# Американский Научный Журнал NEW LOOK AND APPROACH TO PHYSICAL AND QUANTUM PROPERTIES OF PHOTON (22-32)

New physical properties of photon, as quasi-neutral elementary particle, have been revealed at the atomic-molecular level of radiation interaction and photon absorption when electrons move from external, remote orbits of atoms matter to lower orbit rotation around the nucleus of atoms. Experienced way found fast-changing in time and space, its own orbital negative and positive charges photon. The use of the idea of Russian scientists on the presence of constantly changing in time and space of its own orbital charge photon in the creation of superpowerful and long-range combat laser is considered. Скачать в формате PDF

22 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20

ФИЗИКО -МАТЕМАТИЧЕСКИ Е НАУКИ

UDC 539.122.2

NEW LOOK AND APPROAC H TO PHYSICAL AND QU ANTUM PROPERTIES OF PHOTON

Grigoryev -Friedman S.N.

(Nizhny Novgorod research radiophysical institute

at Nizhny Novgorod state university by N.I. Lobachevsky,

Nizhny Novgorod)

Abstarct . New physical properties of photon, as quasi -neutral elementary particle, have been revealed at the

atomic -molecular level of radiation interaction and photon absorption when electrons move from external, remote

orbits of atoms matter to lower orbit rotation around the nucleus of atoms. Experienced way found fast -changing

in time and space, its own orbital negative and positi ve charges photon. The use of the idea of Russian scientists

on the presence of constantly changing in time and space of its own orbital charge photon in the creation of super -

powerful and long -range combat laser is considered.

Keywords: photon, electron; positron; calibration boson; fermion; synchrophasotron; hadron collider; laser;

spin; intrinsic orbital moment of photon; inertia orbital rotation of photon; intrinsic orbital charge of photon;

modulated laser beam; electromagnetic wave; laser radiation; w avelength; signal frequency; quantum; coherence

mass of photon; photon speed; period; photon momentum; photon energy; Hamilton operator; disturbance

operator; Wendell Farry theorem; Niels Bohr`s principle of complementarity; Heisenberg uncertainty.

Introduction. The main problems of quantum

mechanics and elementary particles in the domestic

literature [1 –13] are devoted to quite [14 –17] extensive

material. In this regard, it should be noted that all

previous studies were based only on the classical,

academic level of the development of modern quantum

theory of radiation, absorption, reflection and

distribution of photons, in representation of an outdated

point view that the photon is only a flat, transboundary

electromagne tic wave, in optical range, propagating in

open space at speed of light. At same time, domestic

and foreign scientists in this field of knowledge,

accumulated extensive information on basis of

laboratory -experimental research on nature and

mechanism of beh avior of known to science elementary

particles in open space and interaction with physical

substance, taking into account distribution of

electromagnetic and gravitational fields, in particular,

revealed newer physical properties of the photon, at

atomic -molecular level of interaction of radiation and

absorption of photons electrons move from the outer,

remote orbit of atoms matter to lower rotation orbit

around the nucleus of atoms.

In light of subsequent theoretical studies and their

experimental evidence at the experimental test site, the

Hadroon Collider of the Los -Alamos National

Laboratory of the Energy Department USA in interval

of time, accessible for detection, fixation and study the

quantum nature of existence, rapidly changing in time

and space, o wn orbital negative and positive charge of

photon, like electron and its antiparticles are positron.

If in earlier stages of study the photon was studied

in Wilson -Skobeltsyn's cell, Geiger -Mueller's counter,

Glaser's bubble chamber, Cherenkov's counter, i n the

form of track trajectories and the fixation of all this on

the photo emulsion film, when time of observation

experiments themselves was determined in interval of τ

= 1·(10 -12…10 -15) s. Whereas, when two counter

streams of photons interact, in the Had ron's Collider,

the time of observation physical processes is even more

reduced to interval of τ = 1·(10 -18…10 -20) s. In this case,

the presence of rapidly changing orbital charge in

photons should be explained not only by influence of

variable electromagn etic fields, in particular strong

electric field, but also by increasing influence of

general gravitational field during the interaction of

physical matter with radiating, narrow -coherent beam

of photons, its partial absorption and reflection, with

the qua ntum transition of the electron from one level to

another around the nucleus of the atom [4 –9, 11 –17].

If the particle accelerator in the Moscows of

Serpukhov -city and the synchrophazotron at the

experimental test site at the United Institute of Nuclear

Re search in the Moscows of Dubna -city was used, the

principle of interaction flow elementary particles was

used, like an electron, positron, proton, neutron,

photon, etc. in accelerating electromagnetic field with

the material of physical substance, the Amer ican

Hadron Collider Los -Alamos National Laboratory used

the principle of interaction between two counter -

accelerating streams of elementary particles, for

example, beams of photons with each other, also in

accelerating electromagnetic field, but at same t ime

power of physical interaction of oncoming accelerated

streams of particles (photons) will be about 2.5 times

greater than in the case of Serpukhov's or Dubna

Russian particle accelerator designs, as the basis of rig

and general technology in modern nuc lear research on

the peaceful use of released huge energy in the passage

of controlled thermonuclear reactions of the fission

uranium isotopes U92235 and U92238 , in the enrichment of

plutonium isotopes Pu 94239 in modern nuclear reactors.

The theoretical ba sis on classical view of the

nature photon particle. At the end of 2019 years,

scientists from Los -Alamos National Laboratory ―

Thomas and Advard Lee Yung, conducted

synhrophazotron and particle accelerator, such as the

Hadron's Collider, at one of state -of-art test sites with

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 23

synchrophazotron and accelerator of elementary

particles, such as Hadronno collider, number of

experiments and visual physical experiments in the

field of detection and fixation of one's own, constantly

changing in time and space, orb ital charge in quasi -

neutral elementary particle of the photon.

Photons accelerate, in internal structure of

inverting crystal, to very large values of their kinetic

energy, according to quantum theory and formula (1):

(1)

where m ф ― is the relativistic mass of the photon;

с = 3·10 8 м/сек ― is the speed of light in free (air)

space.

Often applied value — given constant M. Planck,

described by the expression (2):

ħ= h

2π= const . (2)

On other hand, an electron moving from the u pper,

remote level of its orbit to lower electron emits a

photon. At same time there is discrete radiation of

energy by narrowly directed beam of photons, so -called

portions of the quant, according to the formula M.

Planck (3):

(3)

where h = 6,626070040(81)·10 -34 Joule ·s

(because ħ = 1,054571800(13)·10 -34 Joule ·s) ― is

constant M. Planck; MHz ― is cyclical (angular)

input frequency; T, s ― is wave fluctuation period; ,

MHz ― is frequ ency of input.

Equating both energy values of emitting photon

get (4):

(4)

where, exact relativistic value of the mass photon,

when it moves in open airspace or vacuum is

determined from expression (4), according to the

formula (5):

(5)

From the course of classical electrodynamics it is

known that the phase speed of the signal wave in

conventional optically denser environment is

determined through the speed of light, accord ing to the

expression (6):

, (6)

where

― is phase speed of flat, monochromatic,

electromagnetic wave in optically dense environment

(gas, fluids, solid bodies); и

― is relative dielectric and magnetic permeability of

optically dense environment; и ― is

relative dielectric and magnetic permeability of free

airspace (vacuum) respec tively.

From where we get the speed of flat,

monochromatic, electromagnetic wave in optically

dense environment, according to the expression (7):

. (7)

Finally, the exact relativistic mass value of the

photon, when it is moves in optically dense

environment is determined from expression (7),

according to the formula (8):

(8)

It should be noted that the mass of electron itself

is quasi -static, not dependent on frequency of signal at

the entrance, whereas the photon mass depends entirely

on frequency of input signal, that is, the mass of photon

will be for each frequency, its range, separate, different

from each other. Consequently, the intensity, inverity,

power and strength of laser radiation are highly

depe ndent on range working frequencies of input

signal.

It is necessary to remember that actual (real) mass

of the photon, at rest is zero m ф0 = 0, that is, the photon

has only so -called relativistic mass, different from zero.

The same is true of rate photon, which is absent at rest,

and exists only when the photon moves at the speed of

light as transcurrent electromagnetic wave, in certain

environment.

It should also be taken into account that photon's

own spin is equal to: S ph = 1ħ. The spirality of the

photo n is equal to: H ph = ±1. The number of spin states

of the photon is equal to: Q Sph = 2. The charging parity

of the photon is negative ― Chi ph = -1.

Total photon charge is always zero for a full period

of time T = 2π: ∑ 2� ф = 1++2++3−+4−=

1++0++1−+0−= +1�+0−1�−0= 0.

According to the fig. 1, for first quarter of his period

0≤ �1≤ �

2 in fact, the charge of quasi -neutral particle

begins under exponential law enveloping function ,2c m E ф ф = , = =h Eф , . 2 = = = h c m E ф ф .2 2 . c c

h mф

= =

a a a a a a a a

c

=

=

= = 0 0

0 0 0 0

1

1 1 1 1 ( ) с f a a

a

a =

,

1

;1

0

0 1 0 a 1 0 a 1 0 1 0 a a с = . 2 .

a a фm =

24 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20

(describing the vector potential of the photon:

⃗�(�⃗,�)= 0(�⃗)∙�−(�⋅⃗⃗⃗⃗�⃗−�∙)∙�� (�⋅�

ℓ∙�⃗), where

the radius -vector is defined as �⃗= �(�,�,�)) increase

1+> 0+= +0�. At the same time, the charge of the

photon has its maximum positive value, equal to the

charge of the position (antiparticles of the electron, with

the ba ck of the ��+= 1

2ℏ: 1+= 1+= +1�, at its point

at �1� = �

2. It should be noted that at this point, the

photon's own orbital rotation point around its axis is:

L1+ = +1. For the next, the second quarter of its period,

at the same time as �

2 ≤ �2≤ �, value of the photon

charge begins to decrease exponentially from its

maximum value of 1+= 1+= +1� to zero,

2+= 0+= +0�, that is, transboundary,

monochromatic, electromagnetic wave passes through

its first zero value, when the photon itself almost loses

its speed, stops, has almost its zero mass of rest, while

the photon, at this point in time, also lacks energy and

momentum of movement. According to the fig. 1, at

this point, the photon's own orbital rotation point

relative to its axis is: L 0+ = L 0- = 0. Slung through the

zero point, the charge of the photon begins to increase

again on the module, also by exponential law from zero

to 3−= 0−= −0� to 3−= 1−= −1� for the

period: �≤ �2≤ 3�

2. At the same time, the charge of

the photon has its maximum negative value, equal to

the charge of the electron (with the spine ��−= 1

2ℏ):

3−= 1−= −1�, the subsequent third quarter the

period of electromagnetic wave, at �3�� = 3�

2.

It is worth noting that at this point the own orbital

moment of rotation the photon around its axis is equal:

L2- = -1. After that, for the next quarter of its period, at

rate of 3�

2 ≤ �4≤ 2�, the value of the photon charge

on the module begins to decrease exponentially from its

maximum negative value to 3−= 1−= −1�, to zero

4−= 0−= −0�, that is transboundary,

monochromatic, electromagnetic wave passes through

its second zero value, when the photon also again loses

its speed, stops, has almost its zero mass of rest, while

the photon also, at this point in time, there is no energy

and momentum of movement.

Due to the law maintaining charging parity and its

multiplier, in electromagnetic phenomena it is

impossible to turn an even number of photons into odd

and vice versa, based on the theorem of W. Farry, as

the photon refers to the so -called calibration boson,

where it is involved in electromagnetic and

gravitational interaction with matter in nature.

Moreover, part of its active time photon spends as

virtual particle ― vector meson or as virtual pair ―

Hadron -antiadron. All atom s is consist in nature of

protons and neutrons, that is called Hadrons.

Fig. 1. Spinal -orbital model of the existence of photon and change in its own orbital charge during the

observation period of τ = 2·10 -18 s.

x+

+

+

z+ y+

0

Q 1+ = +0,25e

Q 1max + = +1e

L2- = -1

L1+ = +1

Q 2+ = +0,5e

Q 1+ = +0,5e

Q 3min -= -1e

Q 0+ = Q 0- = ± 0e

Q 4-= -0,5e

Q 3-= -0,5e

z-

x-

y-

L0+ = L 0- = 0

Q 3- = -0,25e

Q 2+ = +0,25e

Q 1+ = +0,75e

Q 1+ = +0,75e

Q 4- = -0,25e

Q 3- = -0,75e

Q 4- = -0,75e

+1e

τ , 10 -18 с

Q +

Q -

-1e

+0,5e

-0,5e

1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с τ , 10 -18 с 1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 25

It should be emphasized that the phase transition

in the change of the photon, for example, from the state

of Q 1max + = +1e, equal to the charge of the positron, to

Q3min -= -1e, equal to the elementary charge of the

electron, in its principle is impossible, because of

violation at least, accepted in quantum mechanics, the

principle of additionalness N. Bohr [5 -11]. There are

possible transitions from the state of Q 1max + = +1e to the

state of Q 0+ = + 0e, and back ― to the state of

(Q 1max + = +1e) ↔ (Q 0+ = + 0e), as well as from the state

of Q 3min - = -1e, to the state of Q 0- = - 0e, and back ― to

the state of (Q 3min - = -1e) ↔ (Q 0- = - 0e). The fact that

own orbital moments rotation of the photon around its

axis are mutually opposite, due to the fact that in

quantum mechanics for positive direction rotation of its

own orbital moment rotation of the photon relative to

its axis the direction is counterclockwise, and it is equal

to:

L1+ = J 1·ω = +1. If the direction rotation of the own

orbit al moment rotation of the photon relative to its axis

will be clockwise, it will be considered negative and,

therefore, its value in this case is equal to

L2- = J 2·ω = -1. And J 1 = - J2 represent the opposite

directed inertia of the rotation of the photon itself

relative to the orbital axis of rotation, at different

transitions. For the entire minimum period T min = 2 π is

characterized by change in its charge from "+1" to " -

1e", while pas sing through its characteristic zero point

"± 0e" where the electrical charge in it is also zero.

The total time changing the photon's own charge

is equal to an average of τ ≈ 2·10 -18 s. The lifetime of

positive or negative self -charge of photon is equal t o

τ ≈ 0,2·10 -18 s, when amount of positive charge is equal

to Q + = +0,8e…+1e and negative charge is equal to

Q- = -0,8e… -1e.

Photon is kind of electromagnetic dipole,

constantly changing in time and space, thus obeying the

quantum principle of Heisenberg's uncertainty (9):

(∆�∙∆�)≥ ℏ

2, (9)

By measuring the magnitude of average quadratic

deviation of the coordinates Δx and the medium -square

deviation of the pulse Δp, and at same time, having

known speed of light, the photon allows unlimited

accu racy of measurement its coordinates in time and

space, and therefore its changing orbital charge.

When reflecting from the mirror editor or when

passing environments with density gradient, that is, in

the phenomenon of aberration, an experimental way is

found to change direction of the photon [5]. In all these

cases, photons are not absorbed by substance, and are

clearly not included with the carriers of the substance

in the contact interaction, that is, in the format of

elementary particles of the environm ent. However,

there is change in direction and polarization of the

photon [7]. This behavior of photon, like fermions -

particles, is possible only under the influence of

constant electric fields formed by electrons and protons

of the environment. Analysis o f many experiments

indicates that effective factor in these interactions is not

only the size of the field, but also the gradient,

therefore, the photon is an excellent quantum detector

the gradient of electric field [9].

Unsteady theory of perturbations. Let H 0 ― be

so-called calm operator, representing time -dependent

Hamiltonian quantum system in absence of external

electric and magnetic fields. To do this, Schroedinger's

equation allows for its exact solution. Then full

Hamiltonian H of this system, in the presence of

unsteady external field [8, 11, 12 –17] , has classic look

(10):

H = H 0 + V( ⃗⃗,t), (10)

where V( ⃗⃗,t) ― is an operator of perturbation,

describing the interaction of external electro -magnetic

field with the quantum system. The theory of

perturbations is used in following condition (11):

V( ⃗⃗,t) << H0. (11)

Let the quantum system be in the field of falling,

monochromatic electromagnetic wave, the

characteristics of which periodically change over time

with frequency ω. Then the V( ⃗⃗,t) perturbation operator

will also change periodically over time with the same

frequency ω, hence it can be recorded as (12):

(⃗⃗,�)= 2⋎(⃗⃗)cos �� =⋎(⃗⃗)�� +⋎(⃗⃗)�−� . (12)

Enter the designation ±(⃗⃗,�)=⋎(⃗⃗)�±� , then

the V( ⃗⃗,t) perturbation operator takes following look

(13):

(⃗⃗,�)= +(⃗⃗,�)+−(⃗⃗,�). (13)

In the first order, time -dependent perturbation

theory, the probability is moving "w" of the quantum

system's into unit of time from the state described by

wave function Ψ i to the state described by the wave

function Ψ f (Ψ i and Ψ f ― is own functions the

operator's H 0) under the influence of perturbation, the

expression (14) is set:

(14)

And the transitions take place in states that have

the energy of E f = E i + ħω and density ρf(Ef) (Ei and

Ef ― is own values operator's H 0, which correspond to

their own functions Ψ i and Ψ f).

26 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20

The indignation of V +(⃗⃗,t) leads to the fact that the

quantum system is loses energy ħ ω by means of is

forced eletion: E f = E i – ħω. Under the influence of

pert urbation V –(⃗⃗,t), the system is acquires the energy

ħω and E f = E i + ħ ω. We will consider only the last case

corresponding to the absorption of energy of

electromagnetic field, is leaving in the operator of

perturbation V( ⃗⃗,t) only second formulation V –(⃗⃗,t),

which is depends on the time as �−� .

A quantum system in field of flat

electromagnetic wave. Consider the case when a flat

monochromatic electromagnetic wave falls on the

quantum system. Then the full Hamiltonian H particle

system and electromagnetic field [4, 6, 11 –17] has this

view (15):

H = H 0 + H el + V( ⃗⃗,t), (15)

where H0― is the Hamiltonian system in absence

of external electric and magnetic fields , H el ― is the

Hamiltonian electromagnetic field and V( ⃗⃗,t) ― is the

Hamiltonian interaction of the system with the

electromagnetic field, which is the operator of the

perturbation.

In the future, the system will be understood by the

totality of А⃗⃗⃗ non -relitivist particles. Then we have an

expression (16):

(16)

where pa и ma ― is pulse operator and system

particle mass, W ab ― is energy interaction "a" and "b"

particle. H el ― is energy of electromagnetic field. The

classic expression for the energy of the electromagnetic

field [11, 12] takes the form (17):

��= 1

8�∫(⃗⃗2+⃗⃗⃗2)������ = 1

8�∫(⃗⃗2+⃗⃗⃗2)�⃗ , ( 17)

where ⃗⃗⃗ и ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ― is the tension electric and

magnetic fields.

If the field is quantum and is a set of n photons of

energy ℏ�, then the energy of such electromagnetic

field is determined by expression (18):

��= �ℏ�. (18)

The expression for the operator V( ⃗⃗,t) is a type of

spine -free particle (19):

,

(19)

where еa ― is electrical charges of particle

system, ⃗⃗⃗ ― is the vector potential of the electro -

magnetic wave at the point, where is located the "a"

particle.

We specify this expression for the case when the

system is absorbs falling on it the flat monochromatic

electromagnetic wave. The vector potential ⃗⃗⃗ of such

wave [11, 12] can be recorded in the form (20):

⃗⃗⃗(⃗⃗,�)= 20cos (⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗−�� )= 0�(⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗−�)+0�−(⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗−�) (20 )

where ⃗⃗⃗ ― is wave vector, the direction of which

determines the direction of the wave (where

⃗⃗⃗=

∙⃗⃗⃗, and ⃗⃗⃗ ― is single vector in the direction of

⃗⃗⃗), and ⃗⃗ ― is single vector of radiation polarization.

The vector potential А⃗⃗⃗ must satisfy the condition

(21):

�� ⃗⃗⃗= 0. (21)

For flat, transverse, electromagnetic wave,

polarized perpendicular to the direction of distribution,

the condition (21) is tantamount to requirement (22):

(⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)= 0, (22)

Substituting in the formula (19) for V( ⃗⃗,t) is only

the first member of expression (20) for the vector

potential of a flat wave, which has a negative frequency

and, is therefore responsible for the absorption of

radiation, get (23):

. (23)

And from the material equation (24):

⃗⃗⃗0= A0⃗⃗. (24)

For the outrage operator v( ⃗⃗) we end up with an

expression (25):

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 27

.

(25)

A classic representation of radiation and photons.

It was stated above that the electromagnetic field of

photon radiation is represented in the classical form of

flat transverse ( ⃗⃗⃗= ) monochromatic

electromagnetic wave (21). From the course of

quantum mechanics it is known that an electromagnetic

wave, consisting of photons, cannot have any intensity

[4, 6, 11 -15, 17]. To do this, the amplitude A 0 of vector

pote ntial is normalized so that, it corresponds to n

photons in a unit of volume. In this case, the time -

averaged energy density of the electromagnetic wave

will be equal to the energy of n photons, according to

the expression (26):

1

8�〈+〉= �ℏ�, (26)

Using expressions (27)... (29):

〈⃗⃗〉= 〈⃗⃗⃗〉, (27)

⃗⃗= −1

�

�⃗⃗⃗

� , (28)

〈sin 2��〉= 1

2 , (29)

We get the value of the time -averaged energy

density of the electromagnetic wave for n photons,

according to the expression (30):

1

8�〈+〉= 02�2

2��2 . (30)

By equating two expressions (26) and 30), we gain

equality (31):

Classification of photons and multipole waves.

The states of the quantum systems under consideration

(atom and nucleus) are characterized by certain values

of the angular moment um J and parity P. Therefore, in

any process in which such quantum systems pass from

one state to another, the selection rules for moment and

parity must be taken into account. If an atom or nucleus

transfers from one state to another as a result of

absorp tion of electromagnetic radiation, then the laws

of conservation of angular momentum and parity

require that the absorbed radiation also have certain

values of J and P. Therefore, only such electromagnetic

radiation can participate in atomic and nuclear

processes, whose wave function ― is an eigenfunction

of the moment and parity operators [4, 6, 11 –15, 17].

The vector potential ⃗⃗⃗(⃗⃗,t)of plane

electromagnetic wave that does not have a definite

moment and parity is expanded in series of states with

certain values of angular momentum J and parity P in

multipole waves or multipoles [4, 6, 11 –15, 17].

Individual members of such an expansion will

correspond to electromagnetic waves (photons) with

certain values of the moment and parity, which can be

abso rbed by atoms and nuclei. Our task is to move from

the photon field with a certain momentum value

⃗⃗⃗= ℏ⃗⃗⃗ to the photon field with certain values of

angular momentum J and parity P.

The total angular momentum of a photon J takes

integer values, starting fro m unity: J = 1, 2, 3,...,N.

Impossibility for a photon J = 0 follows from the fact

that the electromagnetic wave is transverse and

therefore cannot be described by a spherically

symmetric wave function.

The usual definition of spin as the moment of

momentu m in the rest system is not applicable to the

photon, since such system does not exist for the photon.

Since photon is quantum of vector field, and any vector

field is suitable for describing particle with spin 1,

considering the properties of the vector f ield with

respect to the rotations of the coordinate system, it is

convenient to attribute the spin S = 1 to the photon.

From this it follows that the total moment of the photon

⃗ can be formally considered as the vector sum of spin

⃗⃗⃗ and orbital ⃗⃗⃗ mome nts ― ⃗= ⃗⃗⃗+⃗⃗⃗, and the orbital

moment L in this case is nothing more than the rank of

the spherical functions Y Lm that are part of the photon

wave function [4 – 12].

28 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20

Fig. 2. The spinal -orbital model functioning of final state electrical and magnetic transitions in quantum

photon system during the observation period of τ ≈ 10 -18 s, at zero back S = 0 and level counting,

determined by positive parity of JPi = 0+.

Photons with specific value of J are called 2J -polar

(dipole, if J = 1; quadrupole, if J = 2; octupole, if J = 3,

etc.). For given J, the quantum number of the orbital

momentum L can take three values: L = J + 1, J, J – 1

since the photon spin is S = 1.

The parity of the photon P f is determined by the

rule, according to the expression (35):

Рф = ( –1)L+1 . (35)

Therefore, photons with the same J can have

different values of orbital moment, and therefore parity.

Photons, for which the orbital moment coincides with

the full L = J, have a parity ( –1)J+1 and are called

magnetic M J-photons. Photons, for which L = J + l,

have parity ( –1)J and are called electric E J-photons.

Thus, these photons is electrical -type, unlike magnetic -

type photons, do not have certain orbital moment. Their

wave function is linear combination of states with

L = J + 1 [4 –17].

To describe electrical (E J) and magnetic (M J)

radiation sican us es electrical and magnetic potentials

and , which can be seen as E J and M J's own

radiation functions, having a full -moment projection

equal to M. Decomposition is flat electromagnetic

wave on multifields is decomposition by characteristic

functions and [4–17].

The simplest kind of decomposition is when a flat

electromagnetic wave is polarized in a circle and its

wave vector ⃗⃗⃗ is directed along the 0z axis [4–9, 11 –

17] . In this private case, decomposition in multi -fields

has a form (36):

, (36)

where ⃗⃗p ― is basic vectors of complex circular

coordinate system, with left circular polarization

responding to p = +1, and right p = –1. In accordance

with this, the projection of full moment of the photon

takes the values M = ± 1.

For most simple case, when initial state of

quantum system has zero spin S = 0 and positive parity

JPi = 0+, possible end states (J Pf ) systems, arising from

the absorption of dipoly and quadrupoly photons of

electric and magnetic type, shown in the fig. 2.

E1

E2

0+

0+

1-

2+

1+

M 1

0+

2-

M 2

0+

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 29

If the wave vector ⃗⃗⃗ has an arbitrary direction,

then decomposition in multifields [4 –9, 11 –17] is more

complex expression (37):

, (37)

where in p = +1, ― is rotation matrix,

which depends on angles ̂ and ̂, which determin e

direction of the wave vector ⃗⃗⃗ in the polar coordinate

system. In this case, full moment projection of the M

photon is takes all possible values: M = +J, +(J–1),... .

Practical application of new quantum

properties of photon. Recently, mass production of

quantum generators and sources of laser radiation, as

well as microprocessors on quantum beginnings, using

the concept of the presence and modification of its own

orbit al charge at the photon mass production of

powerful, high -performance and ultra -fast modern

computers. Using the idea of Russian scientists about

the presence of constantly changing in time and in the

space of its own orbital charge photon formed a

fundame ntal basis in the creation of a super -powerful

(up to 1 MW) and long -range combat laser (up to 220

km), used in limited contingent of Russian military and

space forces in Syria. The speed transmission of

narrow -coherent beam photons modulated bit -

informati on is 10 10 times greater than when

transmitting similar digital information using electrons

as the main carriers of charge and vectors of

information from the source (transmitter) to its users

(receiver).

In this regard, it should be noted that the combat

laser mounted on the destroyers "Ross" and "Donald

Cook" of the USA Navy have capacity of up to 100 kW

with an effective range hitting the target and the enemy

at distance of up to 30 km. Moreover, if on American

warships the laser installation works at fu ll capacity,

the ship or the combat vehicle stops and do not have the

ability to go its own way, because there is not enough

necessary design power, thus presenting of itself an

excellent stationary target for torpedo -missile attacks of

the enemy from unde rwater nuclear -powered ships or

surface ships, from coastal and onshore mobile, anti -

aircraft missile systems, type “S -400 Triumph”, as well

as from the air, using fighter -bombers. The Russian

combat laser consists of one working, combat reactor,

one backu p reactor and one reactor for the necessary

initial -accelerating swap. The first two (combat)

reactors operate on fast neutrons, using their own

orbital charge at narrowly directed, coherent beam of

photons, flying at detected target or enemy, and third

sw ap reactor functions on the slow (thermal) neutrons.

The Russian combat laser works completely

autonomously, regardless of operation power plant of

the warship. Which is great achievement of Russian

military engineering thought. The Russian laser

installa tion has three autonomous, independent cooling

levels working body – quantum auto generator

continuous and pulse type of photon beam generation

from output of combat laser.

Conclusions:

1. Newer physical properties of photon, at the

atomic -molecular level int eraction of radiation and

absorption of photons when electrons move from

external, remote orbits atoms of matter to lower orbit of

rotation around the nucleus of atoms have been

revealed.

2. Experienced way discovered fast -changing in

time and space, own orbi tal negative and positive

photon charges.

3. Photon ― is quasi -neutral elementary particle

in nature, which has rapidly changing charge in time

and space from " -1e" – negative charge, numerically

equal to the charge of the elementary electron and up to

the "+1e" – positive charge, numerically equal to the

charge elementary positron as an electron antiparticle.

4. The existence of positive or negative self -

charge of photon is equal to τ ≈ 0,2·10 -18 s, when the

amount of positive charge is equal to Q+ = +0,8e…+1e

and negative charge is equal to Q- = -0,8e… -1e.

5. The mass of the photon will be for each

frequency, in the range in question, its own, separate,

different from each other.

6. The intensity, inverity, power and strength of

laser radiation are highly dependent on the range

working frequencies of input signal.

7. In photon there is only so -called relativistic

mass, different from zero, as its actual (real) mass, at

rest is zero m f0 = 0.

8. The speed of the photon at rest is absent from

vf0 = 0, as the photon moves at the speed of light as

transord electromagnetic wave, in certain environment.

9. Transshift, monochromatic, electromagnetic

wave, passing through its zero value, is characterized

by the fact that at this point value charge of the photon

begins to decr ease exponentially from its maximum

value 1+= 1+= +1�, up to zero 2+= 0+= +0�,

when the photon itself almost loses its speed, it stops,

has almost zero peace mass, and the photon, at this

point in time, also lacks energy and momentum of

movement.

10. For entire period Т = 2 π, the photon is energy -

neutral and its full charge ф2�= 0.

11. Th e unsteady theory the perturbation of

quantum system in is considered presence of unsteady

external field. The indignation V+(⃗⃗,t) leads to the fact,

that quantum system is loses energy ħω by means

forced eletion: Ef = E i – ħω. Under the influence of

perturbation V–(⃗⃗,t), the system is acquires the energy

ħω and Ef = E i + ħ ω.

12. The electromagnetic field of photon radiation

is represented in the classical form of flat transverse

30 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20

(�� ⃗⃗⃗= 0) monochromatic electromagnetic wave. An

electromagnetic wave is consisting of photons, cannot

have any intensity.

13. The quantum transitions is occur in states that

have the energy E f = E i + ħω and density ρf(Ef) (Ei and

Ef ― is own values the operator's H 0, that meet their

own functions Ψ i and Ψ f).

14. The vector potential ⃗⃗⃗(⃗⃗,t) of flat

electromagnetic wave, which does not have certain

moment and parity, decomposes into a row by state

with certain values of the moment J and of the number

P movement on multi -floor waves or multipoles.

Individual members of this decomposition will respond

to electromagnetic waves (photons) with certain

moments and parity values that can be absorbed by

atoms and nuclei of matter.

15. Using the idea of Russian scientists on the

presence of constant ly changing in time and in the

space of its own orbital charge photon formed

fundamental basis in the creation of super -powerful (up

to 1 MW) and long -acting combat laser (up to 220 km)

used in limited contingent of Russian military and

space forces in Syr ia.

16. The speed at which narrow -coherent beam of

photons is transmitted to modulated bit -information is

10 10 times greater than when transmitting similar digital

information using electrons as the main charge carriers

and vectors of information from the sour ce (

transmitter) to its users (receiver).

Bibliographic links

1. Fedorov B.F. Lasers. The basics of the device

and application. M.: DOSAAF. 1988. 192 p.

2. Abramov A.I., Ivanov B.I., et al. The main

trends in the development of laser light sensors are. //

Kontinant, № 3, 2015. P. 19 –26.

3. Lazarev L.P. Optico -electronic guidance

devices. M.: Mechanical engineering, 1989. 512 p.

4. Ayrapetyan V.S., Ushakov O.K. Physics

lasers. Novosibirsk: S SGA. 2012. 134 p.

5. Leonovich V.N. Photon quantum. Information

to reflect. I nternet,

http://www.proza.ru/avtor/vleonovich of the site

proza.ru, 2017. 14 p.

6. Prokhorov A.M., et al. Physical encyclopedic

dictionary. Edited by A.M. Prokhorov. M.: Soviet

Encyclopedia, 1983. 928 p.

7. Leonovich V.N. Concept the physical model

of quantum gr avity. Internet,

http://www.proza.ru/2011/01/12/1571 of the site

proza.ru, 2011. 44 p.

8. Orayevsky A.N. Superlight waves in

amplifying environments. // Successes of physical

sciences. M.: FIAN, T. 168, № 12, 1998. P. 1311 –1321.

9. Leonovich V.N. Photon impulse, photon

engine and philosophy. Internet,

http://www.sciteclibrary.ru/rus/catalog/pages/13311.ht

ml.

10. Kosciuszko V.E. Experimental error of P.N.

Lebedev ― is the reason for the false conclusion that

he discovered the pressure of light. // Reports to the

Russian physical society, Encyclopedia of Russian

Thought. M.: Public Use, T. 16, Part -3, 2012. P. 34.

11. Etkin V.A. Energy Dynamics (synthesis

theories of energy transfer and transformation). St.

Petersburg: Science, 2008, 409 p.

12. Neganov V.A., Osipov O.V., R ayevsky S.B.,

Yarovoy G.P. Electrodynamics and radio wave

distribution. // Edited by V.A. Neganov and S.B.

Rayevsky. M.: Radio engineering. 2009. 744 p.

13. Prokhorov A.M., et al. Reference to lasers. //

Edited by A.M. Prokhorov; English translation, with

cha nges and additions, T. 1, 2. M.: Soviet radio, 1978.

400 p.

14. Svelto O. Laser Principles. // Translated from

English by M.: World, 1990. 558 p.

15. Maitland A., Dan M. Introduction to Laser

Physics. // English translation, M.: Science, 1978, 407

p.

16. Snoll S.E. Co smophysical factors in random

processes. // Svenska fysikarkivat, Stockholm

(Sweden), 2009. 388 p.

17. Feynman Richard, Leighton Robert, Sands

Matthew. Feynman lectures on physics. Volume 8, 9 -

quantum mechanics, M.: World, 1966. 528 p.

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 31

Fig. 1. Spinal -orbital model of the existence of photon and change in its own orbital charge during

the observation period of τ = 2·10 -18 s.

Fig. 1. Spinal -orbital model of the existence of photon and change in its own orbital charge during

the ob servation period of τ = 2·10 -18 s.

x+

+

+

z+ y+

0

Q 1+ = +0,25e

Q 1max + = +1e

L2- = -1

L1+ = +1

Q 2+ = +0,5e

Q 1+ = +0,5e

Q 3min -= -1e

Q 0+ = Q 0- = ± 0e

Q 4-= -0,5e

Q 3-= -0,5e

z-

x-

y-

L0+ = L 0- = 0

Q 3- = -0,25e

Q 2+ = +0,25e

Q 1+ = +0,75e

Q 1+ = +0,75e

Q 4- = -0,25e

Q 3- = -0,75e

Q 4- = -0,75e

+1e

τ , 10 -18 с

Q +

Q -

-1e

+0,5e

-0,5e

1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с τ , 10 -18 с 1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с

32 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20

Fig. 2. The spinal -orbital model functioning of final state electrical and magnetic transitions in quantum photon

system during the observation period of τ ≈ 10 -18 s, at zero back S = 0 and level counting, determined b y

positive parity of JPi = 0+.

О НАЛИЧИИ ФОТОННОГО ИЗЛУЧЕНИЯ В ОБЪЕМЕ М ЕТАЛЛОВ И ИХ СПЛАВОВ

Кошман Валентин Семенович

канд. техн. наук, доцент,

Пермский государственный аграрно -технологический университет,

г. Пермь , Россия

ON THE PRESENCE OF P HOTON RADIATION IN T HE VOLUME OF METALS AND THEIR

ALLOYS

Valentin Koshman,

Cand. tech. sciences, associate professor

Perm State Agrarian and Technological University, Perm, Russia

Аннотация . Автор обращает внимание на решение Р. Бермана: повышение точности измерения

теплопроводности λ на основе закона Фурье в его записи для твердого тела как сплошной среды

достижимо при учете нелинейности вида = ��3, где в простейшем эксперименте �= ����� в

расширенном интервале температур ∆�. В данной связи высказано предположение и дано обоснование

тому, что в объеме металла при создании градиента температуры транспорт теплоты, реализуемый

электронам и проводимости, сопровождается переносом теплоты фотонным излучением.

Abstract. The author draws attention to the Berman solution: improving of the accuracy of measuring thermal

conductivity based on Fourier's law in its tractability for a solid as a cont inuous medium is achievable when taking

into account the nonlinearity of λ=bT , where in the simplest experiment b=const in the extended temperature range

ΔT . Thereby it was suggested and proved that in the volume of the metal during the creation of the te mperature

gradient, the heat transport realized by conductivity electrons is accompanied by heat transfer by photon emission.

Ключевые слова: твердые тела, металлы, теплопроводность, закон Стефана – Больцмана, внутреннее

фотонное излучение.

Keywords: soli ds, metals, thermal conductivity, Stefan – Boltzmann law, internal photon radiation.

E1

E2

0+

0+

1-

2+

1+

M 1

0+

2-

M 2

0+

ФИЗИКО -МАТЕМАТИЧЕСКИ Е НАУКИ

UDC 539.122.2

NEW LOOK AND APPROAC H TO PHYSICAL AND QU ANTUM PROPERTIES OF PHOTON

Grigoryev -Friedman S.N.

(Nizhny Novgorod research radiophysical institute

at Nizhny Novgorod state university by N.I. Lobachevsky,

Nizhny Novgorod)

Abstarct . New physical properties of photon, as quasi -neutral elementary particle, have been revealed at the

atomic -molecular level of radiation interaction and photon absorption when electrons move from external, remote

orbits of atoms matter to lower orbit rotation around the nucleus of atoms. Experienced way found fast -changing

in time and space, its own orbital negative and positi ve charges photon. The use of the idea of Russian scientists

on the presence of constantly changing in time and space of its own orbital charge photon in the creation of super -

powerful and long -range combat laser is considered.

Keywords: photon, electron; positron; calibration boson; fermion; synchrophasotron; hadron collider; laser;

spin; intrinsic orbital moment of photon; inertia orbital rotation of photon; intrinsic orbital charge of photon;

modulated laser beam; electromagnetic wave; laser radiation; w avelength; signal frequency; quantum; coherence

mass of photon; photon speed; period; photon momentum; photon energy; Hamilton operator; disturbance

operator; Wendell Farry theorem; Niels Bohr`s principle of complementarity; Heisenberg uncertainty.

Introduction. The main problems of quantum

mechanics and elementary particles in the domestic

literature [1 –13] are devoted to quite [14 –17] extensive

material. In this regard, it should be noted that all

previous studies were based only on the classical,

academic level of the development of modern quantum

theory of radiation, absorption, reflection and

distribution of photons, in representation of an outdated

point view that the photon is only a flat, transboundary

electromagne tic wave, in optical range, propagating in

open space at speed of light. At same time, domestic

and foreign scientists in this field of knowledge,

accumulated extensive information on basis of

laboratory -experimental research on nature and

mechanism of beh avior of known to science elementary

particles in open space and interaction with physical

substance, taking into account distribution of

electromagnetic and gravitational fields, in particular,

revealed newer physical properties of the photon, at

atomic -molecular level of interaction of radiation and

absorption of photons electrons move from the outer,

remote orbit of atoms matter to lower rotation orbit

around the nucleus of atoms.

In light of subsequent theoretical studies and their

experimental evidence at the experimental test site, the

Hadroon Collider of the Los -Alamos National

Laboratory of the Energy Department USA in interval

of time, accessible for detection, fixation and study the

quantum nature of existence, rapidly changing in time

and space, o wn orbital negative and positive charge of

photon, like electron and its antiparticles are positron.

If in earlier stages of study the photon was studied

in Wilson -Skobeltsyn's cell, Geiger -Mueller's counter,

Glaser's bubble chamber, Cherenkov's counter, i n the

form of track trajectories and the fixation of all this on

the photo emulsion film, when time of observation

experiments themselves was determined in interval of τ

= 1·(10 -12…10 -15) s. Whereas, when two counter

streams of photons interact, in the Had ron's Collider,

the time of observation physical processes is even more

reduced to interval of τ = 1·(10 -18…10 -20) s. In this case,

the presence of rapidly changing orbital charge in

photons should be explained not only by influence of

variable electromagn etic fields, in particular strong

electric field, but also by increasing influence of

general gravitational field during the interaction of

physical matter with radiating, narrow -coherent beam

of photons, its partial absorption and reflection, with

the qua ntum transition of the electron from one level to

another around the nucleus of the atom [4 –9, 11 –17].

If the particle accelerator in the Moscows of

Serpukhov -city and the synchrophazotron at the

experimental test site at the United Institute of Nuclear

Re search in the Moscows of Dubna -city was used, the

principle of interaction flow elementary particles was

used, like an electron, positron, proton, neutron,

photon, etc. in accelerating electromagnetic field with

the material of physical substance, the Amer ican

Hadron Collider Los -Alamos National Laboratory used

the principle of interaction between two counter -

accelerating streams of elementary particles, for

example, beams of photons with each other, also in

accelerating electromagnetic field, but at same t ime

power of physical interaction of oncoming accelerated

streams of particles (photons) will be about 2.5 times

greater than in the case of Serpukhov's or Dubna

Russian particle accelerator designs, as the basis of rig

and general technology in modern nuc lear research on

the peaceful use of released huge energy in the passage

of controlled thermonuclear reactions of the fission

uranium isotopes U92235 and U92238 , in the enrichment of

plutonium isotopes Pu 94239 in modern nuclear reactors.

The theoretical ba sis on classical view of the

nature photon particle. At the end of 2019 years,

scientists from Los -Alamos National Laboratory ―

Thomas and Advard Lee Yung, conducted

synhrophazotron and particle accelerator, such as the

Hadron's Collider, at one of state -of-art test sites with

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 23

synchrophazotron and accelerator of elementary

particles, such as Hadronno collider, number of

experiments and visual physical experiments in the

field of detection and fixation of one's own, constantly

changing in time and space, orb ital charge in quasi -

neutral elementary particle of the photon.

Photons accelerate, in internal structure of

inverting crystal, to very large values of their kinetic

energy, according to quantum theory and formula (1):

(1)

where m ф ― is the relativistic mass of the photon;

с = 3·10 8 м/сек ― is the speed of light in free (air)

space.

Often applied value — given constant M. Planck,

described by the expression (2):

ħ= h

2π= const . (2)

On other hand, an electron moving from the u pper,

remote level of its orbit to lower electron emits a

photon. At same time there is discrete radiation of

energy by narrowly directed beam of photons, so -called

portions of the quant, according to the formula M.

Planck (3):

(3)

where h = 6,626070040(81)·10 -34 Joule ·s

(because ħ = 1,054571800(13)·10 -34 Joule ·s) ― is

constant M. Planck; MHz ― is cyclical (angular)

input frequency; T, s ― is wave fluctuation period; ,

MHz ― is frequ ency of input.

Equating both energy values of emitting photon

get (4):

(4)

where, exact relativistic value of the mass photon,

when it moves in open airspace or vacuum is

determined from expression (4), according to the

formula (5):

(5)

From the course of classical electrodynamics it is

known that the phase speed of the signal wave in

conventional optically denser environment is

determined through the speed of light, accord ing to the

expression (6):

, (6)

where

― is phase speed of flat, monochromatic,

electromagnetic wave in optically dense environment

(gas, fluids, solid bodies); и

― is relative dielectric and magnetic permeability of

optically dense environment; и ― is

relative dielectric and magnetic permeability of free

airspace (vacuum) respec tively.

From where we get the speed of flat,

monochromatic, electromagnetic wave in optically

dense environment, according to the expression (7):

. (7)

Finally, the exact relativistic mass value of the

photon, when it is moves in optically dense

environment is determined from expression (7),

according to the formula (8):

(8)

It should be noted that the mass of electron itself

is quasi -static, not dependent on frequency of signal at

the entrance, whereas the photon mass depends entirely

on frequency of input signal, that is, the mass of photon

will be for each frequency, its range, separate, different

from each other. Consequently, the intensity, inverity,

power and strength of laser radiation are highly

depe ndent on range working frequencies of input

signal.

It is necessary to remember that actual (real) mass

of the photon, at rest is zero m ф0 = 0, that is, the photon

has only so -called relativistic mass, different from zero.

The same is true of rate photon, which is absent at rest,

and exists only when the photon moves at the speed of

light as transcurrent electromagnetic wave, in certain

environment.

It should also be taken into account that photon's

own spin is equal to: S ph = 1ħ. The spirality of the

photo n is equal to: H ph = ±1. The number of spin states

of the photon is equal to: Q Sph = 2. The charging parity

of the photon is negative ― Chi ph = -1.

Total photon charge is always zero for a full period

of time T = 2π: ∑ 2� ф = 1++2++3−+4−=

1++0++1−+0−= +1�+0−1�−0= 0.

According to the fig. 1, for first quarter of his period

0≤ �1≤ �

2 in fact, the charge of quasi -neutral particle

begins under exponential law enveloping function ,2c m E ф ф = , = =h Eф , . 2 = = = h c m E ф ф .2 2 . c c

h mф

= =

a a a a a a a a

c

=

=

= = 0 0

0 0 0 0

1

1 1 1 1 ( ) с f a a

a

a =

,

1

;1

0

0 1 0 a 1 0 a 1 0 1 0 a a с = . 2 .

a a фm =

24 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20

(describing the vector potential of the photon:

⃗�(�⃗,�)= 0(�⃗)∙�−(�⋅⃗⃗⃗⃗�⃗−�∙)∙�� (�⋅�

ℓ∙�⃗), where

the radius -vector is defined as �⃗= �(�,�,�)) increase

1+> 0+= +0�. At the same time, the charge of the

photon has its maximum positive value, equal to the

charge of the position (antiparticles of the electron, with

the ba ck of the ��+= 1

2ℏ: 1+= 1+= +1�, at its point

at �1� = �

2. It should be noted that at this point, the

photon's own orbital rotation point around its axis is:

L1+ = +1. For the next, the second quarter of its period,

at the same time as �

2 ≤ �2≤ �, value of the photon

charge begins to decrease exponentially from its

maximum value of 1+= 1+= +1� to zero,

2+= 0+= +0�, that is, transboundary,

monochromatic, electromagnetic wave passes through

its first zero value, when the photon itself almost loses

its speed, stops, has almost its zero mass of rest, while

the photon, at this point in time, also lacks energy and

momentum of movement. According to the fig. 1, at

this point, the photon's own orbital rotation point

relative to its axis is: L 0+ = L 0- = 0. Slung through the

zero point, the charge of the photon begins to increase

again on the module, also by exponential law from zero

to 3−= 0−= −0� to 3−= 1−= −1� for the

period: �≤ �2≤ 3�

2. At the same time, the charge of

the photon has its maximum negative value, equal to

the charge of the electron (with the spine ��−= 1

2ℏ):

3−= 1−= −1�, the subsequent third quarter the

period of electromagnetic wave, at �3�� = 3�

2.

It is worth noting that at this point the own orbital

moment of rotation the photon around its axis is equal:

L2- = -1. After that, for the next quarter of its period, at

rate of 3�

2 ≤ �4≤ 2�, the value of the photon charge

on the module begins to decrease exponentially from its

maximum negative value to 3−= 1−= −1�, to zero

4−= 0−= −0�, that is transboundary,

monochromatic, electromagnetic wave passes through

its second zero value, when the photon also again loses

its speed, stops, has almost its zero mass of rest, while

the photon also, at this point in time, there is no energy

and momentum of movement.

Due to the law maintaining charging parity and its

multiplier, in electromagnetic phenomena it is

impossible to turn an even number of photons into odd

and vice versa, based on the theorem of W. Farry, as

the photon refers to the so -called calibration boson,

where it is involved in electromagnetic and

gravitational interaction with matter in nature.

Moreover, part of its active time photon spends as

virtual particle ― vector meson or as virtual pair ―

Hadron -antiadron. All atom s is consist in nature of

protons and neutrons, that is called Hadrons.

Fig. 1. Spinal -orbital model of the existence of photon and change in its own orbital charge during the

observation period of τ = 2·10 -18 s.

x+

+

+

z+ y+

0

Q 1+ = +0,25e

Q 1max + = +1e

L2- = -1

L1+ = +1

Q 2+ = +0,5e

Q 1+ = +0,5e

Q 3min -= -1e

Q 0+ = Q 0- = ± 0e

Q 4-= -0,5e

Q 3-= -0,5e

z-

x-

y-

L0+ = L 0- = 0

Q 3- = -0,25e

Q 2+ = +0,25e

Q 1+ = +0,75e

Q 1+ = +0,75e

Q 4- = -0,25e

Q 3- = -0,75e

Q 4- = -0,75e

+1e

τ , 10 -18 с

Q +

Q -

-1e

+0,5e

-0,5e

1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с τ , 10 -18 с 1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 25

It should be emphasized that the phase transition

in the change of the photon, for example, from the state

of Q 1max + = +1e, equal to the charge of the positron, to

Q3min -= -1e, equal to the elementary charge of the

electron, in its principle is impossible, because of

violation at least, accepted in quantum mechanics, the

principle of additionalness N. Bohr [5 -11]. There are

possible transitions from the state of Q 1max + = +1e to the

state of Q 0+ = + 0e, and back ― to the state of

(Q 1max + = +1e) ↔ (Q 0+ = + 0e), as well as from the state

of Q 3min - = -1e, to the state of Q 0- = - 0e, and back ― to

the state of (Q 3min - = -1e) ↔ (Q 0- = - 0e). The fact that

own orbital moments rotation of the photon around its

axis are mutually opposite, due to the fact that in

quantum mechanics for positive direction rotation of its

own orbital moment rotation of the photon relative to

its axis the direction is counterclockwise, and it is equal

to:

L1+ = J 1·ω = +1. If the direction rotation of the own

orbit al moment rotation of the photon relative to its axis

will be clockwise, it will be considered negative and,

therefore, its value in this case is equal to

L2- = J 2·ω = -1. And J 1 = - J2 represent the opposite

directed inertia of the rotation of the photon itself

relative to the orbital axis of rotation, at different

transitions. For the entire minimum period T min = 2 π is

characterized by change in its charge from "+1" to " -

1e", while pas sing through its characteristic zero point

"± 0e" where the electrical charge in it is also zero.

The total time changing the photon's own charge

is equal to an average of τ ≈ 2·10 -18 s. The lifetime of

positive or negative self -charge of photon is equal t o

τ ≈ 0,2·10 -18 s, when amount of positive charge is equal

to Q + = +0,8e…+1e and negative charge is equal to

Q- = -0,8e… -1e.

Photon is kind of electromagnetic dipole,

constantly changing in time and space, thus obeying the

quantum principle of Heisenberg's uncertainty (9):

(∆�∙∆�)≥ ℏ

2, (9)

By measuring the magnitude of average quadratic

deviation of the coordinates Δx and the medium -square

deviation of the pulse Δp, and at same time, having

known speed of light, the photon allows unlimited

accu racy of measurement its coordinates in time and

space, and therefore its changing orbital charge.

When reflecting from the mirror editor or when

passing environments with density gradient, that is, in

the phenomenon of aberration, an experimental way is

found to change direction of the photon [5]. In all these

cases, photons are not absorbed by substance, and are

clearly not included with the carriers of the substance

in the contact interaction, that is, in the format of

elementary particles of the environm ent. However,

there is change in direction and polarization of the

photon [7]. This behavior of photon, like fermions -

particles, is possible only under the influence of

constant electric fields formed by electrons and protons

of the environment. Analysis o f many experiments

indicates that effective factor in these interactions is not

only the size of the field, but also the gradient,

therefore, the photon is an excellent quantum detector

the gradient of electric field [9].

Unsteady theory of perturbations. Let H 0 ― be

so-called calm operator, representing time -dependent

Hamiltonian quantum system in absence of external

electric and magnetic fields. To do this, Schroedinger's

equation allows for its exact solution. Then full

Hamiltonian H of this system, in the presence of

unsteady external field [8, 11, 12 –17] , has classic look

(10):

H = H 0 + V( ⃗⃗,t), (10)

where V( ⃗⃗,t) ― is an operator of perturbation,

describing the interaction of external electro -magnetic

field with the quantum system. The theory of

perturbations is used in following condition (11):

V( ⃗⃗,t) << H0. (11)

Let the quantum system be in the field of falling,

monochromatic electromagnetic wave, the

characteristics of which periodically change over time

with frequency ω. Then the V( ⃗⃗,t) perturbation operator

will also change periodically over time with the same

frequency ω, hence it can be recorded as (12):

(⃗⃗,�)= 2⋎(⃗⃗)cos �� =⋎(⃗⃗)�� +⋎(⃗⃗)�−� . (12)

Enter the designation ±(⃗⃗,�)=⋎(⃗⃗)�±� , then

the V( ⃗⃗,t) perturbation operator takes following look

(13):

(⃗⃗,�)= +(⃗⃗,�)+−(⃗⃗,�). (13)

In the first order, time -dependent perturbation

theory, the probability is moving "w" of the quantum

system's into unit of time from the state described by

wave function Ψ i to the state described by the wave

function Ψ f (Ψ i and Ψ f ― is own functions the

operator's H 0) under the influence of perturbation, the

expression (14) is set:

(14)

And the transitions take place in states that have

the energy of E f = E i + ħω and density ρf(Ef) (Ei and

Ef ― is own values operator's H 0, which correspond to

their own functions Ψ i and Ψ f).

26 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20

The indignation of V +(⃗⃗,t) leads to the fact that the

quantum system is loses energy ħ ω by means of is

forced eletion: E f = E i – ħω. Under the influence of

pert urbation V –(⃗⃗,t), the system is acquires the energy

ħω and E f = E i + ħ ω. We will consider only the last case

corresponding to the absorption of energy of

electromagnetic field, is leaving in the operator of

perturbation V( ⃗⃗,t) only second formulation V –(⃗⃗,t),

which is depends on the time as �−� .

A quantum system in field of flat

electromagnetic wave. Consider the case when a flat

monochromatic electromagnetic wave falls on the

quantum system. Then the full Hamiltonian H particle

system and electromagnetic field [4, 6, 11 –17] has this

view (15):

H = H 0 + H el + V( ⃗⃗,t), (15)

where H0― is the Hamiltonian system in absence

of external electric and magnetic fields , H el ― is the

Hamiltonian electromagnetic field and V( ⃗⃗,t) ― is the

Hamiltonian interaction of the system with the

electromagnetic field, which is the operator of the

perturbation.

In the future, the system will be understood by the

totality of А⃗⃗⃗ non -relitivist particles. Then we have an

expression (16):

(16)

where pa и ma ― is pulse operator and system

particle mass, W ab ― is energy interaction "a" and "b"

particle. H el ― is energy of electromagnetic field. The

classic expression for the energy of the electromagnetic

field [11, 12] takes the form (17):

��= 1

8�∫(⃗⃗2+⃗⃗⃗2)������ = 1

8�∫(⃗⃗2+⃗⃗⃗2)�⃗ , ( 17)

where ⃗⃗⃗ и ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ― is the tension electric and

magnetic fields.

If the field is quantum and is a set of n photons of

energy ℏ�, then the energy of such electromagnetic

field is determined by expression (18):

��= �ℏ�. (18)

The expression for the operator V( ⃗⃗,t) is a type of

spine -free particle (19):

,

(19)

where еa ― is electrical charges of particle

system, ⃗⃗⃗ ― is the vector potential of the electro -

magnetic wave at the point, where is located the "a"

particle.

We specify this expression for the case when the

system is absorbs falling on it the flat monochromatic

electromagnetic wave. The vector potential ⃗⃗⃗ of such

wave [11, 12] can be recorded in the form (20):

⃗⃗⃗(⃗⃗,�)= 20cos (⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗−�� )= 0�(⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗−�)+0�−(⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗−�) (20 )

where ⃗⃗⃗ ― is wave vector, the direction of which

determines the direction of the wave (where

⃗⃗⃗=

∙⃗⃗⃗, and ⃗⃗⃗ ― is single vector in the direction of

⃗⃗⃗), and ⃗⃗ ― is single vector of radiation polarization.

The vector potential А⃗⃗⃗ must satisfy the condition

(21):

�� ⃗⃗⃗= 0. (21)

For flat, transverse, electromagnetic wave,

polarized perpendicular to the direction of distribution,

the condition (21) is tantamount to requirement (22):

(⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)= 0, (22)

Substituting in the formula (19) for V( ⃗⃗,t) is only

the first member of expression (20) for the vector

potential of a flat wave, which has a negative frequency

and, is therefore responsible for the absorption of

radiation, get (23):

. (23)

And from the material equation (24):

⃗⃗⃗0= A0⃗⃗. (24)

For the outrage operator v( ⃗⃗) we end up with an

expression (25):

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 27

.

(25)

A classic representation of radiation and photons.

It was stated above that the electromagnetic field of

photon radiation is represented in the classical form of

flat transverse ( ⃗⃗⃗= ) monochromatic

electromagnetic wave (21). From the course of

quantum mechanics it is known that an electromagnetic

wave, consisting of photons, cannot have any intensity

[4, 6, 11 -15, 17]. To do this, the amplitude A 0 of vector

pote ntial is normalized so that, it corresponds to n

photons in a unit of volume. In this case, the time -

averaged energy density of the electromagnetic wave

will be equal to the energy of n photons, according to

the expression (26):

1

8�〈+〉= �ℏ�, (26)

Using expressions (27)... (29):

〈⃗⃗〉= 〈⃗⃗⃗〉, (27)

⃗⃗= −1

�

�⃗⃗⃗

� , (28)

〈sin 2��〉= 1

2 , (29)

We get the value of the time -averaged energy

density of the electromagnetic wave for n photons,

according to the expression (30):

1

8�〈+〉= 02�2

2��2 . (30)

By equating two expressions (26) and 30), we gain

equality (31):

Classification of photons and multipole waves.

The states of the quantum systems under consideration

(atom and nucleus) are characterized by certain values

of the angular moment um J and parity P. Therefore, in

any process in which such quantum systems pass from

one state to another, the selection rules for moment and

parity must be taken into account. If an atom or nucleus

transfers from one state to another as a result of

absorp tion of electromagnetic radiation, then the laws

of conservation of angular momentum and parity

require that the absorbed radiation also have certain

values of J and P. Therefore, only such electromagnetic

radiation can participate in atomic and nuclear

processes, whose wave function ― is an eigenfunction

of the moment and parity operators [4, 6, 11 –15, 17].

The vector potential ⃗⃗⃗(⃗⃗,t)of plane

electromagnetic wave that does not have a definite

moment and parity is expanded in series of states with

certain values of angular momentum J and parity P in

multipole waves or multipoles [4, 6, 11 –15, 17].

Individual members of such an expansion will

correspond to electromagnetic waves (photons) with

certain values of the moment and parity, which can be

abso rbed by atoms and nuclei. Our task is to move from

the photon field with a certain momentum value

⃗⃗⃗= ℏ⃗⃗⃗ to the photon field with certain values of

angular momentum J and parity P.

The total angular momentum of a photon J takes

integer values, starting fro m unity: J = 1, 2, 3,...,N.

Impossibility for a photon J = 0 follows from the fact

that the electromagnetic wave is transverse and

therefore cannot be described by a spherically

symmetric wave function.

The usual definition of spin as the moment of

momentu m in the rest system is not applicable to the

photon, since such system does not exist for the photon.

Since photon is quantum of vector field, and any vector

field is suitable for describing particle with spin 1,

considering the properties of the vector f ield with

respect to the rotations of the coordinate system, it is

convenient to attribute the spin S = 1 to the photon.

From this it follows that the total moment of the photon

⃗ can be formally considered as the vector sum of spin

⃗⃗⃗ and orbital ⃗⃗⃗ mome nts ― ⃗= ⃗⃗⃗+⃗⃗⃗, and the orbital

moment L in this case is nothing more than the rank of

the spherical functions Y Lm that are part of the photon

wave function [4 – 12].

28 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20

Fig. 2. The spinal -orbital model functioning of final state electrical and magnetic transitions in quantum

photon system during the observation period of τ ≈ 10 -18 s, at zero back S = 0 and level counting,

determined by positive parity of JPi = 0+.

Photons with specific value of J are called 2J -polar

(dipole, if J = 1; quadrupole, if J = 2; octupole, if J = 3,

etc.). For given J, the quantum number of the orbital

momentum L can take three values: L = J + 1, J, J – 1

since the photon spin is S = 1.

The parity of the photon P f is determined by the

rule, according to the expression (35):

Рф = ( –1)L+1 . (35)

Therefore, photons with the same J can have

different values of orbital moment, and therefore parity.

Photons, for which the orbital moment coincides with

the full L = J, have a parity ( –1)J+1 and are called

magnetic M J-photons. Photons, for which L = J + l,

have parity ( –1)J and are called electric E J-photons.

Thus, these photons is electrical -type, unlike magnetic -

type photons, do not have certain orbital moment. Their

wave function is linear combination of states with

L = J + 1 [4 –17].

To describe electrical (E J) and magnetic (M J)

radiation sican us es electrical and magnetic potentials

and , which can be seen as E J and M J's own

radiation functions, having a full -moment projection

equal to M. Decomposition is flat electromagnetic

wave on multifields is decomposition by characteristic

functions and [4–17].

The simplest kind of decomposition is when a flat

electromagnetic wave is polarized in a circle and its

wave vector ⃗⃗⃗ is directed along the 0z axis [4–9, 11 –

17] . In this private case, decomposition in multi -fields

has a form (36):

, (36)

where ⃗⃗p ― is basic vectors of complex circular

coordinate system, with left circular polarization

responding to p = +1, and right p = –1. In accordance

with this, the projection of full moment of the photon

takes the values M = ± 1.

For most simple case, when initial state of

quantum system has zero spin S = 0 and positive parity

JPi = 0+, possible end states (J Pf ) systems, arising from

the absorption of dipoly and quadrupoly photons of

electric and magnetic type, shown in the fig. 2.

E1

E2

0+

0+

1-

2+

1+

M 1

0+

2-

M 2

0+

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 29

If the wave vector ⃗⃗⃗ has an arbitrary direction,

then decomposition in multifields [4 –9, 11 –17] is more

complex expression (37):

, (37)

where in p = +1, ― is rotation matrix,

which depends on angles ̂ and ̂, which determin e

direction of the wave vector ⃗⃗⃗ in the polar coordinate

system. In this case, full moment projection of the M

photon is takes all possible values: M = +J, +(J–1),... .

Practical application of new quantum

properties of photon. Recently, mass production of

quantum generators and sources of laser radiation, as

well as microprocessors on quantum beginnings, using

the concept of the presence and modification of its own

orbit al charge at the photon mass production of

powerful, high -performance and ultra -fast modern

computers. Using the idea of Russian scientists about

the presence of constantly changing in time and in the

space of its own orbital charge photon formed a

fundame ntal basis in the creation of a super -powerful

(up to 1 MW) and long -range combat laser (up to 220

km), used in limited contingent of Russian military and

space forces in Syria. The speed transmission of

narrow -coherent beam photons modulated bit -

informati on is 10 10 times greater than when

transmitting similar digital information using electrons

as the main carriers of charge and vectors of

information from the source (transmitter) to its users

(receiver).

In this regard, it should be noted that the combat

laser mounted on the destroyers "Ross" and "Donald

Cook" of the USA Navy have capacity of up to 100 kW

with an effective range hitting the target and the enemy

at distance of up to 30 km. Moreover, if on American

warships the laser installation works at fu ll capacity,

the ship or the combat vehicle stops and do not have the

ability to go its own way, because there is not enough

necessary design power, thus presenting of itself an

excellent stationary target for torpedo -missile attacks of

the enemy from unde rwater nuclear -powered ships or

surface ships, from coastal and onshore mobile, anti -

aircraft missile systems, type “S -400 Triumph”, as well

as from the air, using fighter -bombers. The Russian

combat laser consists of one working, combat reactor,

one backu p reactor and one reactor for the necessary

initial -accelerating swap. The first two (combat)

reactors operate on fast neutrons, using their own

orbital charge at narrowly directed, coherent beam of

photons, flying at detected target or enemy, and third

sw ap reactor functions on the slow (thermal) neutrons.

The Russian combat laser works completely

autonomously, regardless of operation power plant of

the warship. Which is great achievement of Russian

military engineering thought. The Russian laser

installa tion has three autonomous, independent cooling

levels working body – quantum auto generator

continuous and pulse type of photon beam generation

from output of combat laser.

Conclusions:

1. Newer physical properties of photon, at the

atomic -molecular level int eraction of radiation and

absorption of photons when electrons move from

external, remote orbits atoms of matter to lower orbit of

rotation around the nucleus of atoms have been

revealed.

2. Experienced way discovered fast -changing in

time and space, own orbi tal negative and positive

photon charges.

3. Photon ― is quasi -neutral elementary particle

in nature, which has rapidly changing charge in time

and space from " -1e" – negative charge, numerically

equal to the charge of the elementary electron and up to

the "+1e" – positive charge, numerically equal to the

charge elementary positron as an electron antiparticle.

4. The existence of positive or negative self -

charge of photon is equal to τ ≈ 0,2·10 -18 s, when the

amount of positive charge is equal to Q+ = +0,8e…+1e

and negative charge is equal to Q- = -0,8e… -1e.

5. The mass of the photon will be for each

frequency, in the range in question, its own, separate,

different from each other.

6. The intensity, inverity, power and strength of

laser radiation are highly dependent on the range

working frequencies of input signal.

7. In photon there is only so -called relativistic

mass, different from zero, as its actual (real) mass, at

rest is zero m f0 = 0.

8. The speed of the photon at rest is absent from

vf0 = 0, as the photon moves at the speed of light as

transord electromagnetic wave, in certain environment.

9. Transshift, monochromatic, electromagnetic

wave, passing through its zero value, is characterized

by the fact that at this point value charge of the photon

begins to decr ease exponentially from its maximum

value 1+= 1+= +1�, up to zero 2+= 0+= +0�,

when the photon itself almost loses its speed, it stops,

has almost zero peace mass, and the photon, at this

point in time, also lacks energy and momentum of

movement.

10. For entire period Т = 2 π, the photon is energy -

neutral and its full charge ф2�= 0.

11. Th e unsteady theory the perturbation of

quantum system in is considered presence of unsteady

external field. The indignation V+(⃗⃗,t) leads to the fact,

that quantum system is loses energy ħω by means

forced eletion: Ef = E i – ħω. Under the influence of

perturbation V–(⃗⃗,t), the system is acquires the energy

ħω and Ef = E i + ħ ω.

12. The electromagnetic field of photon radiation

is represented in the classical form of flat transverse

30 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20

(�� ⃗⃗⃗= 0) monochromatic electromagnetic wave. An

electromagnetic wave is consisting of photons, cannot

have any intensity.

13. The quantum transitions is occur in states that

have the energy E f = E i + ħω and density ρf(Ef) (Ei and

Ef ― is own values the operator's H 0, that meet their

own functions Ψ i and Ψ f).

14. The vector potential ⃗⃗⃗(⃗⃗,t) of flat

electromagnetic wave, which does not have certain

moment and parity, decomposes into a row by state

with certain values of the moment J and of the number

P movement on multi -floor waves or multipoles.

Individual members of this decomposition will respond

to electromagnetic waves (photons) with certain

moments and parity values that can be absorbed by

atoms and nuclei of matter.

15. Using the idea of Russian scientists on the

presence of constant ly changing in time and in the

space of its own orbital charge photon formed

fundamental basis in the creation of super -powerful (up

to 1 MW) and long -acting combat laser (up to 220 km)

used in limited contingent of Russian military and

space forces in Syr ia.

16. The speed at which narrow -coherent beam of

photons is transmitted to modulated bit -information is

10 10 times greater than when transmitting similar digital

information using electrons as the main charge carriers

and vectors of information from the sour ce (

transmitter) to its users (receiver).

Bibliographic links

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and application. M.: DOSAAF. 1988. 192 p.

2. Abramov A.I., Ivanov B.I., et al. The main

trends in the development of laser light sensors are. //

Kontinant, № 3, 2015. P. 19 –26.

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devices. M.: Mechanical engineering, 1989. 512 p.

4. Ayrapetyan V.S., Ushakov O.K. Physics

lasers. Novosibirsk: S SGA. 2012. 134 p.

5. Leonovich V.N. Photon quantum. Information

to reflect. I nternet,

http://www.proza.ru/avtor/vleonovich of the site

proza.ru, 2017. 14 p.

6. Prokhorov A.M., et al. Physical encyclopedic

dictionary. Edited by A.M. Prokhorov. M.: Soviet

Encyclopedia, 1983. 928 p.

7. Leonovich V.N. Concept the physical model

of quantum gr avity. Internet,

http://www.proza.ru/2011/01/12/1571 of the site

proza.ru, 2011. 44 p.

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amplifying environments. // Successes of physical

sciences. M.: FIAN, T. 168, № 12, 1998. P. 1311 –1321.

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http://www.sciteclibrary.ru/rus/catalog/pages/13311.ht

ml.

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Lebedev ― is the reason for the false conclusion that

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11. Etkin V.A. Energy Dynamics (synthesis

theories of energy transfer and transformation). St.

Petersburg: Science, 2008, 409 p.

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Yarovoy G.P. Electrodynamics and radio wave

distribution. // Edited by V.A. Neganov and S.B.

Rayevsky. M.: Radio engineering. 2009. 744 p.

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Edited by A.M. Prokhorov; English translation, with

cha nges and additions, T. 1, 2. M.: Soviet radio, 1978.

400 p.

14. Svelto O. Laser Principles. // Translated from

English by M.: World, 1990. 558 p.

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Physics. // English translation, M.: Science, 1978, 407

p.

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(Sweden), 2009. 388 p.

17. Feynman Richard, Leighton Robert, Sands

Matthew. Feynman lectures on physics. Volume 8, 9 -

quantum mechanics, M.: World, 1966. 528 p.

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 31

Fig. 1. Spinal -orbital model of the existence of photon and change in its own orbital charge during

the observation period of τ = 2·10 -18 s.

Fig. 1. Spinal -orbital model of the existence of photon and change in its own orbital charge during

the ob servation period of τ = 2·10 -18 s.

x+

+

+

z+ y+

0

Q 1+ = +0,25e

Q 1max + = +1e

L2- = -1

L1+ = +1

Q 2+ = +0,5e

Q 1+ = +0,5e

Q 3min -= -1e

Q 0+ = Q 0- = ± 0e

Q 4-= -0,5e

Q 3-= -0,5e

z-

x-

y-

L0+ = L 0- = 0

Q 3- = -0,25e

Q 2+ = +0,25e

Q 1+ = +0,75e

Q 1+ = +0,75e

Q 4- = -0,25e

Q 3- = -0,75e

Q 4- = -0,75e

+1e

τ , 10 -18 с

Q +

Q -

-1e

+0,5e

-0,5e

1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с τ , 10 -18 с 1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с

32 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20

Fig. 2. The spinal -orbital model functioning of final state electrical and magnetic transitions in quantum photon

system during the observation period of τ ≈ 10 -18 s, at zero back S = 0 and level counting, determined b y

positive parity of JPi = 0+.

О НАЛИЧИИ ФОТОННОГО ИЗЛУЧЕНИЯ В ОБЪЕМЕ М ЕТАЛЛОВ И ИХ СПЛАВОВ

Кошман Валентин Семенович

канд. техн. наук, доцент,

Пермский государственный аграрно -технологический университет,

г. Пермь , Россия

ON THE PRESENCE OF P HOTON RADIATION IN T HE VOLUME OF METALS AND THEIR

ALLOYS

Valentin Koshman,

Cand. tech. sciences, associate professor

Perm State Agrarian and Technological University, Perm, Russia

Аннотация . Автор обращает внимание на решение Р. Бермана: повышение точности измерения

теплопроводности λ на основе закона Фурье в его записи для твердого тела как сплошной среды

достижимо при учете нелинейности вида = ��3, где в простейшем эксперименте �= ����� в

расширенном интервале температур ∆�. В данной связи высказано предположение и дано обоснование

тому, что в объеме металла при создании градиента температуры транспорт теплоты, реализуемый

электронам и проводимости, сопровождается переносом теплоты фотонным излучением.

Abstract. The author draws attention to the Berman solution: improving of the accuracy of measuring thermal

conductivity based on Fourier's law in its tractability for a solid as a cont inuous medium is achievable when taking

into account the nonlinearity of λ=bT , where in the simplest experiment b=const in the extended temperature range

ΔT . Thereby it was suggested and proved that in the volume of the metal during the creation of the te mperature

gradient, the heat transport realized by conductivity electrons is accompanied by heat transfer by photon emission.

Ключевые слова: твердые тела, металлы, теплопроводность, закон Стефана – Больцмана, внутреннее

фотонное излучение.

Keywords: soli ds, metals, thermal conductivity, Stefan – Boltzmann law, internal photon radiation.

E1

E2

0+

0+

1-

2+

1+

M 1

0+

2-

M 2

0+