Американский Научный Журнал MODIFIED DETAILED INFANTILISM TEST – DIT-M (24-32)

The introduction (the first part of the article) raises the general issue, the second part of the article presents brief data on the types of infantilism, the third part deals with the issues of general (nonspecific) signs of infantilism, the fourth part contains a DIT-M test (Modified Detailed Infantilism Test), the fifth part of the article sets out the mathematical apparatus for processing test results, the sixth part of the article is devoted to the use of the test and the diagnosis of the degrees of infantilism introduced in the article on the basis of the test results, the seventh part summarizes the results of the [insufficient number of] trial tests. Скачать в формате PDF
24 American Scientific Journal № ( 42 ) / 2020
преподавателей и инструкторов предмета «Первая
помощь» не может быть навязано организации,
осуществляющей обр азо вательную деятельность
по дополнительному образованию, извне.
4. Подготовка преподавателей и
инструкторов предмета «Первая помощь» должна
быть практикоориетированной с полноценным
симуляционным компонентом.
5. Подготовка преподавателей и
инструкторов предмета «Первая помощь» явля ется
важным звеном системы безопасности, позволяет
обеспечивать качественное обучение населения
приёмам оказания первой помощи, а значит, и
качественное оказание первой помощи
пострадавшим и остро заболевшим людям до
прибытия СМП.

Лит ера тура:
1. Авдеева в. Г. Организационно -
функциональная модель типовой образовательно -
методической системы службы медицины
катастроф регионального уровня. 05.26.02.
Безопасность в ЧС (медицина катастроф). М.: 2006.
С. 325 -329.
2. Авдеева В. Г. Опыт использования учебно -
тренировочног о оборудования при подготовке
специалистов, работающих в условиях
догоспитального периода, в Пермском крае /
Первая Всероссийская конференция по
симуляционному обучению в медицине
критических состояний с международ ным
участием 01.11.20 12, Москва, НИИ СП им .
Склифосовского Н. В. Сборник тезисов. М.: 2012.
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3. Авдеева В. Г. Технологии измерения
уровня профессиональной готовности
специалистов, работающих в системе СМК и СМП
/ Всероссийская научно -практическая конфе ренция
«Готовность Вс ероссийской СМК к реа гированию
и действиям при ЧС – важнейший фактор
повышения качества и доступности медицинской
помощи пострадавшим при авариях, катастрофах и
стихийных бедствиях», Москва, 03.10. -04.10.2017.
Материалы конференции. М. : ВЦМК «Защита»,
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зарисовки, гипотезы). Пермь: Издательский дом
«Ника», 2018. 238 с.
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измерения уровня профессиональных комп етенций
специалистов, работающих в системе службы
медицины катастроф и скорой медицинской
помощи. / Сборник материалов VII
Международной научно -практической
конференции «Наука как решение и антикризисная
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«Квартет», 1994. 320 с.
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[Режим доступа ]. http://www.sciepub.com/reference.

UDC 159.923
MODIFIED DETAILED INFANTILISM TEST – DIT -M

Israel (Vladimir Modestovich) Datskovsky, Ph.D
Cabinet of Clinical Psychology and Pathopsycholog y,
Beit Shemesh, Israel

Abstract . The introduction (the first part of the article) raises the general issue, the second part of the article
presents brief data on the types of infantilism, the third part deals with the issues of general (nonspecific) sign s of
infantilism, the fourth part contains a DIT -M test (Modified Detailed Infantilism Test), the fifth part of the article
sets out the mathematical apparatus for processing test results, the sixth part of the article is devoted to the use of
the test and the diagnosis of the degrees of i nfantilism introduced in the article on the basis of the test results, the
seventh part summarizes the results of the [insufficient number of] trial tests.
Keywords: infantilism, diagnostics, testing, degrees of infantilis m, validity, reliability.

1. Introduction
In society, the number of infantile young and not
very young people with behavior that does not
correspond to their biological age is growing like an
avalanche. They cannot live normally in a normal
society, beca use they cannot (sometimes do not want)
to take responsibility for themselves, and even more for
others, even for the people closest to them, they cannot
(or do not want) to make responsible decisions, cannot
(or do not want to) be responsible for their ac tion s, for
their behavior. Acting a little emotionally, we can say
that the tendency for the growth of a layer of such
infantile people begins to threaten society, to destroy its
social fabric. In such conditions, the relevance of timely
diagnosis of the s tate of infantilism increases
significantly, and such diagnostics will allow both to
assess the scale of the problem and outline general,
primarily social, public and educational ways of
solving it in society, and in more detail than it is defined
today, t o pr ovide individual assistance in solving,
alleviating, sometimes treating this condition in
specific people.
2. Types of infantilism
Let us start with the definitions. The term
"infantilism" comes from the word "infant" . From
Wikipedia: Infant (Spanish: infa nte, Portuguese:

American Scientific Journal № ( 42 ) / 2020 25

infanta) is the title and rank given to the sons and
daughters of the king in Spain and Portugal. From the
same source: I nfantilism (Latin: infantilis) is an
obsolete term for various disorders of human
development, which consist of re tent ion of the physical
and/or psychological characteristics of early
developmental stages into a relatively advanced age.
Usually, when assessing infantile thinking,
infantile behavior, there are very few and general
definitions of this mental phenomenon natu ral for a
child, this mental state that ceases to be natural for older
children, and even more for adolescents, young people
and adults.
Sometimes scientists add about "childish
behavior", about the naivety and passivity (however,
passivity in childre n ha s been often very selective),
about avoiding responsibility.
The importance of the problem is emphasized by
Kirill Eliseev [K. Eliseev, 2013]: “The minds of
millions of inhabitants (especially in the Western
world) turned out to be conserved in the ad oles cent -
child state, with adolescent -child interests, with
outlooks on life and understanding (more precisely,
misunderstanding) their place in the world.
In the United States, for example, the so -called
kidults (abbreviated from English: kid and adult) h ave
become a common phenomenon. Kidult is an adult with
interests traditionally seen as suitable for children. The
term "kidult" was first appeared in 1985 in The New
York Times to describe men of 30 years and ol der who
are passionate about cartoons, fanta sy, computer games
and useless, but nice and often expensive gadgets. In
psychology, the term "Peter Pan Syndrome" is used to
refer to this type of personality. Psychologists explain
"The Peter Pan Syndrome" as a relatively mild,
superficial form of escapi sm – the desire to escape from
reality into a world of illusion".
Another assessment of infantilism is introduced
(within the limits of their theory) by the followers of
Sigmund Freud [Freud S., 2014], describing the
infantilism of adults either as being s tuck, fixed at a
certain stage of development, overcoming the
corresponding conflict in childhood, or as a type of
individual defense called regression. Although
sometimes this type of behavior is applied to an a dult
as normally developed and mentally heal thy person in
order to avoid responsibility.
Carl Gustav Jung [Jung C., 1997] disagrees with
the first part of Freud's opinion, pointing out that such
behavior in adulthood may indicate the consequences
of effemi nacy, negligence, passivity, greed, anger an d
other types of selfishness. But he also points to the
possible dependence of a person with elements of
infantilism in thinking and behavior.
But if such thinking and the corresponding
behavior is natural for a child, the relatively constant
preservation of these properties and/or their frequent
use at older ages and, especially, in adulthood is a
noticeable mental deviation, indicating an insufficient
development of mental properties.
Although infantilism always manifests itself in the
psychic sphere, its etiology, upon close examination,
turns out to be much more complex. The root causes of
infantilism may be not only mental disorders or CNS
trauma. Emil Kraepelin [Kraepelin E., 2009] and a
number of other psych iatrists (Mikhail Osipovich
Gurevich [Gurevi ch M.O., 1932], Vasily Alekseevich
Gilyarovsky [Gilyarovsky V.A., 1954], etc.)
considered some variants of infantilism as an atypical
form oligophrenia. Possible causes of infantilism in the
literature are also c alled hereditary causes (drug
addiction, alc oholism), causes acquired due to their
own deviant behavior and problems of physical and
somatic disorders (endocrine disorders,
underdevelopment of certain organs and systems of the
body, including organic brain disorders, etc.).
It can be assumed that th e infantilism of thinking
and behavior in the mental form of infantilism,
although in some cases it may indicate a latent form of
oligophrenia (mental retardation – the terms are close
to each other, but are not complete synonyms) in its
high part of the m easured IQ (IQ 60 -69), but more often
it may indicate Minimal brain dysfunction (MBD) with
an IQ of 70 -85.
Actually, a number of ICD -10 headings
correspond to infantilism: F89; F60.8; F07.8. A long
series of work s is devoted to the diagnosis and
treatment of infantilism ([Makushkin E.V. et al., 2015]
and other works).
3. Common signs of infantilism
Here are the most common signs of infantilism,
which may lead us to the idea of the need for a deeper
and more accu rate diagnosis of this state. As a rule,
children's infantilism is clearly noticeable as a clear lag
in development and behavior behind the age norm. It is
much more difficult to identify infantilism in adults,
although many aspects of behavior raise quest ions
about the discrepancy between natural expectations and
presented behavior. Let us single out a number of
common, often nonspecific fea tures of "adult"
infantilism based on the article ["What is infantilism",
2018]:
✓ egocentrism – everything should revolve
around the infantile person, without efforts on his or her
part;
✓ parasitic smugness – social position;
✓ performing actions without think ing about the
consequences, but only focusing on his or her own
needs;
✓ no purpose in life, except for his or her own
comfort;
✓ no adequate self -awareness;
✓ no desire for self -knowledge and self -
development;
✓ cannot solve problems, waiting for someone to
solve for him or her, fear of responsibility;
✓ getting stuck in childhood experiences and
resentments;
✓ the tende ncy to blame the whole world for his
or her failures;
✓ no desire for development and new
knowledge;
✓ inability to set goals and implement them;
✓ it is di fficult to perceive someone's refusal to
do something, infantiles believe that everyone owes
them, and the y owe nobody;

26 American Scientific Journal № ( 42 ) / 2020
✓ strong affection for parents;
✓ in their work they tend to shift their
responsibilities to others.
Childhood infantilism looks very differ ent. For a
typical characterization of an infantile child, we will
use the characteristics of this state, drawn from the
article ["Infantile child at school", 2018]. Here is a
typical characteristic of an infantile child. The child's
infantilism is manifes ted in the following features:
✓ the child's weak ability to subordinate his/her
behavior to the requ irements of the situation;
✓ inability to restrain his/her desires and
emotions;
✓ childish spontaneity;
✓ the predominance of playing interests at
school age;
✓ carelessness;
✓ elevated mood;
✓ underdeveloped sense of duty;
✓ inability to volitional tension and overcoming
difficulties;
✓ increased imitation and suggestibility;
✓ relative weakness of abstract and logical
thinking, verbal and semantic memory;
✓ lack of cogniti ve activity during learning;
✓ lack of school interests, lack of formation of
the "role of the pup il", rapid satiety in any activity that
requires active attention and intellectual tension;
✓ the desire to be in the company of young
children or those who patro nize them;
✓ insufficient differentiation of interpersonal
relations;
✓ slower assimilation of the s kills and
knowledge about the surrounding world.
Nonetheless, it should be noted that the cited both
adult and childhood signs of infantilism describe the
pictu re of social and educational infantilism to a greater
extent and correspond much weaker to the p icture of
mental infantilism that is much more difficult to
diagnose and correct.
As an important source on the diagnosis and
treatment of child mental infanti lism, let us note the
work of the group of psychiatrists of The Serbsky State
Scientific Center for Social and Forensic Psychiatry
[Makushkin E.V. et al., 2015], however, the use of the
recommendations of this work requires a sufficiently
high level of spe cial (professional) knowledge of a
psychiatrist or pathopsychologist.
4. The proposed DIT -M (Mod ified Detailed
Infantilism Test)
To identify infantile behavior, first of all, of
adolescents, we tried to identify and list a much larger
number of symptoms of such behavior than mentioned
in various sources, but we gave preference to those of
them that are easier to detect by external long -term
observation. To assess infantilism, we propose a test,
consisting of 69 questions, divided into four scales
unequal in the number of questions and in importance:
A. scale of thinking – 31 questions; scale weight
– 1.3;
B. scale of information gathering, planning and
decision making – 19 questions; scale weight – 1.0;
C. scale of activity – 12 questions; scale weight –
0.8;
D. auxilia ry scale of symptoms of psychasthenia
– 7 questions; scale weight – 0,6.
A. Scale of thinking
No. Description of the symptom
The symptom
characterizes
a person –
4 points
The
symptom is
noticeably
expressed –
3 points
The
symptom is
moderately
expressed –
2 points
The
symptom
is poorly
expressed

1 point
The
symptom
is absent

0 points
А-
1
Marked egocentrism (typically
attributed to early childhood stages
of mental development)

А-
2
Personal responsibility for decision -
making, for the results of t heir own
actions or for actions dictated by
others is not perceived or reduced

А-
3
A noticeable hope for "this time,
perhaps, the danger will over"
А-
4
Even with minor problems (for
example, medical), they require
increased and unremitting atte ntion
from others and immediate attention
to this problem

А-
5
Frequent change of opinion about
phenomena and events under the
influence of mood at the moment or
under the influence of factors and
events not related to the discussed
phenomena and even ts.

А-
6
Unpredictable decisions and
behavior

American Scientific Journal № ( 42 ) / 2020 27

А-
7
No distinction is made between
objective cognition of reality and
subjective ideas, or the perception
and awareness of such differences is
weakened.

А-
8
During discussions, they try
passive ly and uncritically to adhere
to the emerging majority or to the
opinion of the leaders

А-
9
The absence of questions to clarify
initially incomprehensible things
and to plan the necessary actions to
achieve the set goals. Lack of
awareness that a num ber of things
remained unclear

А-
10
Weakened curiosity in general and
even to the questions that are
important for the inevitable or
planned future (both near and more
distant)

А-
11
They do not check the consistency
of instructions that must be
followed, does not try to understand
the meaning behind their
compilation, does not think about
the mathematical apparatus or
physical principles behind computer
programs or devices that must be
used

А-
12
Fear of delving into issues and
topics that, at least potentially, may
require a significant investment of
time or effort to clarify them

А-
13
Overestimated self -esteem in their
ability to solve a particular problem,
in real planning, in their ability to
implement the planned

А-
14
Overes timated self -esteem of the
correctness of their understanding of
events and phenomena, hence the
lack of the need to deepen their
knowledge in these areas, to consult
with someone and disregard for
incoming other views or advice.

А-
15
Low self -critic ism and low
objectivity in assessing their
behavior and decisions

А-
16
Underestimating the real properties
of partners and other people around
them

А-
17
Uncritical trust in information,
advice and guidance received,
primarily, from adults

А-
18
Interests that do not correspond to
biological age (corresponding to
younger ages)

А-
19
Maintaining interest in games
(computer, gambling, monotonous)
at an age outside irresponsible
periods of life

А-
20
Little sympathy for other people,
relative indifference to others,

28 American Scientific Journal № ( 42 ) / 2020
especially to those who are not part
of the first close social circle with
general sympathy for "the whole
world."
А-
21
There are few fantasies (or they are
primitively simple, often vulgar) and
complex mental constru ctions,
arbitrary analogies. Lack of original
ideas. The presence of situational
role -playing fantasies, an idea of
themselves, achieving brilliant
success in the future.

А-
22
Experiencing real events is often
replaced by confabulations (made
up memo ries).

А-
23
The difficulty of finding the
common properties of fairly distant
objects and phenomena.

А-
24 The difficulty of making analogies
А-
25 Difficulties in generalizing
А-
26
General learning difficulties,
difficulties and slow ness of
perception of new information and
difficulties of its use

А-
27
Difficulties in solving non -standard
tasks and orientation in a non -
standard setting or situation

А-
28
They prefer stories and books that
do not imply the complexity of
feel ings and difficult moral
experiences.

А-
29
When others try to direct such a
person to the necessary actions or at
least to collect information, they
respond with a dysphoric reaction
("... a combination of affective
disorders of the hyposthenic
(mela ncholy, anxiety, fear) and
hypersthenic (anger, w rath) poles...
A paroxysmal course is
characteristic" – [Pervyy V.S. et al.
2013, p. 214, article "Dysphoria"].

А-
30
Emphasized individualism and
independence even when loved ones
offer disinterested h elp, which often
masked with the lack of
development of the correct
responses to help and because of the
fear (unwillingness) to take on
moral obligations in connection with
receiving help.

А-
31
Ease of falling into depression
during life failures
The amount of points on columns
Total Scale A
B. Scale of information gathering, planning and decision -making
No. Description of the symptom
The
symptom is
pronounced

The
symptom
is
noticeably
The
symptom
is poorl y
The
symptom
is absent –
0 points

American Scientific Journal № ( 42 ) / 2020 29

3 points expressed
– 2 points
expressed
– 1 point
В-1 Initial ideas, emotions and momentary desires have a
great influence on decisions and plans.
В-2 Not all factors affecting the situation are taken into
account in the analysis of the situation.
В-3
In the analysis of the interaction of factor s already
taken into account, not all connections and
interactions between factors are considered.

В-4
A simplified and abbreviated analysis of factors
already adopted for the analysis and their
interrelationships is used.

В-5
Those factors and t heir connections that correspond
to the initial setting or momentary emotional state
acquire an unjustifiably overestimated influence on
the final decision or conclusions, and factors and
their connec tions that contradict the initial setting or
momentary e motional state receive an unjustifiably
underestimated influence on the final decision or
conclusions.

В-6 Weak and incomplete consideration of previous
experience, both of their own and that of others
В-7
Disdainful attitude to advice on the principle "we
ourselves know everything better than you" even in
situations of lack of experience and knowledge in the
issue under consideration. Inability to choose what is
useful for themselves from advices of others

В-8 Planning for the future is represented by fantasies
and vague plans without regard for reality
В-9 Incompatible links are combined bot h in planning
and in assessing the situation
В-10
Arbitrary rejection of factors and arguments that can
lead to conclusions that do not correspond or even
contradict the initial attitude or momentary emotional
state

В-11 Incomplete plans, an abun dance of omissions in
planning
В-12 Significant errors in pl anning the time required to
perform certain actions
В-13 Errors in the necessary sequence and
interdependence of the elements of the plan
В-14 Constant or frequent attempts not to m ake decisions,
to postpone decisions, "I decided not to decide yet"
В-15
Uncertainty in their abilities, difficulties in initiating
new, especially long -term actions, fear of "crossing
the Rubicon"

В-16 Postponing the start of new, not quite stan dard and
usual things "on the back burner"
В-17
Difficulties in gathering information for a good
willingness even to the inevitable case in the near
future

В-18 They often postpone "until tomorrow" non -routine
and familiar things, even small and clearly feasible
В-19
Long anticipation and pondering of constantly
postponed things, not included in the routine and
habit.

The amount of points on columns
Total Scale B
C. Scale of activity
No. Description of the symptom
The symptom
is pron ounced

The symptom
is noticeably
The symptom
is poorly
The
symptom is
absent –

30 American Scientific Journal № ( 42 ) / 2020
3 points expressed – 2
points
expressed – 1
point
0 points
С-1
They live from day to day in many
respects, find it difficult to plan in the long
run.

С-2
They strictly follow the given, even not
very logical instructions and
understandable, feasible requirements.

С-3 They prefer unvaried, monotonous, well -
mastered activities
С-4
They avoid assuming leadership of
anything (people or actions) because of
unwillin gness to be responsible for the
results of even their own actions, and even
more for the activities of people.

С-5 Avoiding risk as much as possible
С-6 They often do not see the existing (or
impending) danger
С-7 They do not feel or have we akened sense
of danger from other people
С-8
In collective actions, they try to choose
more passive and lighter parts of the
common work

С-9
It is difficult for them to build interpersonal
relationships, not only for mutually
beneficial activitie s, but even in the case of
the possibility of obtaining personal gain

С-
10
The sense of the situation is weakened,
they do not notice changes in the situation
or the moral atmosphere in the team when
discussing or perf orming actions

С-
11
Rigidity , inflexibility of thinking under
changing circumstances, when new
information appears

С-
12
Starting a new work with enthusiasm, but
making sure that it requires significant
mental or physical (not monotonous)
efforts and costs, or even requires
overc oming obstacles, they leave the work
unfinished

The amount of points on columns
Total Scale С
D. Auxiliary scale of symptoms of psychasthenia
No. Description of the symptom
The
symptom
is clearly
present –
2 points
The
symptom is
partially
presen t –
1 point
The
symptom is
absent –
0 points
D-1 Tendency to doubts and anxious doubts [Gannushkin PB, 1933]
D-2 Initial (basal) anxiety
D-3 General passivity
D-4
Defensivity (from Latin defensio – to defend, to protect) – a
person's tendenc y to take an avoidant or passive -defensive
position when faced with life difficulties.

D-5 They periodically get stuck in one or another emotional state
(emotional viscosity, inertia, stiffness, lethargy)
D-6 Wounded pride
D-7 Feeling of inferi ority
The amount of points on columns
Total Scale D

American Scientific Journal № ( 42 ) / 2020 31

5. Mathematical processing of test results
The test consists of 69 questions in total. We
propose the following formula for the transition from
"raw" points to the final result:
FR = 1,3 * 0 ,25 * А + 1,0 * 0,333 * В + 0,8 *
0,333 * С + 0,6 * 0.5 * D
where:
• FR is the final result;
• the first multiplier in each member of sum is
the scale importance coefficient;
• the second multiplier in each member of sum
is the coefficient for bringing the sum o f "raw" points
on this scale to a single value of the number of points
(as if the maximum score for each question in each
scale is 1. 0);
• the third multiplier in each member of sum is
the sum of "raw" points on this scale.
Accordingly, the maximum test resu lt can
theoretically reach 73.1 final points.
6. Use of the DIT -M test
Initially, it is clear that some of these symptoms
are also in cluded in the clinical finding of obvious
oligophrenia or other types of developmental delay, and
a differentiated approach to the diagnosis of these
conditions is required. Oligophrenia and mental
retardation are diagnosed with slightly different tests.
It should be noted that the main feature of the test
(in contrast to many types of known and used tests and
questionnaires) is the impossibility of objectively
filling out the test neither by the subject himself/herself
or by a person observing the subject for a short time,
for example, during a psychological/mental
examination. Only a fairly objective person who
observes the p atient for a long time in numerous
situations and possesses a certain level of special
knowledge can fill out the above questionnaire and,
moreover, draw conclusions according to it (the teacher
must fill it out the most often, and the psychologist
(clinic al psychologist, pathopsychologist) or a
psychiatrist should draw diagnostic conclusions).
The very fact of filling in the test by a n expert is
no exception. Other existing and widely used expert
tests in pathopsychology include the Montgomery -
Asberg Depr ession Rating Scale (MADRS), the
Informant Questionnaire of Cognitive Decline in the
Elderly (IQCODE), the Vineland Adaptive Behavior
Scale (VABS) (S. Sparrow. D. Balla & D. Cicchetti.
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales American
Guidance Service, 1984) and others.
It is rare that parents have the necessary level of
objectivity in assessing their child and the necessary
understanding of t he meaning of this test. Because of
this, it is difficult for a psychologist to fill out such a
questionnaire, for example, according to the stories and
assessments of parents during their very brief
observations of the child, with a few situations, only i n
the multiplicity of which an expert could see certain
signs of infantilism or, conversely, signs of its absence.
The prop osed test is an expert test (a test filled by an
expert), and therefore it does not include the usual
scales of lie and reliability w hen the subjects
themselves fill in the test or questionnaire.
In addition, for the indicated reasons, we did not
combine t he scales into a single list of questions mixed
with different scales, which are separated only when
processed with keys containing t he numbers of
questions related to a particular scale. On the contrary,
we found it useful to explicitly separate the scale s in
order to enable the examiner to better focus on the
features of a particular scale.
It can be added that the more complex and
important this scale is in the overall assessment of the
subject, the more differentiated assessment of the state
is provide d in it. Thus, the most significant scale A is
equipped with five grades of assessment, and the last
one, scale D, in te rms of its weight in the overall
assessment of the state of the subject – only with three.
It is clear that most patients (tested by the method
of filling out the test by an expert) will almost never
have all the listed symptoms.
The abundance of the proposed parameters allows
for a more differentiated diagnosis than simply
establishing the presence or absence of the fact of
infantilism. We believe that it is possible to propose the
following assessment boundaries based on the points
obtained with a pr onounced symptom (scale A – 3
points for a symptom, other scales – 2 points). Then the
real maximum score for assessing infantilism will be
following:
1,3 * 31 * 3 * 0,25 + 1,0 * 19 * 2 * 0,333 + 0,8 *
12 * 2 * 0,333 + 0,6 * 7 * 2 * 0,5 = 55,1 points
It is quite accepted for diagnosing a state (in this
case, infantilism) to take 75% of the maximum score.
In our case, this will amount be 41 poi nts. Then the
diagnostic scale can be represented as follows:
Absence of signs of infantilism – 18 or fewer
points (33% or less of the accepted maximum);
Borderline state – 19 -26 points (the width of the
diagnostic zone is 8 points);
Infantilism of the I degree (the mildest degree) –
27 -33 points (the width of the diagnostic zone is 7
points);
Infantilism of the II deg ree (medium degree) – 34-
40 points (the width of the diagnostic zone is 7 points);
Infantilism of the III degree (a very vivid
expression of infantilism) – 41 or more points.
7. Conducting the DIT -M test. Its further use
The DIT -M test was conducted on a v ery small,
unrepresentative group of adolescents. The group
consisted of 42 subjects from four grades – two fourth
and two sixth grades. The tests were filled in,
respectively, by four class teachers (9 -12 pupils from
each class). These tests showed quite high both the
validity and reliability of the test, checked with the
characteristics given by the teachers to the tested pupils
before the t eachers filled out the tests. The tests can by
no means be considered complete due to the smallness
of the group inv olved in these tests. Therefore, the first
task in promoting the DIT -M test and its use is to
continue its use in a trial, verification mode with a
comparison of the diagnostic results when using the

32 American Scientific Journal № ( 42 ) / 2020
DIT -M test with expert opinions on the state and level
of infantilism according to this test.
It should be also noted that when conducting the
test, we were faced with a noticeable number of cases
when the main feature that sticks out in all other
classifications of signs of infantilism – egocentrism –
was not only the leading characteristic of the subject,
but sometimes was not even a noticeable characteristic
of a person. In these cases, the diag nosis of infantilism
rather followed from insufficient ability to analyze the
situation and insufficient decision -ma king capabilities
of the subjects with good learning indicators, which
rather confirms the view of researchers that infantilism
more often t han we might assume follows from a latent
form of oligophrenia or from the diagnosis of M СD.

References:
1. Gannushkin P. B. Clinic of Psychopathies,
Their Statics, Dynamics, Systematics. Moscow, Sever
Publ., 1933 .
2. Gilyarovsky V.A. Psychiatry. Moscow,
Medgiz Publ., 1954.
3. Gurevich M.O. Psychopathology of
Childhood. Moscow, Gosmedizdat Publ. , 1932 .
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or The Path to the Grave . 23.06.2013. Available at :
https://eot -leningrad.livejournal.com/9354.html.
5. Freud S. Essays on the Psychology of
Sexuality. Moscow, Azbuka Publ, 2014 .
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http://shishkinily.narod.ru/infant.html.
7. Jung C. Conflicts of the Child's Soul.
Moscow, KANON + Publ., 1997.
8. Kraepelin E. Introduction to a Psychiatric
Сlinic. Moscow, Binom. Laboratory of knowledge
Publ., 2009 .
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the Diagnosis and Treatment of Infantilism in Minors.
Moscow, 2015. Available at :
https://psychiatr.ru/download/2247?view=1&name=K
linR ek2.pdf .
10. Pervyy V.S. et al. Psychiatric Dictionary.
Rostov -on -Don, Feniks Publ., 2013.
11. What is Infantilism – Signs, Types, What is
Infantilism in Men, Women? Available at : http://kak -
bog.ru/chto -takoe -infantilnost -priznaki -vidy -chto -
takoe -infantilizm -u-mu zhchin -zhenshchin .

УДК 614.2
ГРНТИ 76.75.75
ДИНАМИКА ПОКАЗАТЕЛЕЙ СМЕРТНОСТИ ОТ ТУБЕРКУЛЕЗА И ВИЧ -ИНФЕКЦИИ В
РОССИИ В НАЧАЛЕ XXI ВЕКА

Цыбикова Эржени Батожаргаловна
Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение
«Центральный научно -исследовательский институт организации
и информатизации здравоохранения» Минздрава России

UDK 614.2
GRNTI 76.75.75

Аннотация
Заголовок статьи : Динамика показателей смертности от туберкулеза и ВИЧ -инфекции в России в
начале XXI века
Ф.И.О. автора : Цы бикова Эржени Батожаргаловна
Название органи зации и адрес : Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение
«Центральный научно -исследовательский институт организации и информатизации здравоохранения»
Минздрава России, 127254, Москва, улиц а Добролюбова, дом11.
Резюме: в России в начале XXI века (20 06-2018 г г.) наблюдается стабильное снижение смертности от
туберкулеза, значение которой в 2018 г. достигло 5,3 на 100 тыс. населения. При этом средние значения
уровня смертности от туберкулеза сместились в сторону старших возрастных групп населения, дости гая
максимальных значений в группе 45 лет и старше. Смертность от ВИЧ -инфекции, напротив, за этот же
период времени возросла в 8 раз - с 1,6 до 13,0 на 100 тыс. населения, с ее м аксимальной конц ентрацией в
молодых возрастных группах 35 -44 года. В результат е, в России в начале XXI века смертность от ВИЧ -
инфекции в молодых возрастных группах населения заняла лидирующее положение в структуре
смертности от инфекционных болезней, вытеснив при этом сме ртность от туберкулеза. Значительный рост
смертности от ВИЧ -ин фекции в России был обусловлен широким распространением туберкулеза среди
пациентов с ВИЧ -инфекцией и ростом среди них числа смертельных исходов.
Abstract
Article title : Dynamics of mortality ra tes from Tuberculosis and HIV infection in Russia at the begin ning of
the XXI century.
Author : Tsybikova Erzheny Batozhargalovna
Organization name and address : Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of
Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation
Summary : in Russia, at the beginning of XXI century (2006 -2018) there is a steady decline in mortality from
tuberculosis, which in 2018 was 5.3 per 100,000 of population. At the same time, the average values of the