journal № ( 28) / 2019
Table 1
VALUES OF AND FOR DIFFERENT SURFA CE TYPES
Type of surface � , mho/m Frequency, under which �=
60 � , MHz
Sea water 80 4…5 900…1125
Fresh water 80 0.001…0.0 1 0.225…2.25
Very humid ground 30 0.005…0.02 3…12
Average ground 15 0.0005…0.005 0.6…6
Arctic ground 15 0.0005 0.6
Very dry ground 3 0.00005…0.0005 0.3…0.6
Polar ice 3 0.000025 0.15
As can be seen from figure 1 it is enough extensive
territory RF ha s a close electrophysical parameters that
allows to produce the estimation of the radio signal loss
on comparatively greater distances.
Radio signal loss W is defined by formula [1]
W = 10 lg( Pи/Pп), (1)
where Pu=I2R – a power of radiated radio signal (
I ‒ an antenna current, R ‒ a resistance of the radiating
antenna); Pn ‒ a power of radio signal in point
acceptance, depending from efficient antenna length l
and its resistance R.
Substituting parameters sending and receiving
antennas, formula (1) may pr esent as
= 20 �� (2⋅0 �⋅�),
(2)
where 0= 80 (/�0)2 ‒ an antenna radiation
resistance in free space; l ‒ an efficient length receiving
antenna; En – an electric field in acceptance point; �0 ‒
a radio signal wavelength.
An electric field in an acceptance point is
determined as
�= 60�
2−1
�−
2, (3)
where �= √−1 ‒ imaginary unit ; �2= 1−�⋅
60 1�0 ‒ a square of the refraction factor of the
imperfectly conducting ground; L ‒ a radio signal route
length, km; 1 ‒ relative permeability of the layer under
surfaces; �0 ‒ a radio signal wavelength, m; l ‒ an
efficient antenna length, m.
The radio wave loss depends on distance L and
laying under surface parameters 1 and 1. Substituting
formula (3) in expression (2), we get
(�,)= 20 �� [82|�−1−⋅0,6⋅104/�|
3 (�
300 )2]. (4)
In figure 2 it is shown the influence these
parameters on function of the losses for distance L=500
km for dif ferent laying under surfaces.

|W(f,L)|
f, кГц
Fig. 2. The loss function W versus frequency f for distance 500 km between receiver and transmitter when radio
wave spreading: 1) on Arctic ground ( ε = 15, σ = 0.5, mmho/m) (the solid line); 2) on forest ar ray ε = 1.3, σ =
0.01 mmho/m) (the dotted line); 3) on icy fields ( ε = 7, σ = 0.03 mmho/m) (the hatching line); 4) on sea surface
(ε = 80, σ = 4 mmho/m) (the hatch -dotted line)

Curves (fig. 2) have shown that the radio signal
level losses when it spreadi ng on woodland in
frequency range 200…600 kHz on 19…21 Db less,
than on naked ground. However, for lays under
surfac es, saturated by water, on low frequency function
losses W, computable on formula (4), gives uprated
values.
Electrophysical parameters of s urfaces, saturated
by water, depend on frequency of the spreading radio
signal. In the first place different materia ls content
affects on this. On figure 3 are brought datas for
conduction water solution for different concentration of
the solutes [3].

American Scientific Journal № (2 8) / 2019 47

1,(�ℎ� ⋅� )−1
mole/l
Fig. 3. Conductivity of water solutions versus concentrations of the solutes

The given curves of fig. 3 show that conduction
different water solution by complex image depends on
concentrations of the solutes. Depending on radio
signal frequencies, spreading on water surface, exi sts
additional change an electrophysical parameter
required for calculation of the radio signal weakening.
For instance, average importance saltiness of sea
water is taken equal 35 %% that forms 0,6 mole/l in
recalculation on concentration NaCl, which mole cular
weight equals 58.5. In water solution salt NaCl
disintegrates on two ions of the opposite sign.
Consequently, possible consider that concentration of
salts in sea water equals to 0.6 mol/l. Si milarly it is
possible to define the concentrations water solution
other material.
Well known [4], that at passing радиосигнала in
water solution of the electrolyte is directed polarization
potential Δφ , which is defined by formula [4]:


= (
� )�� (�0),
(5)
where Ru = 8,314 Joul/(K·mole ) – an universal gas
constant; F = 96485 Coul/mole – the Faraday constant;
c0 – a balance concentration of the electrolyte, mole/l;
cs – a concentration of the electrolyte under influence
of radio signal, mole/l; m – a number of ions,
participating in elem entary act.
Marking through Δcs =cs-c0 detour from the
balance concentrations of the water solution, we get the
necessary formula [3]:


�= �� 0 /Г.
(6)
Δcs is possi ble to define, solving diffusion
equation

��/�= ��2�/�2,
(7)
where x ‒ a coordinate along line of the radio
signal spreading; D – an ion diffusion factor.
Border conditions for decision of the equation (4)
possible present in the manner of
�= −���   (��/�)=0, �|→∞= 0, (8)
where j ‒ the current density in the point with
coordinate x.
Presenting a potential in the manner of =
�� (�� ), but current as �= �⋅�� (�� ), that
decision of the equation (4) may present as
�= �/(�� √��� ), (9)
where � = 2а ‒ a circular frequency. Equating left parts of the expressions (6) and (9),
we get
= �⋅ /(�� 0√��� .) (10)
From the last expression not difficult to go to
conductivity of the water solution (�)
(�)= √��� .=
2√�� (1+�), (11)
where ‒ some factor .
The exact value of the factor depends on some
electrophysical parameters of the water solution that
vastly complicates its determina tion. However exists
the simple practical way of the determination parameter
formula (8) if addr ess to data of a table 1. Searching
conductivity of the water solution (�) is defined as
(�)= √⋅�⋅
36⋅106, (12)
where parameters and � are chosen from table
1.
The formula (9) presents depending on angular
frequency �= �/(2)
(�)= √�⋅⋅� 1,8⋅107. (13)
Substituting expression (13) in formula (4), we
get.
1(�,)= 20 �� [82|�−1−⋅√2�|
3 (�
300 )2]. (14)
The formula (14) shows that on low frequency the
loss function for sea water has values smaller, than in
formula (4). This is confirmed in figure 4, where solid
line corresponds to the formula (4), but dotted line – to
the formula (14). On radio frequency curves meet, but
on low frequency noticeably divergence. On frequency
100 kHz, for instance, function of the losses on 10 db
has smaller values, as evidenced by in practice.

48 American Scientific Journal № ( 28) / 2019
|(�,)|
f, кГц
Fig. 4. The loss f unction W1 versus frequencies f on distance 500 km between receiver and transmitter when
spreading: 1) on sea surface (ε = 80,σ = 4 mho/m) (the solid line) according to formula (4); 2) on sea surface (ε =
80,σ = 4 mho/m) (the dotted line) according to form ula (14).

The formula (14) generalises the approach to
estimation of the losses on different радиотрассах that
vastly raises accuracy a calculation. She shows that on
low frequency function losses W1 gives values c lose to
average statistical. The Formula (4) provides sufficient
accuracy of the determination to functions of the losses
when spreading радиоволн on terrestrial surface,
possessing low conductivity. For instance, is confirmed
reduction to functions of the losses W when spreading
radio signal on woodland. The known formula of
Austin [1] exact for routes by length 2000 … 10000 km.
Formula (14) allows more exactly define the level an
радиосигнала when spreading on terrestrial layer for
for small distances (10 0 km and more) in contrast with
Austin f ormula.

REFERENCES
1. Chernov Yu. A. Radiowaves spreading and
applied questions. ‒ M.: Tehnosfera, 2017, 688 p.
2. Kashprovskiy V. A., Kuzubov F. A. Spreading
middle radiowaves by terrestrial ray. ‒ M.:
Communicatio n, 1971, 220 p.
3. Koshkin N. I., Shirke vich M. G. The Guide to
elementary physicist. ‒ M.: Science, 1980, 115 p.
4. Damaskin B. B., Petriy O. A. Introduction to
electrochemical kinetics. ‒ M.: High school, 1983, 400
p.
UDC 539.122.2; UDC 681.586.5
PANORAMIC SENSOR TAR GET DETECTION AND DE STRUC TION OF ENEMY ON
MODULATED LASER BEAM IN 3D -SPACE “LADOGA -1M”

Grigoryev -Friedman Sergey Nikolayevich
Joint -stock company Research and production enterprise “Polyot”

Abstract . The article is devoted to solving the urgent task of improving the performance and accuracy of
bearing, detecting target and destroying potential enemy. Objective: to develop technologically simple and
reliable optical -laser method of direction f inding, target detection and destruction of enemy by modulated laser
beam of guidance in 3D -space by crews of armored vehicles, aircraft, helicopters, surface ships and submarines in
radio silence mode using semiconductor laser diode or solid -state laser p umped by laser diode.
Аннотация . Статья посвящена решению актуальной задачи повышения про изводительности и
точности пеленга, обнаружения цели и уничтожения потенциального противника. Цель работы ―
разработка технологически простого и надёжного оптически -лазерного способа пеленгации, обнаружения
цели и уничтожения противника по модулированному лазерному лучу наведения в 3 D-пространстве
экипажами бронетехники, самолётов, вертолётов, надводных кораб лей и подводных лодок в режиме
радиомолчания с применением полупроводникового лазерного диода или твёрдотельного лазера с
накачкой лазерным диодом .
Ke y words: sensor; panoramic detection; destruction of the enemy; telescopic target coverage angle;
irradia tion; modulated laser beam; optical range; radio silence mode; semiconductor laser diode; solid -state laser
pumped by laser diode; photon; electromagne tic wave; photo -sensor; phototransistor matrix; laser radiation;
wavelength; signal frequency.
Ключевые с лова: датчик; панорамное обнаружение; уничтожение противника; телескопический
угол охвата цели; облучение; модулированный лазерный луч; оптический диап азон; режим
радиомолчания; полупроводниковый лазерный диод; твёрдотельный лазер с накачкой лазерным диодо м;
фотон; электромагнитная волна; фотодатчик; фототранзисторная матрица; лазерное излучение; длина
волны; частота сигнала.