Американский Научный Журнал NEW LOOK AND APPROACH TO PHYSICAL AND QUANTUM PROPERTIES OF PHOTON (22-32)

New physical properties of photon, as quasi-neutral elementary particle, have been revealed at the atomic-molecular level of radiation interaction and photon absorption when electrons move from external, remote orbits of atoms matter to lower orbit rotation around the nucleus of atoms. Experienced way found fast-changing in time and space, its own orbital negative and positive charges photon. The use of the idea of Russian scientists on the presence of constantly changing in time and space of its own orbital charge photon in the creation of superpowerful and long-range combat laser is considered. Скачать в формате PDF
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ФИЗИКО -МАТЕМАТИЧЕСКИ Е НАУКИ

UDC 539.122.2

NEW LOOK AND APPROAC H TO PHYSICAL AND QU ANTUM PROPERTIES OF PHOTON

Grigoryev -Friedman S.N.
(Nizhny Novgorod research radiophysical institute
at Nizhny Novgorod state university by N.I. Lobachevsky,
Nizhny Novgorod)

Abstarct . New physical properties of photon, as quasi -neutral elementary particle, have been revealed at the
atomic -molecular level of radiation interaction and photon absorption when electrons move from external, remote
orbits of atoms matter to lower orbit rotation around the nucleus of atoms. Experienced way found fast -changing
in time and space, its own orbital negative and positi ve charges photon. The use of the idea of Russian scientists
on the presence of constantly changing in time and space of its own orbital charge photon in the creation of super -
powerful and long -range combat laser is considered.
Keywords: photon, electron; positron; calibration boson; fermion; synchrophasotron; hadron collider; laser;
spin; intrinsic orbital moment of photon; inertia orbital rotation of photon; intrinsic orbital charge of photon;
modulated laser beam; electromagnetic wave; laser radiation; w avelength; signal frequency; quantum; coherence
mass of photon; photon speed; period; photon momentum; photon energy; Hamilton operator; disturbance
operator; Wendell Farry theorem; Niels Bohr`s principle of complementarity; Heisenberg uncertainty.

Introduction. The main problems of quantum
mechanics and elementary particles in the domestic
literature [1 –13] are devoted to quite [14 –17] extensive
material. In this regard, it should be noted that all
previous studies were based only on the classical,
academic level of the development of modern quantum
theory of radiation, absorption, reflection and
distribution of photons, in representation of an outdated
point view that the photon is only a flat, transboundary
electromagne tic wave, in optical range, propagating in
open space at speed of light. At same time, domestic
and foreign scientists in this field of knowledge,
accumulated extensive information on basis of
laboratory -experimental research on nature and
mechanism of beh avior of known to science elementary
particles in open space and interaction with physical
substance, taking into account distribution of
electromagnetic and gravitational fields, in particular,
revealed newer physical properties of the photon, at
atomic -molecular level of interaction of radiation and
absorption of photons electrons move from the outer,
remote orbit of atoms matter to lower rotation orbit
around the nucleus of atoms.
In light of subsequent theoretical studies and their
experimental evidence at the experimental test site, the
Hadroon Collider of the Los -Alamos National
Laboratory of the Energy Department USA in interval
of time, accessible for detection, fixation and study the
quantum nature of existence, rapidly changing in time
and space, o wn orbital negative and positive charge of
photon, like electron and its antiparticles are positron.
If in earlier stages of study the photon was studied
in Wilson -Skobeltsyn's cell, Geiger -Mueller's counter,
Glaser's bubble chamber, Cherenkov's counter, i n the
form of track trajectories and the fixation of all this on
the photo emulsion film, when time of observation
experiments themselves was determined in interval of τ
= 1·(10 -12…10 -15) s. Whereas, when two counter
streams of photons interact, in the Had ron's Collider,
the time of observation physical processes is even more
reduced to interval of τ = 1·(10 -18…10 -20) s. In this case,
the presence of rapidly changing orbital charge in
photons should be explained not only by influence of
variable electromagn etic fields, in particular strong
electric field, but also by increasing influence of
general gravitational field during the interaction of
physical matter with radiating, narrow -coherent beam
of photons, its partial absorption and reflection, with
the qua ntum transition of the electron from one level to
another around the nucleus of the atom [4 –9, 11 –17].
If the particle accelerator in the Moscows of
Serpukhov -city and the synchrophazotron at the
experimental test site at the United Institute of Nuclear
Re search in the Moscows of Dubna -city was used, the
principle of interaction flow elementary particles was
used, like an electron, positron, proton, neutron,
photon, etc. in accelerating electromagnetic field with
the material of physical substance, the Amer ican
Hadron Collider Los -Alamos National Laboratory used
the principle of interaction between two counter -
accelerating streams of elementary particles, for
example, beams of photons with each other, also in
accelerating electromagnetic field, but at same t ime
power of physical interaction of oncoming accelerated
streams of particles (photons) will be about 2.5 times
greater than in the case of Serpukhov's or Dubna
Russian particle accelerator designs, as the basis of rig
and general technology in modern nuc lear research on
the peaceful use of released huge energy in the passage
of controlled thermonuclear reactions of the fission
uranium isotopes U92235 and U92238 , in the enrichment of
plutonium isotopes Pu 94239 in modern nuclear reactors.
The theoretical ba sis on classical view of the
nature photon particle. At the end of 2019 years,
scientists from Los -Alamos National Laboratory ―
Thomas and Advard Lee Yung, conducted
synhrophazotron and particle accelerator, such as the
Hadron's Collider, at one of state -of-art test sites with

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 23

synchrophazotron and accelerator of elementary
particles, such as Hadronno collider, number of
experiments and visual physical experiments in the
field of detection and fixation of one's own, constantly
changing in time and space, orb ital charge in quasi -
neutral elementary particle of the photon.
Photons accelerate, in internal structure of
inverting crystal, to very large values of their kinetic
energy, according to quantum theory and formula (1):
(1)
where m ф ― is the relativistic mass of the photon;
с = 3·10 8 м/сек ― is the speed of light in free (air)
space.
Often applied value — given constant M. Planck,
described by the expression (2):
ħ= h
2π= const . (2)
On other hand, an electron moving from the u pper,
remote level of its orbit to lower electron emits a
photon. At same time there is discrete radiation of
energy by narrowly directed beam of photons, so -called
portions of the quant, according to the formula M.
Planck (3):
(3)
where h = 6,626070040(81)·10 -34 Joule ·s
(because ħ = 1,054571800(13)·10 -34 Joule ·s) ― is
constant M. Planck; MHz ― is cyclical (angular)
input frequency; T, s ― is wave fluctuation period; ,
MHz ― is frequ ency of input.
Equating both energy values of emitting photon
get (4):
(4)
where, exact relativistic value of the mass photon,
when it moves in open airspace or vacuum is
determined from expression (4), according to the
formula (5):
(5)
From the course of classical electrodynamics it is
known that the phase speed of the signal wave in
conventional optically denser environment is
determined through the speed of light, accord ing to the
expression (6):
, (6)
where
― is phase speed of flat, monochromatic,
electromagnetic wave in optically dense environment
(gas, fluids, solid bodies); и
― is relative dielectric and magnetic permeability of
optically dense environment; и ― is
relative dielectric and magnetic permeability of free
airspace (vacuum) respec tively.
From where we get the speed of flat,
monochromatic, electromagnetic wave in optically
dense environment, according to the expression (7):
. (7)
Finally, the exact relativistic mass value of the
photon, when it is moves in optically dense
environment is determined from expression (7),
according to the formula (8):

(8)
It should be noted that the mass of electron itself
is quasi -static, not dependent on frequency of signal at
the entrance, whereas the photon mass depends entirely
on frequency of input signal, that is, the mass of photon
will be for each frequency, its range, separate, different
from each other. Consequently, the intensity, inverity,
power and strength of laser radiation are highly
depe ndent on range working frequencies of input
signal.
It is necessary to remember that actual (real) mass
of the photon, at rest is zero m ф0 = 0, that is, the photon
has only so -called relativistic mass, different from zero.
The same is true of rate photon, which is absent at rest,
and exists only when the photon moves at the speed of
light as transcurrent electromagnetic wave, in certain
environment.
It should also be taken into account that photon's
own spin is equal to: S ph = 1ħ. The spirality of the
photo n is equal to: H ph = ±1. The number of spin states
of the photon is equal to: Q Sph = 2. The charging parity
of the photon is negative ― Chi ph = -1.
Total photon charge is always zero for a full period
of time T = 2π: ∑ 2� ф = 1++2++3−+4−=
1++0++1−+0−= +1�+0−1�−0= 0.
According to the fig. 1, for first quarter of his period
0≤ �1≤ �
2 in fact, the charge of quasi -neutral particle
begins under exponential law enveloping function ,2c m E ф ф = ,   = =h Eф ,   . 2   = = = h c m E ф ф .2 2 . c c
h mф
   = =    
 
       

a a a a a a a a
c

=







 =








=  = 0 0
0 0 0 0
1
1 1 1 1 ( ) с f a a
a
a  =


 
   
 
   ,
1
;1
0
0 1 0  a 1 0  a 1 0  1 0     a a с  = . 2 .   

a a фm  =

24 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20
(describing the vector potential of the photon:
⃗�(�⃗,�)= 0(�⃗)∙�−(�⋅⃗⃗⃗⃗�⃗−�∙)∙�� (�⋅�
ℓ∙�⃗), where
the radius -vector is defined as �⃗= �(�,�,�)) increase
1+> 0+= +0�. At the same time, the charge of the
photon has its maximum positive value, equal to the
charge of the position (antiparticles of the electron, with
the ba ck of the ��+= 1
2ℏ: 1+= 1+= +1�, at its point
at �1� = �
2. It should be noted that at this point, the
photon's own orbital rotation point around its axis is:
L1+ = +1. For the next, the second quarter of its period,
at the same time as �
2 ≤ �2≤ �, value of the photon
charge begins to decrease exponentially from its
maximum value of 1+= 1+= +1� to zero,
2+= 0+= +0�, that is, transboundary,
monochromatic, electromagnetic wave passes through
its first zero value, when the photon itself almost loses
its speed, stops, has almost its zero mass of rest, while
the photon, at this point in time, also lacks energy and
momentum of movement. According to the fig. 1, at
this point, the photon's own orbital rotation point
relative to its axis is: L 0+ = L 0- = 0. Slung through the
zero point, the charge of the photon begins to increase
again on the module, also by exponential law from zero
to 3−= 0−= −0� to 3−= 1−= −1� for the
period: �≤ �2≤ 3�
2. At the same time, the charge of
the photon has its maximum negative value, equal to
the charge of the electron (with the spine ��−= 1
2ℏ):
3−= 1−= −1�, the subsequent third quarter the
period of electromagnetic wave, at �3�� = 3�
2.
It is worth noting that at this point the own orbital
moment of rotation the photon around its axis is equal:
L2- = -1. After that, for the next quarter of its period, at
rate of 3�
2 ≤ �4≤ 2�, the value of the photon charge
on the module begins to decrease exponentially from its
maximum negative value to 3−= 1−= −1�, to zero
4−= 0−= −0�, that is transboundary,
monochromatic, electromagnetic wave passes through
its second zero value, when the photon also again loses
its speed, stops, has almost its zero mass of rest, while
the photon also, at this point in time, there is no energy
and momentum of movement.
Due to the law maintaining charging parity and its
multiplier, in electromagnetic phenomena it is
impossible to turn an even number of photons into odd
and vice versa, based on the theorem of W. Farry, as
the photon refers to the so -called calibration boson,
where it is involved in electromagnetic and
gravitational interaction with matter in nature.
Moreover, part of its active time photon spends as
virtual particle ― vector meson or as virtual pair ―
Hadron -antiadron. All atom s is consist in nature of
protons and neutrons, that is called Hadrons.

Fig. 1. Spinal -orbital model of the existence of photon and change in its own orbital charge during the
observation period of τ = 2·10 -18 s.















x+
+
+
z+ y+
0
Q 1+ = +0,25e
Q 1max + = +1e
L2- = -1
L1+ = +1
Q 2+ = +0,5e
Q 1+ = +0,5e
Q 3min -= -1e
Q 0+ = Q 0- = ± 0e
Q 4-= -0,5e
Q 3-= -0,5e
z-
x-
y-
L0+ = L 0- = 0
Q 3- = -0,25e
Q 2+ = +0,25e
Q 1+ = +0,75e
Q 1+ = +0,75e
Q 4- = -0,25e
Q 3- = -0,75e
Q 4- = -0,75e
+1e
τ , 10 -18 с
Q +
Q -
-1e
+0,5e
-0,5e
1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с τ , 10 -18 с 1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 25

It should be emphasized that the phase transition
in the change of the photon, for example, from the state
of Q 1max + = +1e, equal to the charge of the positron, to
Q3min -= -1e, equal to the elementary charge of the
electron, in its principle is impossible, because of
violation at least, accepted in quantum mechanics, the
principle of additionalness N. Bohr [5 -11]. There are
possible transitions from the state of Q 1max + = +1e to the
state of Q 0+ = + 0e, and back ― to the state of
(Q 1max + = +1e) ↔ (Q 0+ = + 0e), as well as from the state
of Q 3min - = -1e, to the state of Q 0- = - 0e, and back ― to
the state of (Q 3min - = -1e) ↔ (Q 0- = - 0e). The fact that
own orbital moments rotation of the photon around its
axis are mutually opposite, due to the fact that in
quantum mechanics for positive direction rotation of its
own orbital moment rotation of the photon relative to
its axis the direction is counterclockwise, and it is equal
to:
L1+ = J 1·ω = +1. If the direction rotation of the own
orbit al moment rotation of the photon relative to its axis
will be clockwise, it will be considered negative and,
therefore, its value in this case is equal to
L2- = J 2·ω = -1. And J 1 = - J2 represent the opposite
directed inertia of the rotation of the photon itself
relative to the orbital axis of rotation, at different
transitions. For the entire minimum period T min = 2 π is
characterized by change in its charge from "+1" to " -
1e", while pas sing through its characteristic zero point
"± 0e" where the electrical charge in it is also zero.
The total time changing the photon's own charge
is equal to an average of τ ≈ 2·10 -18 s. The lifetime of
positive or negative self -charge of photon is equal t o
τ ≈ 0,2·10 -18 s, when amount of positive charge is equal
to Q + = +0,8e…+1e and negative charge is equal to
Q- = -0,8e… -1e.
Photon is kind of electromagnetic dipole,
constantly changing in time and space, thus obeying the
quantum principle of Heisenberg's uncertainty (9):
(∆�∙∆�)≥ ℏ
2, (9)
By measuring the magnitude of average quadratic
deviation of the coordinates Δx and the medium -square
deviation of the pulse Δp, and at same time, having
known speed of light, the photon allows unlimited
accu racy of measurement its coordinates in time and
space, and therefore its changing orbital charge.
When reflecting from the mirror editor or when
passing environments with density gradient, that is, in
the phenomenon of aberration, an experimental way is
found to change direction of the photon [5]. In all these
cases, photons are not absorbed by substance, and are
clearly not included with the carriers of the substance
in the contact interaction, that is, in the format of
elementary particles of the environm ent. However,
there is change in direction and polarization of the
photon [7]. This behavior of photon, like fermions -
particles, is possible only under the influence of
constant electric fields formed by electrons and protons
of the environment. Analysis o f many experiments
indicates that effective factor in these interactions is not
only the size of the field, but also the gradient,
therefore, the photon is an excellent quantum detector
the gradient of electric field [9].
Unsteady theory of perturbations. Let H 0 ― be
so-called calm operator, representing time -dependent
Hamiltonian quantum system in absence of external
electric and magnetic fields. To do this, Schroedinger's
equation allows for its exact solution. Then full
Hamiltonian H of this system, in the presence of
unsteady external field [8, 11, 12 –17] , has classic look
(10):
H = H 0 + V( ⃗⃗,t), (10)
where V( ⃗⃗,t) ― is an operator of perturbation,
describing the interaction of external electro -magnetic
field with the quantum system. The theory of
perturbations is used in following condition (11):
V( ⃗⃗,t) << H0. (11)
Let the quantum system be in the field of falling,
monochromatic electromagnetic wave, the
characteristics of which periodically change over time
with frequency ω. Then the V( ⃗⃗,t) perturbation operator
will also change periodically over time with the same
frequency ω, hence it can be recorded as (12):
(⃗⃗,�)= 2⋎(⃗⃗)cos �� =⋎(⃗⃗)�� +⋎(⃗⃗)�−� . (12)
Enter the designation ±(⃗⃗,�)=⋎(⃗⃗)�±� , then
the V( ⃗⃗,t) perturbation operator takes following look
(13):
(⃗⃗,�)= +(⃗⃗,�)+−(⃗⃗,�). (13)
In the first order, time -dependent perturbation
theory, the probability is moving "w" of the quantum
system's into unit of time from the state described by
wave function Ψ i to the state described by the wave
function Ψ f (Ψ i and Ψ f ― is own functions the
operator's H 0) under the influence of perturbation, the
expression (14) is set:

(14)

And the transitions take place in states that have
the energy of E f = E i + ħω and density ρf(Ef) (Ei and
Ef ― is own values operator's H 0, which correspond to
their own functions Ψ i and Ψ f).

26 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20
The indignation of V +(⃗⃗,t) leads to the fact that the
quantum system is loses energy ħ ω by means of is
forced eletion: E f = E i – ħω. Under the influence of
pert urbation V –(⃗⃗,t), the system is acquires the energy
ħω and E f = E i + ħ ω. We will consider only the last case
corresponding to the absorption of energy of
electromagnetic field, is leaving in the operator of
perturbation V( ⃗⃗,t) only second formulation V –(⃗⃗,t),
which is depends on the time as �−� .
A quantum system in field of flat
electromagnetic wave. Consider the case when a flat
monochromatic electromagnetic wave falls on the
quantum system. Then the full Hamiltonian H particle
system and electromagnetic field [4, 6, 11 –17] has this
view (15):
H = H 0 + H el + V( ⃗⃗,t), (15)
where H0― is the Hamiltonian system in absence
of external electric and magnetic fields , H el ― is the
Hamiltonian electromagnetic field and V( ⃗⃗,t) ― is the
Hamiltonian interaction of the system with the
electromagnetic field, which is the operator of the
perturbation.
In the future, the system will be understood by the
totality of А⃗⃗⃗ non -relitivist particles. Then we have an
expression (16):
(16)
where pa и ma ― is pulse operator and system
particle mass, W ab ― is energy interaction "a" and "b"
particle. H el ― is energy of electromagnetic field. The
classic expression for the energy of the electromagnetic
field [11, 12] takes the form (17):
��= 1
8�∫(⃗⃗2+⃗⃗⃗2)������ = 1
8�∫(⃗⃗2+⃗⃗⃗2)�⃗ , ( 17)
where ⃗⃗⃗ и ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ― is the tension electric and
magnetic fields.
If the field is quantum and is a set of n photons of
energy ℏ�, then the energy of such electromagnetic
field is determined by expression (18):
��= �ℏ�. (18)
The expression for the operator V( ⃗⃗,t) is a type of
spine -free particle (19):

,
(19)
where еa ― is electrical charges of particle
system, ⃗⃗⃗ ― is the vector potential of the electro -
magnetic wave at the point, where is located the "a"
particle.
We specify this expression for the case when the
system is absorbs falling on it the flat monochromatic
electromagnetic wave. The vector potential ⃗⃗⃗ of such
wave [11, 12] can be recorded in the form (20):
⃗⃗⃗(⃗⃗,�)= 20cos (⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗−�� )= 0�(⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗−�)+0�−(⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗−�) (20 )
where ⃗⃗⃗ ― is wave vector, the direction of which
determines the direction of the wave (where
⃗⃗⃗=
∙⃗⃗⃗, and ⃗⃗⃗ ― is single vector in the direction of
⃗⃗⃗), and ⃗⃗ ― is single vector of radiation polarization.
The vector potential А⃗⃗⃗ must satisfy the condition
(21):
�� ⃗⃗⃗= 0. (21)
For flat, transverse, electromagnetic wave,
polarized perpendicular to the direction of distribution,
the condition (21) is tantamount to requirement (22):
(⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗)= 0, (22)
Substituting in the formula (19) for V( ⃗⃗,t) is only
the first member of expression (20) for the vector
potential of a flat wave, which has a negative frequency
and, is therefore responsible for the absorption of
radiation, get (23):

. (23)
And from the material equation (24):
⃗⃗⃗0= A0⃗⃗. (24)
For the outrage operator v( ⃗⃗) we end up with an
expression (25):

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 27

.
(25)

A classic representation of radiation and photons.
It was stated above that the electromagnetic field of
photon radiation is represented in the classical form of
flat transverse ( ⃗⃗⃗= ) monochromatic
electromagnetic wave (21). From the course of
quantum mechanics it is known that an electromagnetic
wave, consisting of photons, cannot have any intensity
[4, 6, 11 -15, 17]. To do this, the amplitude A 0 of vector
pote ntial is normalized so that, it corresponds to n
photons in a unit of volume. In this case, the time -
averaged energy density of the electromagnetic wave
will be equal to the energy of n photons, according to
the expression (26):
1
8�〈+〉= �ℏ�, (26)
Using expressions (27)... (29):
〈⃗⃗〉= 〈⃗⃗⃗〉, (27)
⃗⃗= −1

�⃗⃗⃗
� , (28)
〈sin 2��〉= 1
2 , (29)
We get the value of the time -averaged energy
density of the electromagnetic wave for n photons,
according to the expression (30):
1
8�〈+〉= 02�2
2��2 . (30)
By equating two expressions (26) and 30), we gain
equality (31):
Classification of photons and multipole waves.
The states of the quantum systems under consideration
(atom and nucleus) are characterized by certain values
of the angular moment um J and parity P. Therefore, in
any process in which such quantum systems pass from
one state to another, the selection rules for moment and
parity must be taken into account. If an atom or nucleus
transfers from one state to another as a result of
absorp tion of electromagnetic radiation, then the laws
of conservation of angular momentum and parity
require that the absorbed radiation also have certain
values of J and P. Therefore, only such electromagnetic
radiation can participate in atomic and nuclear
processes, whose wave function ― is an eigenfunction
of the moment and parity operators [4, 6, 11 –15, 17].
The vector potential ⃗⃗⃗(⃗⃗,t)of plane
electromagnetic wave that does not have a definite
moment and parity is expanded in series of states with
certain values of angular momentum J and parity P in
multipole waves or multipoles [4, 6, 11 –15, 17].
Individual members of such an expansion will
correspond to electromagnetic waves (photons) with
certain values of the moment and parity, which can be
abso rbed by atoms and nuclei. Our task is to move from
the photon field with a certain momentum value
⃗⃗⃗= ℏ⃗⃗⃗ to the photon field with certain values of
angular momentum J and parity P.
The total angular momentum of a photon J takes
integer values, starting fro m unity: J = 1, 2, 3,...,N.
Impossibility for a photon J = 0 follows from the fact
that the electromagnetic wave is transverse and
therefore cannot be described by a spherically
symmetric wave function.
The usual definition of spin as the moment of
momentu m in the rest system is not applicable to the
photon, since such system does not exist for the photon.
Since photon is quantum of vector field, and any vector
field is suitable for describing particle with spin 1,
considering the properties of the vector f ield with
respect to the rotations of the coordinate system, it is
convenient to attribute the spin S = 1 to the photon.
From this it follows that the total moment of the photon
⃗ can be formally considered as the vector sum of spin
⃗⃗⃗ and orbital ⃗⃗⃗ mome nts ― ⃗= ⃗⃗⃗+⃗⃗⃗, and the orbital
moment L in this case is nothing more than the rank of
the spherical functions Y Lm that are part of the photon
wave function [4 – 12].

28 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20
Fig. 2. The spinal -orbital model functioning of final state electrical and magnetic transitions in quantum
photon system during the observation period of τ ≈ 10 -18 s, at zero back S = 0 and level counting,
determined by positive parity of JPi = 0+.

Photons with specific value of J are called 2J -polar
(dipole, if J = 1; quadrupole, if J = 2; octupole, if J = 3,
etc.). For given J, the quantum number of the orbital
momentum L can take three values: L = J + 1, J, J – 1
since the photon spin is S = 1.
The parity of the photon P f is determined by the
rule, according to the expression (35):
Рф = ( –1)L+1 . (35)
Therefore, photons with the same J can have
different values of orbital moment, and therefore parity.
Photons, for which the orbital moment coincides with
the full L = J, have a parity ( –1)J+1 and are called
magnetic M J-photons. Photons, for which L = J + l,
have parity ( –1)J and are called electric E J-photons.
Thus, these photons is electrical -type, unlike magnetic -
type photons, do not have certain orbital moment. Their
wave function is linear combination of states with
L = J + 1 [4 –17].
To describe electrical (E J) and magnetic (M J)
radiation sican us es electrical and magnetic potentials
and , which can be seen as E J and M J's own
radiation functions, having a full -moment projection
equal to M. Decomposition is flat electromagnetic
wave on multifields is decomposition by characteristic
functions and [4–17].
The simplest kind of decomposition is when a flat
electromagnetic wave is polarized in a circle and its
wave vector ⃗⃗⃗ is directed along the 0z axis [4–9, 11 –
17] . In this private case, decomposition in multi -fields
has a form (36):

, (36)
where ⃗⃗p ― is basic vectors of complex circular
coordinate system, with left circular polarization
responding to p = +1, and right p = –1. In accordance
with this, the projection of full moment of the photon
takes the values M = ± 1.
For most simple case, when initial state of
quantum system has zero spin S = 0 and positive parity
JPi = 0+, possible end states (J Pf ) systems, arising from
the absorption of dipoly and quadrupoly photons of
electric and magnetic type, shown in the fig. 2.









E1
E2
0+
0+
1-
2+
1+
M 1
0+
2-
M 2
0+

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 29

If the wave vector ⃗⃗⃗ has an arbitrary direction,
then decomposition in multifields [4 –9, 11 –17] is more
complex expression (37):

, (37)
where in p = +1, ― is rotation matrix,
which depends on angles ̂ and ̂, which determin e
direction of the wave vector ⃗⃗⃗ in the polar coordinate
system. In this case, full moment projection of the M
photon is takes all possible values: M = +J, +(J–1),... .
Practical application of new quantum
properties of photon. Recently, mass production of
quantum generators and sources of laser radiation, as
well as microprocessors on quantum beginnings, using
the concept of the presence and modification of its own
orbit al charge at the photon mass production of
powerful, high -performance and ultra -fast modern
computers. Using the idea of Russian scientists about
the presence of constantly changing in time and in the
space of its own orbital charge photon formed a
fundame ntal basis in the creation of a super -powerful
(up to 1 MW) and long -range combat laser (up to 220
km), used in limited contingent of Russian military and
space forces in Syria. The speed transmission of
narrow -coherent beam photons modulated bit -
informati on is 10 10 times greater than when
transmitting similar digital information using electrons
as the main carriers of charge and vectors of
information from the source (transmitter) to its users
(receiver).
In this regard, it should be noted that the combat
laser mounted on the destroyers "Ross" and "Donald
Cook" of the USA Navy have capacity of up to 100 kW
with an effective range hitting the target and the enemy
at distance of up to 30 km. Moreover, if on American
warships the laser installation works at fu ll capacity,
the ship or the combat vehicle stops and do not have the
ability to go its own way, because there is not enough
necessary design power, thus presenting of itself an
excellent stationary target for torpedo -missile attacks of
the enemy from unde rwater nuclear -powered ships or
surface ships, from coastal and onshore mobile, anti -
aircraft missile systems, type “S -400 Triumph”, as well
as from the air, using fighter -bombers. The Russian
combat laser consists of one working, combat reactor,
one backu p reactor and one reactor for the necessary
initial -accelerating swap. The first two (combat)
reactors operate on fast neutrons, using their own
orbital charge at narrowly directed, coherent beam of
photons, flying at detected target or enemy, and third
sw ap reactor functions on the slow (thermal) neutrons.
The Russian combat laser works completely
autonomously, regardless of operation power plant of
the warship. Which is great achievement of Russian
military engineering thought. The Russian laser
installa tion has three autonomous, independent cooling
levels working body – quantum auto generator
continuous and pulse type of photon beam generation
from output of combat laser.
Conclusions:
1. Newer physical properties of photon, at the
atomic -molecular level int eraction of radiation and
absorption of photons when electrons move from
external, remote orbits atoms of matter to lower orbit of
rotation around the nucleus of atoms have been
revealed.
2. Experienced way discovered fast -changing in
time and space, own orbi tal negative and positive
photon charges.
3. Photon ― is quasi -neutral elementary particle
in nature, which has rapidly changing charge in time
and space from " -1e" – negative charge, numerically
equal to the charge of the elementary electron and up to
the "+1e" – positive charge, numerically equal to the
charge elementary positron as an electron antiparticle.
4. The existence of positive or negative self -
charge of photon is equal to τ ≈ 0,2·10 -18 s, when the
amount of positive charge is equal to Q+ = +0,8e…+1e
and negative charge is equal to Q- = -0,8e… -1e.
5. The mass of the photon will be for each
frequency, in the range in question, its own, separate,
different from each other.
6. The intensity, inverity, power and strength of
laser radiation are highly dependent on the range
working frequencies of input signal.
7. In photon there is only so -called relativistic
mass, different from zero, as its actual (real) mass, at
rest is zero m f0 = 0.
8. The speed of the photon at rest is absent from
vf0 = 0, as the photon moves at the speed of light as
transord electromagnetic wave, in certain environment.
9. Transshift, monochromatic, electromagnetic
wave, passing through its zero value, is characterized
by the fact that at this point value charge of the photon
begins to decr ease exponentially from its maximum
value 1+= 1+= +1�, up to zero 2+= 0+= +0�,
when the photon itself almost loses its speed, it stops,
has almost zero peace mass, and the photon, at this
point in time, also lacks energy and momentum of
movement.
10. For entire period Т = 2 π, the photon is energy -
neutral and its full charge ф2�= 0.
11. Th e unsteady theory the perturbation of
quantum system in is considered presence of unsteady
external field. The indignation V+(⃗⃗,t) leads to the fact,
that quantum system is loses energy ħω by means
forced eletion: Ef = E i – ħω. Under the influence of
perturbation V–(⃗⃗,t), the system is acquires the energy
ħω and Ef = E i + ħ ω.
12. The electromagnetic field of photon radiation
is represented in the classical form of flat transverse

30 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20
(�� ⃗⃗⃗= 0) monochromatic electromagnetic wave. An
electromagnetic wave is consisting of photons, cannot
have any intensity.
13. The quantum transitions is occur in states that
have the energy E f = E i + ħω and density ρf(Ef) (Ei and
Ef ― is own values the operator's H 0, that meet their
own functions Ψ i and Ψ f).
14. The vector potential ⃗⃗⃗(⃗⃗,t) of flat
electromagnetic wave, which does not have certain
moment and parity, decomposes into a row by state
with certain values of the moment J and of the number
P movement on multi -floor waves or multipoles.
Individual members of this decomposition will respond
to electromagnetic waves (photons) with certain
moments and parity values that can be absorbed by
atoms and nuclei of matter.
15. Using the idea of Russian scientists on the
presence of constant ly changing in time and in the
space of its own orbital charge photon formed
fundamental basis in the creation of super -powerful (up
to 1 MW) and long -acting combat laser (up to 220 km)
used in limited contingent of Russian military and
space forces in Syr ia.
16. The speed at which narrow -coherent beam of
photons is transmitted to modulated bit -information is
10 10 times greater than when transmitting similar digital
information using electrons as the main charge carriers
and vectors of information from the sour ce (
transmitter) to its users (receiver).

Bibliographic links
1. Fedorov B.F. Lasers. The basics of the device
and application. M.: DOSAAF. 1988. 192 p.
2. Abramov A.I., Ivanov B.I., et al. The main
trends in the development of laser light sensors are. //
Kontinant, № 3, 2015. P. 19 –26.
3. Lazarev L.P. Optico -electronic guidance
devices. M.: Mechanical engineering, 1989. 512 p.
4. Ayrapetyan V.S., Ushakov O.K. Physics
lasers. Novosibirsk: S SGA. 2012. 134 p.
5. Leonovich V.N. Photon quantum. Information
to reflect. I nternet,
http://www.proza.ru/avtor/vleonovich of the site
proza.ru, 2017. 14 p.
6. Prokhorov A.M., et al. Physical encyclopedic
dictionary. Edited by A.M. Prokhorov. M.: Soviet
Encyclopedia, 1983. 928 p.
7. Leonovich V.N. Concept the physical model
of quantum gr avity. Internet,
http://www.proza.ru/2011/01/12/1571 of the site
proza.ru, 2011. 44 p.
8. Orayevsky A.N. Superlight waves in
amplifying environments. // Successes of physical
sciences. M.: FIAN, T. 168, № 12, 1998. P. 1311 –1321.
9. Leonovich V.N. Photon impulse, photon
engine and philosophy. Internet,
http://www.sciteclibrary.ru/rus/catalog/pages/13311.ht
ml.
10. Kosciuszko V.E. Experimental error of P.N.
Lebedev ― is the reason for the false conclusion that
he discovered the pressure of light. // Reports to the
Russian physical society, Encyclopedia of Russian
Thought. M.: Public Use, T. 16, Part -3, 2012. P. 34.
11. Etkin V.A. Energy Dynamics (synthesis
theories of energy transfer and transformation). St.
Petersburg: Science, 2008, 409 p.
12. Neganov V.A., Osipov O.V., R ayevsky S.B.,
Yarovoy G.P. Electrodynamics and radio wave
distribution. // Edited by V.A. Neganov and S.B.
Rayevsky. M.: Radio engineering. 2009. 744 p.
13. Prokhorov A.M., et al. Reference to lasers. //
Edited by A.M. Prokhorov; English translation, with
cha nges and additions, T. 1, 2. M.: Soviet radio, 1978.
400 p.
14. Svelto O. Laser Principles. // Translated from
English by M.: World, 1990. 558 p.
15. Maitland A., Dan M. Introduction to Laser
Physics. // English translation, M.: Science, 1978, 407
p.
16. Snoll S.E. Co smophysical factors in random
processes. // Svenska fysikarkivat, Stockholm
(Sweden), 2009. 388 p.
17. Feynman Richard, Leighton Robert, Sands
Matthew. Feynman lectures on physics. Volume 8, 9 -
quantum mechanics, M.: World, 1966. 528 p.

ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20 31

Fig. 1. Spinal -orbital model of the existence of photon and change in its own orbital charge during
the observation period of τ = 2·10 -18 s.

Fig. 1. Spinal -orbital model of the existence of photon and change in its own orbital charge during
the ob servation period of τ = 2·10 -18 s.














x+
+
+
z+ y+
0
Q 1+ = +0,25e
Q 1max + = +1e
L2- = -1
L1+ = +1
Q 2+ = +0,5e
Q 1+ = +0,5e
Q 3min -= -1e
Q 0+ = Q 0- = ± 0e
Q 4-= -0,5e
Q 3-= -0,5e
z-
x-
y-
L0+ = L 0- = 0
Q 3- = -0,25e
Q 2+ = +0,25e
Q 1+ = +0,75e
Q 1+ = +0,75e
Q 4- = -0,25e
Q 3- = -0,75e
Q 4- = -0,75e
+1e
τ , 10 -18 с
Q +
Q -
-1e
+0,5e
-0,5e
1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с τ , 10 -18 с 1 · 10 -18 с 0,5 · 10 -18 с

32 ASJ № ( 35) / 20 20
Fig. 2. The spinal -orbital model functioning of final state electrical and magnetic transitions in quantum photon
system during the observation period of τ ≈ 10 -18 s, at zero back S = 0 and level counting, determined b y
positive parity of JPi = 0+.

О НАЛИЧИИ ФОТОННОГО ИЗЛУЧЕНИЯ В ОБЪЕМЕ М ЕТАЛЛОВ И ИХ СПЛАВОВ

Кошман Валентин Семенович
канд. техн. наук, доцент,
Пермский государственный аграрно -технологический университет,
г. Пермь , Россия

ON THE PRESENCE OF P HOTON RADIATION IN T HE VOLUME OF METALS AND THEIR
ALLOYS

Valentin Koshman,
Cand. tech. sciences, associate professor
Perm State Agrarian and Technological University, Perm, Russia

Аннотация . Автор обращает внимание на решение Р. Бермана: повышение точности измерения
теплопроводности λ на основе закона Фурье в его записи для твердого тела как сплошной среды
достижимо при учете нелинейности вида = ��3, где в простейшем эксперименте �= ����� в
расширенном интервале температур ∆�. В данной связи высказано предположение и дано обоснование
тому, что в объеме металла при создании градиента температуры транспорт теплоты, реализуемый
электронам и проводимости, сопровождается переносом теплоты фотонным излучением.
Abstract. The author draws attention to the Berman solution: improving of the accuracy of measuring thermal
conductivity based on Fourier's law in its tractability for a solid as a cont inuous medium is achievable when taking
into account the nonlinearity of λ=bT , where in the simplest experiment b=const in the extended temperature range
ΔT . Thereby it was suggested and proved that in the volume of the metal during the creation of the te mperature
gradient, the heat transport realized by conductivity electrons is accompanied by heat transfer by photon emission.
Ключевые слова: твердые тела, металлы, теплопроводность, закон Стефана – Больцмана, внутреннее
фотонное излучение.
Keywords: soli ds, metals, thermal conductivity, Stefan – Boltzmann law, internal photon radiation.










E1
E2
0+
0+
1-
2+
1+
M 1
0+
2-
M 2
0+