INSTRUCTIVE EDUCATION FROM ANTHROPOECOLOGY’S
POINT OF VIEW
Leonel Chacón Anchondo
Industrial Engineer, Technological Institute Cd. Juárez
Cd. Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua, México, Tepeyac street # 4030, 31520
Massive instructional education is a recent creation of human being with the objective of taking it to a productive life in an efficient way and that takes technological knowledge at an adequate level that are required by the industry to understand, improve and optimize productive processes and adapt to changes dictated by technological progress. In some countries they have forgotten educational level of middle level, disabling them for their own technological development.
To involved and volunteer is explicitly offered a «high standard of living». Undoubtedly technological advance has brought facilitators and great comforts of life; only that, sustainable development has been forgotten, nature has been depredated and contaminated, together with creation of false expectations in individuals and generating a great amount of superfluous and negative activities; that, from point of view of anthropoecology, has made human being mentally ill.
Key words: instructive education, understanding, technological advance, voluntary, living standards, facilitators, sustainable development, depredating, contaminated, superfluous, negative, mental illness.
Instructive education systems are making people economically active but not productive.
When objective of acquiring a professional title no matter if it was learned, said individual will use it as a permit to obtain economic gains in any form.
Instructive education when it is directed to solution of immediate problems (economic) forms a litter of people with lack of integral vision towards future development of human being, and posteriori everything they want to solve with solutions of economic type. Or, is this the purpose of those who manage the global economy?
Instructive education as well as formative education can be positive or negative. Instructive education is dedicated to science and technology concepts as if there was a rush to manufacture entities that will generate wealth in productive field. And in
practice it forgets a sustainable instructive education.
How can sustainable design and construction be achieved if education itself
lacks such concepts?
In technologically advanced countries, children are greatly pressured to obtain an academic degree or to study at this or that university; This pressure is such that it deranges the children in one or many ways, this pressure can be slight that goes unnoticed or to such a degree that it reaches suicide or attacking others directly or surreptitiously. Thus; if they have academic achievements, they will have achievements as adults, only that these inculcated achievements are only ECONOMIC; only that, when those achievements are not obtained, you have a frustrated adult who can be from introverted to attacking his own social group or the rulers in turn, among many other behaviors.
Among many others, an influencing factor is electronic video games where an aggressive mentality or at least false expectations are developed or reinforced, because with computer systems everything seems easy. Will this be mental illness?
In the dawn of humanity, education was qualitative, one by one, father by son, friend by friend etc. When the created needs increase, education becomes quantitative.
«A current comes and it becomes quantitative, you see the poor quality of it and at the end of the 20th century AD. aims to return to the qualitative concept. » (María Antonieta Casanova, The Educational Evaluation, page 124).
In schools of elementary education (primary) in villages whose main activity is agriculture, we talk about everything and a tiny part of how a seed germinates, how an animal is raised and importance of these aspects, among many others in life of human being. It is mistakenly assumed that if a child is born in a farm, he will learn farm’s tasks instinctively; when in reality you are moving away from it; because, if these tasks are not given importance in the country itself and taught concepts of science and technology, the result is obvious. This is just a small sample of what is happening in elementary education in many countries, regardless of their degree of progress.
The educational programs that governments do for ethnic groups far from big cities, are made according to lifestyle of cities and not obeying, not even respecting lifestyle and culture of the group to which educational program is directed.
Upper instructional education systems are designed so that student does not group; generating with it a high degree of individualism; in contrast to very nature of human being that requires grouping to survive and also with philosophy of companies where they are supposed to work as a team.
In a capitalist system, individualism is the basis on social formation.
Lack of grouping capacity of student makes system vulnerable to irresponsibility of some teachers, since students can hardly come together to even report an anomaly on the part of teacher; worst of this grouping inability inhibits possibilities of projects of some teachers with a high sense of responsibility, since it is difficult for them to agree on schedules of students for said projects or a simple visit to factories of interest for the subject taught
Instructive education officialized, prepares professionals for the service in generation of industrial products, with a mentality more directed to economy than to society; but most people in same industry are only trained to perform a monotonous task.
Tame animal, for each executed act, is rewarded with something; the individualist human being for each thing charges his fees. It also demarcates its properties and area of influence clearly, becoming selfish.
Extreme individualism originates distrust of all against all, each one is at mercy of himself, for everything has to paid. Courtesy, chivalry is eliminated, the word sharing tends to disappear.
In individualism there are too many voices and little understanding, each one tries to take advantage of others so teamwork is difficult.
Individualist sells everything at best possible price and in times of crisis it is when he gains most advantage.
Auctions of all kinds exacerbate individualistic power regardless of price paid for it; the important thing is to show that you have to snatch from other what you both want.
“Earth has enough to satisfy everybody’s needs but not avarice of a few.” [Gandhi]
Individualism difficult and increases cost of living.
Instructive education enables individual to perform a job, but not all jobs are directed towards coexistence of human being.
Within school systems for professions of medicine, engineering, psychology law etc. it is assumed that there is an ethical norm where personal good should not be superimposed on common good; However, throughout the career some teachers, students and society in general induce student the idea that he is studying to earn a lot of money. Leaving aside supposed professional ethics completely.
Instructive education provides knowledge and influences formation of individual within the field that was instructed. Positive instructive education presupposes that individual will contribute their knowledge constructively to achieve a better standard of life not only of himself and those around him, but also of the society to which he belongs.
To a greater or lesser degree, some careers teach to individual techniques to manipulate people through topics such as administration, motivation, etc. One of these is psychology where human behavior is supposed to be observed and studied for good of the human being; however, those who hold power use this quality to manipulate it, either individually or collectively.
Within professions there are some like advocacy; among others, learn to live from the problems of others, having behaviors of all kinds; to degree that innocent is guilty and guilty is innocent. Fundamentally depending on money that is involved.
There are other professions or trades that are disguised as patriotism, as is military career, where instructive education and training are aimed at intimidating and destroying people and strangers for sake of power of a few, especially at times of conflict.
Among other topics of science and administration, is marketing, which in addition to providing information on possible levels of sales to companies, in some points is dedicated to manipulating people to achieve sales on some products; As the following article shows «motivations and consumer behavior»
MOTIVATIONS AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Purchase desire factor in market demand, requires a study of motives and buying habits. A motive can be defined as an impulse or an urgency which individual seeks to satisfy. It becomes a reason to buy when individual seeks satisfaction by buying something. Reason is in mind of individual and asks for satisfaction as long as it affects him. We know a lot about quantitative aspects of market; however, we know relatively little about qualitative factor of why people act as they do in marketplace.
It is decisive to have a knowledge of reasons why people buy a given product (reasons for product) or purchase at a certain store (reasons for patronage) if seller does not hit with the real reason he may lose sale. Understanding underlying motives of behavior of a large market sector helps seller to choose topics of advertising, to plan personal sales activities, to design a product and to develop other phases of a promotion program.
Purchasing reasons can be grouped into different levels depending on customer’s awareness of them and their desire to communicate them;levels are three:
- You are not conscious; you cannot communicate them.
- Is conscious and does not communicate them.
- Is aware and wants to communicate.
Difficulty in identifying reasons for buying is that there are usually many reasons.
A study has discovered more than 600 reasons of purchase classifying them in:
There is still no coordinated and coherent knowledge that we can call theory of buying behavior. Advertisers, sales authorities and marketers have made partial contributions. Economists have traditionally focused their attention on problems of production and not on consumption. In fact, in classical theory economists assumed that consumer was a totally rational person and that he worked with full market information.
A study of behavior can begin with an understanding of motivation and this can be defined as behavior investigated by internal needs. Motivation has a cycle of three stages:
- Need, impulse or motive
• Physiological — hungry
• Learned — social approval
- Create tension and provoke instrumental behavior.
- Achievement of goal that meets the need.
Human behavior is motivated by circumstantial or learned needs as well as inherent psychological tendencies. This means that our physiological needs such as food are strong, but we also have social needs such as recognition, acceptance, company, position, etc. There are also needs learned economically, politically and religiously.
Greater part of our behavior depends more on what we have learned than on instinct, acquired needs may be more important than physiological ones. However,
human being by instinct knows that it is good and that it is bad without needing more clarifications than those dictated by conscience.
Mc Gregor classifies needs of man as follows:
- Physiological needs
- Security needs
- Social needs
- Needs of the ego
- Needs of self-realization
A satisfied need is not motivating behaviors, hence human behavior is motivated by unmet needs, whether they are learned or inherent.
In history of marketing it has been classic to categorize reasons for buying in two fields:
FIELDS OF MOTIVES
- Emotional a) Hunger b) Thirst
c) Desire for company
d) Emulation or imitation e) Personal comfort
f) Safety of loved ones g) Prestige
- Economy of the purchase
- Utility considerations
So much importance and transcendence has this classification of motives, that advertising takes them to structure their commercial messages and these are classified precisely in emotional and rational. There are also mixed ones.
Classification of emotional and rational reasons is a function of amount of time and thought devoted to purchase. Impulse towards purchase is considered in response to emotional reasons. Reasoned purchase is supposed to require a careful process of thinking seriously. [Unknown reference; even so, it is included because it is considered a very illustrative report, compared to other reports]
Much of knowledge about human behavior, as shown in previous article, is aimed at manipulation and deception, to make client buy article through advertising; convinced that this is good.
Instructional education in school is directed to bring human being to specialization and in this specialization the general context of life itself has been lost; Specialization closes mind and abilities of individual, making him believe that what he does is the only and true thing. If specialization is successful, as most of them do at the beginning of these, instructive education that took individual to that specialization becomes formative, enclosing even more individual in his specialization and validity of it. Reaching degree that if he does not find work in what he says he knows how to do, he feels incapable of performing other activities; falling into disappointment, depression and perhaps blaming others for his misfortune.
A comment from a candidate for doctorate in engineering sciences said:
«Some doctors in science dedicated to research lose common sense» (D. Cooler, PhD. 1994 AD.).
Deducing part of that conversation it was understood that they want to make valid everything they think, and that more they learn from a very narrow field, more they cling to their ideas.
A scientist said: «THE FACTS ARE WRONG» when they differed from their conclusions. Was it because he had already lost his common sense or just a coincidence?
Like, or as a consequence of school education; organizations as colossal works of human being, also tend to specialize and concentrate on some topics and divorce complementary themes; looking for ways to drag as many people as possible with them, for benefit of the organization; regardless of discrepancy of that task with natural balance. e.g. some religious organizations only handle spiritual aspect and comment little or nothing about nature, which without a doubt is the basis of spirit; since if there is not first a living being that believes in the spirit, there will be no way to manipulate spiritual.
If we understood nature, our spirit would grow.
Specialized activities such as sports, shows, including psychics are where their promotion is exacerbated, regardless of moral, spiritual, psychological damage and degree of alienation inflicted on society. Something similar happens with companies of junk products such as beauty products, products that are taken to lose weight, which with supposedly very little exercise achieves an aesthetically attractive body, and bottled soft drinks, among others.
Official instructive education only talks about science and technology and forgets a comprehensive plan of instruction-formation, which involves care of environment and the necessary routines for life and coexistence, with classes that are part of the study plan and evaluated. In the absence of reinforcement of values of coexistence for positive formative education; only opposite direction remains; that without reaching extremes, it has nothing to counteract it for a better anthropoecological balance.
It is perhaps a very difficult dream but not impossible to expect laws to be made in accordance with nature. Coupled with this, any natural law goes against the accumulation of wealth by a single individual. Only by educating population and bringing it to the point of equilibrium will a peaceful coexistence and making earth an earthly paradise be possible. To lofty teach him to be fair and not monopolize resources; and to needy, go to work and earn this daily bread.
«If in life you do not know where you are going never reach.» [Anonymous]
Information is not knowledge.
It is very common to believe that knowledge is acquired when information is received; behavioral change generated by information, is different from behavioral change generated by knowledge.
Information generates action positive or negative and knowledge generates reflection; not necessarily positive, but reflection at the end.
Just as information is confused with knowledge; genius is also confused with
Genius generates science regardless of consequences of their creations, in fact, there were some who repented, perhaps half, but repented at the end; the most significant of these was ALBERT EINSTEIN. As following fact shows:
In 1939 Einstein participated along with other physicists in drafting a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt requesting creation of a research program on chain reactions. The letter, which was only signed by Einstein, managed to accelerate manufacture of atomic bomb, in which he did not participate or knew of its completion. In 1945, when existence of the bomb was already evident, Einstein wrote again to president to try to dissuade him from using nuclear weapon. [«Albert Einstein.» Microsoft® Encarta Encyclopedia® 2001. © 1993 -2000 Microsoft Corporation, all rights reserved].
Wise person is opposed to any type of development that contributes to human
being’s control by human being. [CONFUCIUS]
Political systems only instruct people how to vote to elect their governors; but they never instruct their governed of what are responsibilities of one and other. The more alienated in all respects a people are more easily manipulated and taken advantage of. Something similar happens with religions, where there is only talk of worshiping God, but people are not taught in detail what they must do to achieve a peaceful coexistence.
In rhetoric of politics, a larger budget is called for to eliminate poverty in communities far from cities; through giving food to poor so they can eat a few days,
instead of starting a campaign of respect for their lands and forests first and then carry out a real educational plan, respecting their cultural formation. If this dream is fulfilled, result will be seen a generation later.
Since appearance of radio and television, a distractor originated very quickly, distracting attention of adults, young people and children, making them dream of arriving at great shows, resulting in rejection of productive work and unsatisfactory or dangerously low school performance.
New instructive education models aim to make everyone have a professional academic degree; that they receive, «A GOOD EDUCATION», so they will obtain «a good job», increasing the offer of individuals with high academic level, leaving the intermediate level empty of offer; however, it is better to truly learn a craftsmanship than have a bad bachelor degree.
There is a popular expression that says: «STUDY FOR NOT TO BE A DISHWASHER»; this expression, despises all activities that human being needs for its subsistence.
Perhaps it is a mistake of parents and rulers to pretend that children study a professional career; for the following observations:
- Not everyone wants or can study a professional career.
- Those who do not wish to study are reduced or minimized by «their lack of ambition»
- And as mentioned above, mid-level jobs have been forgotten, lacking labor force at that level.
With instructive education systems where teacher is only a guide; such as open
systems or the so-called distance education, where it is assumed that student must learn by itself; Then, what student achieves must be a reason for approval, since free will does not have a specific reference for evaluation.
The master must be that, a teacher and student must be a student, not an explorer in an explored field, learning by himself; being able to frustrate in two ways: discovering something new for them but that was already discovered or working exhaustively and not even discovering anything.
“KNOWLEDGE AND FREEDOM ARE INSEPARABLE” [Adolfo Lopez
Mateos Mexico’s president from 1958 to 1964 A.D.].
- Large companies with their regulations create restrictions that limit initiative of their employees in some cases and in others they are used as a pretext for not doing things or making a decision; They also create levels of comfort for employees, causing incompetence.
- Large companies believe that they have a real work team because they give seminars and generate «philosophies» to work as a team; however, surreptitiously individualism prevails; in a team, only minimum necessary is done, which at the same time satisfies company because it generates economic profits and the rest that does not matter; it’s everyone’s thing.
- Law of supply and demand, widely accepted by marketing philosophies and techniques, is an immoral law
- Instructive education, for some reason, has focused on promoting and training professionals, which in many cases mentally incapacitates them to carry out a productive activity (they believe that they are of a superior caste) by not training technicians who are actually the ones who do the job.
- Currently the leaders of the countries have and continue to give convenient solutions and not the correct ones to the diverse problems; e.g. Social problems are given economic/political solutions; the technical/economic ones are given political solutions. When someone truly proposes something beneficial, it is blocked to prevent sympathy and to avoid exposing the evil of the control group, this is a perverse game performed by the mentally ill.
- Practical instructive education; It’s better a good craftsman than a bad bachelor degree.
1. Adolfo Lopez Mateos Mexico’s president from 1958 to 1964 A.D.
- Albert Einstein. Microsoft® Encarta Encyclopedia® 2001. © 1993 -2000 Microsoft Corporation, all rights reserved).
- D. Cooler, Phd. 1994 A.D.).
- María Antonieta Casanova, LA EVALUACIÓN EDUCATIVA, página 124
5. Teaching. Microsoft® Encarta Encyclopedia® 2001. © 1993 -2000 Microsoft Corporation, all rights reserved.) (21).