Американский Научный Журнал MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISES WITH EXTENSIONS ON THE FEMALE BODY, TAKING THE EXAMPLE OF KETTLEBELL SPORT (GIREVOY)

Abstract. Objectives. Currently, there is a significant increase in the popularity of women’s athletic activity with heavy weights. Many of the provisions on the effect of strength exercises on the female body are contradictory; in particular, there are many disputes regarding the dangers of striking a barbell or kettlebells against the female chest. This article describes the results of the research on the impact of kettlebell sport, particularly, the impact of the long cycle discipline on the female body at different ages. Method. There was used the survey method in the form of a questionnaire and the method of ultrasound diagnostics with pedagogical observation. Design. A survey was conducted in the form of a questionnaire, on the eve of the kettlebell World Club Championship in February 2017 in California (USA). The questionnaire contained questions for the selfassessment of the health of the musculoskeletal, nervous and cardiovascular systems and the status of reproductive function. In the next stage of ultrasound research the athletes carried out a monthly training plan throughout the experiment. Information was collected on the physical and psychological status of female athletes, assessing the influence of exercises and load parameters of competitive kettlebell sport disciplines on the bodies of the participants Results. According to the results of the survey, it was found that the main impact of kettlebell training is on the musculoskeletal system. A comparative analysis of the results of the ultrasound diagnostics of the mammary glands and pelvic organs showed a lack of pathological changes. Conclusion. The results of scientific research showed that regular kettlebell lifting exercises, particularly in the long cycle discipline, do not negatively affect the female body. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 37

MEASURING THE EFFECT S OF EXERCISES WITH EXTENSIONS ON THE FE MALE BODY,
TAKING THE EXAMPLE O F KETTLEBELL SPORT ( GIREVO Y)

Daniliuk Svetlana Vladimirovna
M.Sc.,
Lesgaft National State University of Physical Education,
Sport and Health, St. Petersburg
Vinogradov Genadii Petrovich
Ed.D.,
professor,
Lesgaft National State University of Physical Education,
Sport and Health, St . Petersburg

Abstract . Objectives. Currently, there is a significant increase in the popularity of women’s athletic
activity with heavy weights. Many of the provisions on the effect of strength exercises on the female body are
contradictory; in particular , there are many disputes regarding the dangers of striking a barbell or kettlebells
against the fem ale chest. This article describes the results of the research on the impact of kettlebell sport,
particularly, the impact of the long cycle discipline on th e female body at different ages.
Method. There was used the survey method in the form of a questionn aire and the method of ultrasound
diagnostics with pedagogical observation.
Design. A survey was conducted in the form of a questionnaire, on the eve of the kettlebell World Club
Championship in February 2017 in California (USA). The questionnaire containe d questions for the self -
assessment of the health of the musculoskeletal, nervous and cardiovascular systems and the status of
reproductive function. In the next stage of ultrasound research the athletes carried out a monthly training plan
throughout the e xperiment. Information was collected on the physical and psychological status of female
athletes, assessing the influence of exercises and load parameters o f competitive kettlebell sport disciplines
on the bodies of the participants
Results. According to t he results of the survey, it was found that the main impact of kettlebell training is
on the musculoskeletal system. A comparative analysis of the results o f the ultrasound diagnostics of the
mammary glands and pelvic organs showed a lack of pathological c hanges.
Conclusion. The results of scientific research showed that regular kettlebell lifting exercises, particularly
in the long cycle discipline, do not n egatively affect the female body.
Keywords: female sport, kettlebell sport, power exercises

PRACTICAL IMPLICATION
The practical implication of the research is:
• The self -assessment of physical and
psychological status of female athletes showed absence
of negative effects the nervous and cardiovascular
systems and the status of reproductive function. This
conclusion lays the ground for further popularization of
long cycle discipline.
• Correct technique of kettlebell exercises
excludes sub -maximal loads on th e female body which
confirmed by assessing the influence of exer cises and
load parameters of competitive kettlebell sport
disciplines on the bodies of the participants. This
conclusion lays the ground for further education
professional kettlebell coaches o f long cycle discipline.
• The regular kettlebell lifting exercis es do not
negatively impact the female chest and the status of
reproductive function. This conclusion supports the
popularization of the kettlebell sport for women.
INTRODUCTION
Many of the pr ovisional findings on the effect of
the kettlebell long cycle di scipline on the female body
are contradictory, especially concerning the shock
loads in such elements of the technique as striking the
kettlebells against the female chest. In this context, it is
of undoubted interest to research the health status of
femal e kettlebell athletes1.
A review of the scientific literature has shown
there is a lack of modern scientific research on the
peculiarities of the impact of kettlebell training on
women’s healt h2. For the first time, we have researched
the effects of the co mpetitive disciplines of kettlebell
sport on the health status of female athletes in the
competitive period.
The objectives of the research:
1. To study the impact of kettlebell exercises on
the female body at different ages
2. To identify the impact of kettlebe ll sport
disciplines on physical status of female athletes
3. To determine the positive and negative factors
kettlebell sport, particularly, the impact of the long
cycle discipline on the female body.
METHODS
At the first stage of the research, a survey was
conducted in the form of a questionnaire, on the eve of
the kettlebell World Club Championship in February
2017 in California (USA).
The objectives of this stage of the research were:
I. Theoretic ally substantiate the components of the
activity of internal body systems for the assessment of
the health status of female’s athlete.
II. To reveal the presence of pain among the female
participants of the kettlebell World Club
Championship.
At the second sta ge of the research in the period
from 2017 to 2018, using the method of ultrasound
diagnostics of the pelvic organs and mammary glands,
an experiment was conducted at the «Female

38 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
Consultation №8» at the State Healthcare Institution of
the Krasnogvardeisky area of Saint Petersburg.
Ultrasound diagnostics was carried out on an ALOKA
SSD -4000 universal stationary ultrasound scanner with
built -in IDMS and a frequency of working sensors of
7.5 -10 MHz. The total number of participants in the
experiment was 10 wom en. The composition of both
experimental groups was not statistically different
(with a confidence level p> 0.5).
The purpose of the research in the form of a
questionnaire on the eve of the kettlebell World Club
Championship in February 2017 in California (USA)
was to identify the self -assessed state of he alth of the
female participants.
The questionnaire contained questions for the self -
assessment of the health of the musculoskeletal,
nervous and cardiovascular systems and the status of
reproductive funct ion3.
A prerequisite for the experiment at the secon d
stage of the research was a comparison of the initial
ultrasound indicators of the control and experimental
groups in September 2017 and the end indicators in
September 2018, as well as a comparison of these
characteristics with the standard indicators f or women
of childbearing age.
In the second year of ultrasound research the
athletes carried out a monthly training plan throughout
the experiment. Information was collected on the
physical and psychologi cal status of female athletes,
assessing the influen ce of exercises and load
parameters of competitive kettlebell sport disciplines
on the bodies of the participants4. Each stage of the
annual macrocycle training affects the endurance of
female athletes in different ways and causes significant
functional ch anges in the body, ultimately affecting the
overall physiological state5.
The main idea of the ultrasound research was to
emit an ultrasound scanner with a high frequency wave
of oscillation, which passes through biological tissues,
where some of them are absorbed, scattered or reflected
back, and after which the same device receives the
returned waves and transforms them into an image on a
monitor. Images of the studied organs can be seen on
the screen as a result of using an ultrasound scanner.
Mammary g land scans were performed on the
right and left breast, during which the following were
evaluated:
• Adipose tissue size
• Ferrous compounds and their parameters
• Lactiferous ducts and their condition
• Density of tissues and walls
• During the pelvic ultrasounds, the following
were evaluated:
• Uterus, cervix and endometrial thickness
• The size of the echo structure (M -ECHO)
• The size of the ovaries
• Any structural changes in the fallopian tubes
RESULTS
A mathematical analysis (by percentage) was
carried out on the sur vey results, which included data
from 16 athletes from 6 countries (Figure 1). Female
kettlebell athletes competed in the snatch, jerk and long
cycle disciplines with kettlebells weighing 16 and 24
kg eac h; 16 athletes from 7 countries took part in the
sur vey. The average age of female athletes was 30 -40
years. The average length of kettlebell sport experience
was 3 -5 years (Table 1).

Figure 1 - The quantitative composition of the survey participants

American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 39

Table 1
GENERAL CHARACTERIST ICS OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE CHAMPIONSHIP (N = 16)
Characteristics of respondents (n = 16)
Parameters Categories Number of respondents
Age (years)
20 -30
31 -40
41 -60
3
9
4
Training experience (years)
3
3-5
5-10
4
9
3
Discip line
Long cycle
Jerk
Snatch
13
8
8
Kettlebell weight (kg)
12
16
24
2
9
5

According to the results of the survey, it was found
that the main impact of kettlebell training is on the
musculoskeletal system. The overall pain indicator was
at 21.3 percentag e (Table 2).
Table 2
SELF -ASSESSMENT OF A CTIVITY DIF FERENT BODY SYSTEMS OF ATHLETES, N = 16 (WITH
THE NUMBER OF RESPON SES GIVEN BY PERCENT AGE)
Self -assessment Pain Absence of
pain
Musculoskeletal system (5 indicators) 21.3 78.7
Nervous system (4 indicat ors) 17.2 82.8
Cardiovascular system (4 indicators) 4.7 95.3
Reproductive function (4 indicators) 1.6 98.4
TOTAL: 17 indicators 11.8 88.2

Kettlebell training has the greatest impact on the
lumbar spine; it is the most vulnerable part of the
female bo dy (the ratio of respondents’ a nswers: pain at
43.8%, absence of pain at 56.2%).
Self -assessment of the state of the nervous system
showed complaints of feeling tired and weak in the
morning at 43.8% of respondents. It is necessary to
consider that, in par t, this is due to acclimatizati on after
a long flight to the USA from Europe or Asia.
The lowest rates of pain were reported in the
indicators of the cardiovascular system (at 4.7 % of
respondents) and the reproductive system; only one of
the 16 interviewe d complained of pain in the low er
abdomen after exercise.
A comparative analysis of the results of the
ultrasound diagnostics of the mammary glands in 2017
and 2018 showed that the thickness of the mammary
glands was in the normal range of 14 -20 mm for bot h
groups of participants. Lacti ferous ducts were easily
distinguishable and did not have local extensions;
deformations were absent. Deviation indicators from
the standard of the nodal abnormalities in the mammary
gland were recorded only for one of the pa rticipants in
the control group , competing in the kettlebell snatch
discipline. A nodular lesion was found in the left
mammary gland at 0,38 cm. It was established that this
change was a consequence of neuro -psychological
fatigue and was not associated wit h kettlebell lifting
because ke ttlebell snatch involves no impact on the
chest area.
Analysis of the results of the ultrasound
diagnostics of the pelvic organs showed that in both
groups of participants the fallopian tubes had not
expanded, the size of the uterus was within the normal
range of 35 –40 mm; the echo structure was within the
normal range of 3,5 –15,0 mm. The measurements of
the ovaries corresponded to those of a healthy woman.
The size of the ovaries was in the range from 2 to 8
cm3, the length n ot more than 30 mm, the width n ot
more than 25 mm and the thickness not more than 15
mm.
DISCUSSION
Currently, there is a significant increase in the
popularity of women’s athletic activity which has
different orientations:
− Sports. Women participate in dif ferent types
of competitions such as weightlifting (as an Olympic
sport); in world and continental championships in
powerlifting; in kettlebell sport; in bodybuilding and
fitness,
− Recreational,
− Wellness,
− Adaptive.
That is why an annual medical examination of the
female he alth of the musculoskeletal, nervous and
cardiovascular systems and the status of reproductive
function should take place in all stages of sports
training.
In order to increase the scientific and evidence
base, it is considered expedient to further conduct
medical and biological researches on female body,

40 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
using more detailed examination techniques such as
breast mammography and densitometry of the lumbar
spine.
Not only do coaches need to control the body's
reaction from strength exercises d uring the traini ng but
also, they need to monitor psychological state of female
athletes.
CONCLUSION
The results of scientific research showed that
regular kettlebell lifting exercises, particularly in the
long cycle discipline, do not negatively affect th e
female body. T his conclusion supports the
popularization of the long cycle discipline for women.
In January 2018 the long cycle discipline had been
acknowledged as an official competitive discipline by
the Ministry of Sports of the Russian Federation and a
ranking table and protocols had been set for each
weight class. This innovation lays the ground for
further research on the effects of this discipline on the
female body.
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