Американский Научный Журнал COLOR SCIENCE: THEORY AND PRACTICE (4-7)

As you know, colors play an important role and value in solving aesthetic problems in creative activity in design, in the visual arts. From this point of view, the physical properties of flowers are analyzed, as well as their psycho-emotional impact on humans. The scientific and theoretical views and experiences of various well-known experts on colors in different historical periods are considered. Summarizing the materials studied and based on personal practical experience, the author presents a classification by color. The use of colors in artistic activities based on the classification is commented. Скачать в формате PDF
4 American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020
ИСКУССТВОВЕДЕНИЕ

COLOR SCIEN CE: THEORY AND PRACTICE

Hajiyev Imash Adyshirin
Doctor of Art (Dr. Sc.), Ass ociate Professor,
Member of the Union of Artists of Azerbaijan,
Member of the Union of Designers of Azerbaijan,
Full member (academician) AN TURON of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Professor Department of Design and National Arts Institute of Philology and Intercultural Communication
of the Kazan (Volga) Federal University
ORCID : 0000 -0001 -7868 -6899

ЦВЕТОВЕДЕНИЕ: ТЕОРИЯ И ПРАКТИКА
DOI: 10.31618/asj.2707 -9864.2020.1.40.18
Аннотация . Как известно, цвета играют важную роль и значение в решении эстети ческих проблем в
творческой деятельности в дизайне, в изобразительном искусстве. C этой точки зрения анализируется
физические свойства цв етов, а т акж е их психоэмоциональные воздействия на человека.
Рассматриваются научно -теорети ческие взгляды и опыты различн ых известных специалистов о
цветах в разных исторических периодах. Обобщая, изученные м атериалы и исходя, из личного
практи ческого опыта предст авляется автором классификация по цветам.
Комментируется применение цветов в худо жественной деятельности на основании кл ассификации.
Annotation . As you know, colors play an important role and value in solving aesthetic pr oblems in creative
activity in des ign, in the visual arts. From this point of view, the physical properties of flowers are analyzed, as
well as their psycho -emotional impact on hum ans.
The scientific and theoretical views and experiences of various well -known experts on colors in differen t
historical periods are considered. Summarizing the materials studied and based on personal practical ex perience,
the author presents a classif ication by color.
The use of colors in artistic activities based on the class ification is commented.
Ключевые сл ова: цвет, теория, психофизиология, спектр, клас сификация, дизайн
Key words: color, theory, psychophysiology, spectrum, classification, design

Even from ancie nt times, people became
interested in color and used them in everyday life -
dwellin gs, clothes, objects. Colors, along with their
aesthetic meaning in the life of ancient people, also
expressed their mythological worldview, religious and
ideological views in one form or another, and then, at
different stages of social life, also had soci ocultural
significance.
Color and color schemes have been studied from
time to time and have become a separate area of
research. It should be noted that the problem of color
was also the s ubject of research by ancient philosophers
and thinkers. Famous Gree k philosophers Plato,
Aristotle and others condu cted research in this area.
Their scientific work played a role in the further study
of colors.
The thoug hts and conclusions abou t the psych
emotiona l peculiaritie s of colours by Russia n scienti st
M. V.Lomonos ov, English scientist I. Newton,
Germany philos opher V. Ho te, well known pain ter,
graphcis t, theoris t and ped agog y V. Kandinsk y, Franci s
specialist of technical aesthetic J. Veneno, Francis
scientists M. Deribere, Russian psychologist V. M.
Bekh terev, Swit zerland psychologist M. Lüscher and
etc. assume very high importance in the chromatics
science. Put forward thoughts and conclusions have
played very imp ortant role in the mainly investigation
and study of colours, including in their practical
application opportunities in dif ferent spheres too.
[2, с.11 6-117].
The colours divide into chromate -coloured (in
Greek origin means – “chromos” – colour) and
achromatic -colourless types. In the scientific
specialists literatures yellow, orange, red, blue, cyan,
green, violet and other many colour shades incl udes to
chromatic colours, these colours have characte ristics of
colours [6, p.87].
Cord ing to the scientific literature, there are three
of the four primary colors that are considered major -
red, yellow and blue; and one is green, obtained by
mixing co lors. The determined color system is shown
in the following diagram (scheme1) [3,107].

American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 5

Scheme1.

he main characteristics of the color are determined
in the following sequence:
- color tone - color property;
- saturation - color quality;
- lightness - the quality of the observed color, built
up by the sensation of a gre ater or lesser degree of
relative brightness.
The colour shade characterizes for their
wavelength superiority and noted with nm
(nanometer). The wavelen gth of different colours in
the spec ter was determined as following. Violet –
390…450, blue -450…480, cyan -480…510, green -
510…550, yellow -575… 585, orange -585…620, red -
620… 800 nm. [6, p.87].
To achromatic colours included –white, black also
grey which derivate from them and its differe nt (da rk,
light sha des) , (scheme 2) [3, p. 108 ].

Scheme 2.

6 American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020
First of all, prominent English physicist and
mathematician Isaac Newton explained t h e colours
nature. He defined visible light as a physical factor in the
perceptio n of all colors. He showe d tha t white sun
shining joins seven different colours on itself. They are
red, orange, yellow, green, cyan (blue), indigo (blue)
and violet.
From all these colours’ junctions creates the white
colou r. We should note that red, blue and yellow of
those seven col ours consider the main colours. Being
different from I. New ton, as a poe t V. Ho te attracted by
colours’ romance and their influence peculiarities to
human’s sentiment. He wrote: “The colours can create
the emotion s on humans …” Con ditionally he divid ed
on colours into two groups – bringing happiness and
cause of sad and investigated them separately [9, p. 62].
Jack Veneno the founder of Technical Aesthetic
Institution of France the professional special ists on
colours’ clima te wrote: “The colours are very capable:
it can make calm ness and irritant light. It can create the
harmony and shock; we can expect from them both
miracle and commotion ” [1, p.37]. Another Francis
scientist M. Deribere separately ana lyzed the different
colours’ viewpoint of psychol ogy and showed that they
directly influenced to the act and humans’ health [1, p.
39 -40]. The emotional – psychological peculi arities of
colour, natural influences and importance has explaine d
in anothe r sou rce too [ 11]. V. M. Bekh terev the famous
psycholo gist generalized all his experience on colour’s
influ - ence to organism and come to such conclusion
that in the future would be efficiently used from the
colours in treatment of nervous diseases. In some
sci entific works by Timiryaze was about the colours and
the ir emotional and psychological reacts on humans [8,
p.129].
The humans with higher skin and optic sense can
even determine the colours with their fingers. The
humans with higher skin and optic sen se can even
determine the colours with their fingers . After many
practi cal experiments carried out by ourselves we got
know that such “definition” is obviously possible in
special position of organism .
Former ly, such interesting experience was created
out on the students of the departmen t of “Artisti c
drawing ” in the chair of “Pedagogy and psychology”
of the Pedagogical Institute in Nizhny Taghil. Mainl y,
the same ability was disco vered on ten of fifteen
students [10, p.64].
Switzerland psychologist Max Lüscher offered
the colours’ tests which were method s for anal yzing
of personality and at the same time formed complete
direction on the science about the colours [5, p.108].
In the creativity on different types and genres of
fine art the colours are one of the most powerful
influential means and is invest igated and studied their
different shades of artistic –aesthetic, emotional -
psychological and semantic peculiarities in according
level, but in the technical aest hetics and in design
creativity the investigation and their studies according
to their physical and psycho logical properties and
influences beside above -mentions assume very high
importance. Because, in different spheres of design
creativity opti mal applic ation of colours and the main
problems on appo intment of objects and things create
effective wa rranty for composition of utilitarian -
functional and psychophysiologi cal requirements.
The creation of human -thing -machine -
environment sys tems and perceiving of colours in its
organization and their psychological influence to
humans have seriously inves tiga ted by the specialists,
and achieved interesting results in this aspect. It is
natural that under the modern condition uses from
opportunities of chromatics science not only in the
solution of artistic -esthetic assignment of interior and
exterior , it also uses wid ely in industrial design -in
decoration of things and equipment. Of course, the
projecting ware of designer who deeply investigated the
problems of colours problems and correctly used their
application will be alwa ys attract the attention and
ensure the tas tes of buyers.
The problems about the semantic and
psychophysiologi cal influence of colours were based
and explained in diff erent scientific -specialists
literatures in according level [1; 4; 6;7; 11;]. On the
base of scientific -theoretical con clusions, als o on the
base of individual observations and experience the
colours can be classified according to physical
properties and psychological -emotional influences on
different groups (main colours, derivate colours) as
following:
• chromatic -achromat ic;
• hot -cold;
• active -passive;
• dark -light;
• vivid -weighed;
• contrast -relative;
• optimist -pessimist;
• irritative -calmness;
• symbolic and etc.
In industrial design, in industrial graphic,
advertise ment, artistic bundle, artistic encase and etc.
creative works, the classificat ion of colours application
with taking into the consideration the different and
multisided peculiarities could create effective
guarantee to the solution of general composition
viewpoint of visual requests of artistic -aesthetic,
psychological -emotional and usability.

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