Американский Научный Журнал INTERACTIVE ENGLISH TEACHING

Abstract. One of the main principles of education is interaction. In language classes, learners should have more autonomy to have interactions among themselves as well as with the teacher. Second language learners are more likely to achieve better levels of comprehension of the new input in their effort to communicate through interaction. Based on socio-cultural theory, language has both functions of communicative tool and a psychological tool which mediates meaning between the individual and the linguistic goal and therefore assists the cognitive development process. This study investigates interactive language teaching among the English high school teachers. We investigated the effect of individual factors, gender, educational background, teacher education, and marital status of teachers on their tendency to interactive teaching. The results of the study showed that some of the above factors influence the teacher’s tendency to interactive teaching. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № (2 8) / 2019 7

INTERACTIVE ENGLISH TEACHING

Galina Plotnikova
Cand. Sc. Philology, the English Langua ge Department,
Taganrog Institute named after A.P. Chekhov,
Taganrog
Marina Akhanova
Cand. Sc. Philology, the English Language Department,
Taganrog Institute named after A.P. Chekhov,
Taganrog

Abstract. One of the main principles of education is interaction. In language classes, learners should have
more autonomy to have interactions among themselves as well as with the teacher. Second language learners are
more likely to achieve better levels of comprehe nsion of th e new input in their effort to communicate through
interaction. Based on socio -cultural theory, language has both functions of communicative tool and a psychological
tool which mediates meaning between the individual and the linguistic goal and therefore a ssists the cognitive
development process. This study investigates interactive language teaching among the English high school
teachers. We investigated the effect of individual factors, gender, educational background, teacher education, and
mari tal status of teachers on their tendency to interactive teaching. The results of the study showed that some of
the above factors influence the teacher’s tendency to interactive teaching.
Keywords: interaction, interactive teaching, textbooks, critical thi nking, crea tive thinking, teaching method

There are many factors that are involved in
education. These factors may also vary based on time,
place and context. Teachers are also facing many
challenges. Gass asserts that education should have the
following features: Education should focus on critica l
thinking, creative thinking, active in -group learning,
and teacher - learner interaction. Education should not
be teacher -centered, learner -centered, knowledge -
centered, or society -centered. Rather, it must include all
these factors and should look at th e issue from a holistic
point of view [4, p.251]. The developed countries in
recent decades have shifted from the traditional
approaches to learning and teaching by a meticulous
educational system, the excessive numbers of
researches conducted have shown t hat traditional
approaches to learning are no more working for the
current time [3, p.224]. Traditional teaching methods
such as grammar translation have been used for a long
time. GTM is still used in high schools. We may also
see the use of some aspects of new approaches in
classrooms. However, the goal of this study is not to
suggest a specific method for language teaching in high
schools. Rather, we are emphasizing the benefits of
interaction and interactive teaching in meeting the
educational needs and gaining better educational
objectives in high schools. Sometimes, teachers face
some problems in engaging students in the class
activities. Teachers might think that interactive
teaching is a small part of the classroom t eaching along
the other activities , and interactive teaching requires
some extra time which is a wrong conception [1,
p.167]. This means that they have mostly been
experiencing teacher -centered classes and have
provided less chance for student’s autonomy a nd an
interactive relationship bet ween the teacher and the
language learners. Interactive teaching is not limiting
the control of the teachers and giving more power to
students. The interactive view sees language as a
vehicle for the creation and maintenan ce of social
relations, focusing on patterns of moves, acts,
negotiation and interaction found in conversational
exchanges. We will therefore keep in our treatment of
English grammatical structure many ideas and terms
inherited from traditional grammar. Ou r task will be to
introd uce the learners at least to some of grammar
problems, and to help them to prepare for reading the
numerous special treatises on these subjects. Teaching
English we, the English teachers must find a competent
approach to students. W hat is competence?
Compe tence can be described as the combination of
training, skills, experience and knowledge that a person
has and their ability to apply them to perform a task
safely . Other factors, such as attitude and physical
ability, can also affec t someone’s competence.
Competence indicates sufficiency of knowledge and
skills that enable someone to act in a wide variety of
situations. Because each level of responsibilit y has its
own requirements , competence, can occur in
any period of a person's life or at any stage of his or
her career . A competent person s hould not be chosen
ligh tly, experts say, because he or she needs to be
qualified to identify the hazards associated with a
particular operation. For instance, if work is being
performed on scaffolding, the competent person must
be knowledgeable about scaf folding hazards. This
knowledge can come from a person’s skills, experience
and training. What Is a Competent Teacher? A
competent teacher could be described as one whose
students show significant progress and gains in their
various subjects. A competent t eacher must also be an
inspirational leader with lots of motivational
techniques. Sound judgement and good sense are
requisite skills too. One of the most serious and
comprehensive methods of learning a foreign language
- lingvosociocultural, involving an appeal to such a
compone nt, as a social and cultural environment.

8 American Scientific Journal № ( 28) / 2019
Proponents firmly believe that language loses life when
teachers and students aim to acquire a "lifeless" lexical
and grammatical forms. Learning grammar is often
perceived as a tedious and laborious process.
Wher eas students often lose interest during
lecture -style teaching, interactive teaching styles
promote an atmosphere of attention and participation.
Make it interesting. Make it exciting. Make it fun. As
you well know, telling is not t eaching and listening is
not learning.
We can follow the guidelines to express the focus
of interactive educational teaching styles:
• Encourage student participation.
• Use questions that stimulate response,
discussion, and a hands -on experience.
• Use teaching aids that press for answers, and
capture/hold the student’s attention.
• Set up a workgroup environment.
• Involve yourself as well as the student.
Here are some of the most effective ways to
engage our students.
1. Brainstorming
Interactive brainstorming is typically performed i n
group sessions. The process is useful for generating
creative thoughts and ideas. Brainstorming helps
students learn to pull together. Types of interactive
brainstorming include:
• Structured and unstructured
• Reverse or negative thinki ng
• Nominal group rela tionships
• Online interaction such as chat, forums and
email
• Team -idea mapping
• Group passing
• Individual brainstorming
2. Think, pair, and share
Establish a problem or a question, then pair your
students. Give each pair sufficient time t o form a
conclusion, and permit each participant to define the
conclusion in his or her personal voice. You can also
request that one student explain a concept while the
other student evaluates what is being learned. Apply
different variations of the proce ss— your students will
be engaged, communicating, and retaining more
information before your eyes.
3. Buzz session
Participants come together in session groups that
focus on a single topic. Within each group, every
student contributes thoughts and ideas. En courage
discussion an d collaboration among the students within
each group; everyone should learn from one another’s
input and experiences.
4. Incident process
This teaching style involves a case study format,
but the process is not so rigid as a full case study
training sessio n. The focus is on learning how to
solve real problems that involve real people —
preparing your students for life beyond your classroom.
Provide small groups of students with details from
actual incidents and then ask them to develop a
workable solution.
5. Q&A sessions
On the heels of every topic introduction, but prior
to formal lecturing, ask your students to jot down
questions pertaining to the subject matter on 3×5 index
cards. After you collect the cards, mix them up and read
and a nswer the student -generated questions.
So we would like to examine some
traditional techniques and compare them with the use
of language games for grammar presentation and
revision, in order to determine whether they are
successful in presenting and revisi ng grammar than
other methods. From my teaching experience I have
noticed how enthusiastic students are about practicing
language by means of games. I believe that the
grammar games are not only fun but they help students
learn without a conscious analysis or unders tanding of
the learning process while they acquire communicative
competence as second language users. There are
numerous techniques concerned with grammar
presentation. However, there are a few things that have
to be remembered irrespective of th e way new lexical
items are presented. If teachers want students to
remember new grammar it needs to be learnt in the
context, practiced and then revised to prevent students
from forgetting. Teachers must take sure of that
students have understood the new words, whi ch will be
remembered better if introduced in a “memorable
way”. Bearing all this in mind, teachers have to
remember to employ a variety of techniques for new
grammatical presentation and revision. Schools and
colleges should form an integral sys tem of uni versal
knowledge and skills as well as self -employment and
personal responsibility of students, that is the key
competencies that define the modern quality education.
By teaching interactively, teachers can
students to activate their prior know ledge of t he
content, to use it for their present and future learning
tasks. Sometimes, there are some flaws in what student
have learned previously, and by reviewing it teachers
can provide corrective feedback for eliminating those
flaws. There are many d efinitions for teaching. One is
that teaching is an activity, but not any kind of activity.
It is an activity which is done consciously, and is
designed to follow a specific objective [5, p.112].
Interaction is necessary for effective teaching.
Teaching ha s two spec ial characteristics: 1. The
existence of interaction and relationship between the
teacher and the learners. 2. Goal -oriented activities of
the teachers. Teaching is not doing a set of unrelated
and one -directional activities, and by considering t he
concept of “interaction” does not include learning from
other sources such as movies, T.V, or books. What is
emphasized here is interaction. There are some factors
like the individual characteristics of the teachers,
educational, and professional charac teristics which are
influential in pre -teaching, in -teaching, and post -
teaching of teachers [2, p.39].
It is mostly believed that classroom language
learning is greatly depend on the nature of the
classroom interaction in order to meet the desired
outcome s. As a result, sociocultural and institutional
realities that exist outside the classroom should be

American Scientific Journal № (2 8) / 2019 9

reflected as much as possible in the classroom, and
classroom interaction covers the elements of
negotiation, co -construction, and collaborative
dialogue.
Classroom interaction helps in developing the
ability of constructing second language acquisition.
Therefore, the organization of classroom interactively
and culturally classroom is greatly important. The most
interactive form is pair or group. Pair or gr oup work has
three value systems of choice, freedom and equality
besides paying attention to the sociocultural and
personal experience that assists students’ behavior in
the classroom. There must be a kind of interaction
between the learner and the teachin g c ontext to come
up with learning. But if we want to achieve more than
a superficial level of interaction, learners must be aware
that they have to meaningfully engage with the
teaching, and bring themselves to the exchange rather
that only being one who pas sively receives preformed
information. A level of active participation is required
by learners who take part in the development of
collective understanding to achieve interactivity.

References:
1. Allwright, D. (1984). The importance of
interaction in classroom language learning. Applied
Linguistics, 5 (2) 156 -171.
2. Burns, C., & Myhill, D. (2004). Interactive or
inactive? A consideration of the nature of interaction in
whole class teaching. Cambridge Journal of Education,
34 (1), 35 -49.
3. Ellis, R . (1999). Learning a second language
through interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
Publishing Company.
4. Gass, S. M. (2003). Input and interaction. In C.
J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of
second language acquisition (pp. 224 -255). Oxford:
Bla ckwell.
5. Littlewood, W. (1981). Communicative
language teaching: An introduction. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.

ХОЗЯЙСТВЕННАЯ ДЕЯТЕЛ ЬНОСТЬ ЧЕЧЕНСКИХ МУХ АДЖИРОВ В ПЕРВЫЕ ГОД Ы
ДЕПОРТАЦИИ

Шавлаева Тамара Магамедовна
Доктор исторических наук, главный научный сотрудник
Отдела этнологии Института гуманитарных исследований
Академии наук Чеченской республики
г. Грозный

THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE CHECHEN MUHAJIRS IN THE FIRST YEARS OF
DEPORTATION

Shavlaeva Tamara Magamedovna
Doctor of historical Sciences, Chief scientific employee of the Department
of Ethnology Institute for humanitarian studies
Academy of Scienc es of the Chechen Republic
G. Grozny

Аннотация . Расматривается хозяйственная деятельность чеченцев -мухаджиров, которые были
переселены в Османскую империю после окончания Кавказской войны. Отмечается, что лживые обещания
заинтересованных сторон заставили мухаджиров пройти через большие трудно сти. Жизне стойкие и
трудолюбивые переселенцы преодолели все невзгоды, освоили заброшенные земли и внесли оживление в
хозяйственную сферу чужого края.
Abstract . The article examines the economic activities of the Chechen Muhajirs who were resettled in the
Ottoman Empire after the end of the Caucasian War. It is noted that the false promises of stakeholders made the
Muhajirs go through great difficulties. Viable and hardworking immigrants overcame all hardships, mastered
abandoned lands and brought revival t o the economic sphere of a foreign.
Ключевые слова: чеченцы, мухаджиры, земельный вопрос, депортация, хозяйственная деятельность.
Key words: Chechens, Muhajirs, the land issue, deportation, economic activity.

Поясним сразу же, что термин «мухаджиры» в
буквальном переводе из арабского языка означает
«переселенцы» или «эмигранты» от слова хиджра ,
т. е. переселение. Под термином «депортация» мы
подразумеваем одну из форм депортации, по той
причине, что истинный смысл термина
«депортация» - выдворение, изгнание - имел в
нашем случае не открытую форму, а с крытую.
В данной статье рассматривается одна из
трагических страниц в истории чеченцев, чеченцев -
карабулаков и ингушей -назрановцев,
соответственно: 3502, 1500 и 100 семей, общ ей
численностью 22491 человек, которые по
завершении Кавказской войны были привлечены к
переселе нию в Османскую империю [2, с. 168].