Американский Научный Журнал GEOHYDRODYNAMICS SYSTEMS IN UNDERGROUND HYDROSPHERE OF MAINLAND SUBPARTICLES OF PLANET EARTH AS THE BASIS OF HYDROGEOLOGICAL TRATIFICATION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF CENTRAL ASIA)

Annotation. The aim of the article is a historical conceptual analysis of various principles and methods of hydrogeological stratification (regionalization) of the underground hydrosphere on the territory of the former USSR and the post-Soviet space of Central Asia, as well as the proposal of a fundamentally new approach to hydrogeological zoning on the basis of the hydrodynamic principle with the allocation as the main element of zoning-geohydrodynamic systems. Historically, various aspects of the improvement of zoning – concepts and terms, horizontal and vertical boundaries, hydrogeological structures, target systems, modeling, prognostic role of zoning. A new original stratification technique is proposed, which allows to perform a reliable assessment of the total water resources of the regions taking into account the interaction of surface and underground runoff. Скачать в формате PDF
4 American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 20 19
НАУКИ О ЗЕМЛЕ И ПЛАНЕТЫ

GEOHYDRODYNAMICS SYS TEMS IN UNDERGROUND HYDROSPHERE OF MAINLA ND
SUBPARTICLES OF PLAN ET EARTH AS THE BASIS OF HYDR OGEOLOGICAL
TRATIFICATION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF C ENTRAL ASIA)

Lagutin Yevgeny Ivanovich
Dr. geol. -miner. Sciences, academician MANEB,
LLP "Institute of water problems and ecology" RK, Taraz, Director.
Republic of Kazakhstan.

Annotation . The aim of the article is a historical conceptual analysis of various principles and methods of
hydrogeological stratification (regionalization) of the underground hydrosphere on the territory of the former
USSR and the post -Soviet space of Central Asia, as well as the proposal of a fundamentally new approach to
hydrogeological zoning on the basis of the hydrodynamic principle with the allocation as the main element of
zoning -geohydrod ynamic systems. Historically, various aspects of the improvement of zoning – concepts and
terms, hor izontal and vertical boundaries, hydrogeological structures, target systems, modeling, prognostic role of
zoning. A new original stratification technique is proposed, which allows to perform a reliable assessment of the
total water resources of the regions taking into account the interaction of surface and underground runoff.
Keywords : Conceptual critical analysis of the historical development of the princip les and methods of
hydrogeological stratification, new principles and methods of assessing the water resource potential of territories
based on the hydrodynamic approach to the study of the process.

1.Introduction to the history of the problem. Issues
of G eneral hydrogeological zoning are of major
importance in regional hydrogeology. Being the main
way o f generalization of the accumulated information,
they appeared long ago, at the turn of XIX -XX
centuries and since then are constantly the object of
researc h and discussion. The works of many
researchers -Hydrogeologists are devoted to the
solution of actua l hydrogeological problems of the
territories of Central Asia (CA): Аkhmedsafin U.
M.[2], Arkhangelsky B. N. [1] , Sydykov Zh. S.,
Shlygina V. F. [51], Grigorenko P. G.[6 -7], Tolstikhin
N. I. [11,43,53], Ovchinnikov A.M. [47], Marinov N.A.
[41], Lagutin E. I. [13 -37], Mirzaev S. Sh. [42],],
Shestakov V. M., Pozdnyakov S. P . [54], etc. The data
of the study of groundwater indicate the shortcomings
of the current principles and schemes of
hydrogeological zoning [20 -21, 23 -24, 32 -34], and
engineering -geologica l studies have some difficulties
in the integrated assessment of Geo sciences [30,31,54].
2. The theory of geographical zonality of ground
water. For the first time, the zonal regularities in the
geographical distribution, depth of occurrence, water
conten t and mineralization of groundwater on the
European plain were revea led by Ototsky P. V., who
identified four latitudinal zones in this territory,
alternating from North to South [45]: 1) a zone of
shallow, merging with surface, abundant, almost
completely non -mineralized waters with a surplus of
organic matter; 2) a zone of shallow, relatively
abundant, extremely little mineralized waters of good
quality; 3) the zone moderately watered, places with
deep, significantly mineralized waters; 4) the southern
zone, low -water and anhydrous, with deep mineralized
groundwater. P. V . Ototsky wrote that "in Asian Russia,
as far as the scarce literary sources allow us to judge,
groundwater is distributed in the same natural order as
in European" [45]. The scheme of Oto tsky P.V. is the
first attempt of groundwater zoning on the basis of
natural zonality.
Further development of the theory of groundwater
zoning and the principles of hydrogeological zoning
based on it are devoted to the work
[1,2,3,5,6,7,10,45,11]. Compari son of schemes and
maps of these researchers testifies to two differ ent
approaches to the problem of zoning. One of them is
characterized by the desire to use as signs of zoning
natural factors that determine the formation of
groundwater: climate, topograp hy, geological structure
of the territory. This approach is reflecte d in [1 -2].
However, despite the common approach, the authors
used different features in zoning, so the schemes and
maps they created differ both in the content and
boundaries of the selec ted taxonomic units. The second
approach to the problem of hydrogeol ogical zoning on
the basis of natural zonality is found in the works,
which based their schemes on the signs reflecting the
properties of groundwater itself: their chemical
composition, mi neralization, type of formation [1,2, 3,
7]. Tolstikhin N.I. applied the theory of natural zonality
to artesian waters and identified two large
hydrogeological zones of artesian basins according to
the peculiarities of the influence of climatic factors on
the formation of groundwater in the USSR: 1) the zone
of negative te mperatures of groundwater (frozen zone);
2) the zone of positive temperatures of groundwater
(thawed zone) [11]. Later, he within the land and
adjacent seas of the globe identified eight z ones of
artesian basins: Arctic, boreal, Mediterranean,
Equatorial, southern, Antarctic, Antarctic, Pacific. The
belts consist of artesian regions that combine artesian
basin systems [53].
3. Geological and structural principle of
hydrogeological zoning. T he geological -structural
principle of hydrogeological zoning was dev eloped and
applied to deep (artesian) groundwater and is
associated with the research of Nikitin S. N.,

American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 2019 5

Prigorovsky M. M., Vasilevsky M. M. [1 -2, 3,
7,9,46,49]. Nikitin S.N. at the end of the XIX century
for the first time revealed the patterns of distribu tion of
artesian and groundwater on the Russian plain, dividing
it into several hydrogeological basins of groundwater,
including The Moscow basin [46]. Later, Prigorovsky
M.M. summarized t he scattered knowledge about the
artesian waters of the Russian plai n and characterized
the five main artesian basins [49]: 1) the North -Western
region of the cambro -Silurian and Devonian artesian
horizons; 2) the Central Russian artesian basin
(adjacent t o the basin near Moscow); 3) the South
Russian (Kharkiv -Poltava); 4) artesian waters within
the South Russian crystal band; 5) artesian waters
South of the crystal band. Six geological sections
crossing the described basins gave an idea of the
possibilitie s of using pressure waters in different parts
of The Russian plain. Vasilievsky M. M. noted that the
geological structure determines the basic conditions of
occurrence and movement of groundwater, for the basic
units (units of the I order) of hydrogeologic al zoning of
deep artesian waters took hydrogeological basins,
hydro geological provinces and hydrogeological
mountainous areas corresponding to three forms of
geological structures: depressions, elevations and
folded structures [3]. Those parts of the main units of
zoning that do not have the characteristic features of the
basin or the mountainous region, Vasilevsky M.M.
called hydrogeological areas [3]. The author
recommended to allocate taxonomic units of the second
and following orders on geological -stru ctural or
stratigraphic basis. The idea of General hydro -
geological zoning and, in particular, deep artesian
waters on the geological -structural principle has found
a wide response among researchers -Hydrogeologists
[1,2, 3, 7, 48].
4. Horizontal boundaries of hydrogeological
areas. The boundaries of districts depending on the
mapped objects are also drawn differently by different
authors. B. L. Lichkov [39], Vasilevsky M. M. [3],
Lange O. K. [38] the boundaries of the main
hydrogeological areas are drawn al ong the contours of
geological structures, Zaitsev I.K. [11], Tolsti khin N. I.
[43] the boundaries between the Arte -zian basins and
hydrogeological massifs are drawn along the contact of
rocks on the Earth's surface between the cover and the
Foundation. N. A. Marinov draws the boundaries of
hydrogeological areas of the firs t order on
hydrogeological watersheds [41]. Pinneker E.V. with a
view of the boundaries of major structural elements,
geologic history and neotectonics. Of course, the
boundaries of areas II and the following goryadkov also
do not have a single basis; thes e may be structural
boundaries, disjunctive disturbances, distribution
contours of the main aquifers, hydrogeological
watersheds, etc.
5. Vertical boundaries of hydrogeological zoning.
Of primary importance in regional hydrogeological
zoning is the alloca tion of not only horizontal territorial
boundaries -hydrogeological areas, but also their
vertical boundaries. At the early stages of the
development of hydrogeology, the concept of aquifer
(layer or formation) was used as the basis for the
separation of aq uifers in the section. Over time, when
the complex structure of aquifers became clear, the
allocation of water -bearing complexes and horizons in
conjunction with geological stratification began.
Regional generalizations required the development and
refinem ent of the principles of hydrogeological
stratification. Ovchinnikov A. M., pointing out the
importance of taking into account the structural floors
in the allocation of groundwater basins , considered it
necessary not only to strictly distinguish the struc tural
floor to which each groundwater basin is confined
(Paleozoic, Mesozoic, etc.), but also to highlight multi -
storey pools [47].
These problems are considered most fully in the
work of Sydykov J.S. and Shlygina K.F. [51].
Remaining on positions of the General hydrogeological
zoning on the geological and structural principle, they
supplemented such approach to zoning with the
developed scheme of hydrogeological stratification.
They ident ified the following subordinate units:
hydrogeological floor -hydroge ological series -aquifer -
aquifer and layer. At the same time, it is impossible to
recognize generality, universality of such approach in
hydrogeological stratification. Moreover, the auth ors
themselves indirectly pointed to this, approaching
hydrogeologic al zoning from the geological and
structural positions used, as has been repeatedly
emphasized, separate hydrogeological zoning of
artesian (pressure) waters. Indeed, in the artesian basin s
of the platforms, it is possible to confidently trace
horizontal h ydrogeological complexes and floors,
sustained in area and in section. However, in
mountainous areas, where (ground) waters predominate
and where water -bearing sediments, crushed into fold s,
often lie almost vertically with angular and
stratigraphic disagr eement, such a purely geological -
structural approach to characterize the hydrogeological
system is obviously not applicable. Water -bearing are
here all the sediments that come to the surfa ce of the
day, they form a complex of non -pressure or non -
pressure -sub-pressure waters. Accordingly, it is
expedient to designate these deposits, remaining within
the framework of subordination of hydrogeological
stratification units, as a complex, and a s eparate
stratigraphically and lithologically sustained layer as an
aquifer.
6. On concepts and terms in hydrogeological
zoning. The literature has repeatedly developed a
discussion on the concepts and terms underlying
zoning, principles and schemes of zoni ng of artesian
waters, which showed a variety of opinions on this
problem. At the same time, the application of one or
another of these schemes is determined not by any of
its advantages over all others, but often by the
departmental competence of the team of researchers
developing the scheme. So, the most recent
methodolo gy and scheme of the regional zoning of the
USSR, was developed in VSEGINGEO under the
leadership of Ostrovsky L.A., non -inevitably had to be
widely disseminated, as it proceeded from the
organization leading methodical providing
hydrogeological services t o the whole country (through
the Ministry of Geology of the USSR) [48]. It should

6 American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 20 19
be noted that this method is one of the most justified
and developed. It is the first attempt to analyze a nd
summarize the accumulated experience of General
hydrogeological z oning, to take into account and link
all possible shortcomings and controversial points of
previous methods and schemes. Nevertheless, from the
point of view of the system analysis it, to a certain
extent, can be considered as a step back due to the fact
that it again proposes a combination of the principles of
zoning of groundwater and artesian waters.
I must admit that this attempt failed. Based on the
geological and structural principle of zoning,
Ostrovsky L.A. even in the basins of a smaller order did
not take into account the obvious divergent boundaries
characteristic of groundwater flows (non -pressure)
waters. Such boundaries do not always coincide with
the boundaries of geological structures. This led to the
fact that some basins of non -pressure wa ters with a
complete cycle of their formation (for example, in the
territory of low orogens of Central Kazakhstan) in
accordance with the zoning scheme were divided, and
their parts were i n different structural units of the
highest order [48].
A similar s ituation has developed in the
hydrogeological zoning of Kyrgyzstan, where the
author of structural -hydrogeological zoning
Grigorenko P.G. [7], in order not to violate the principle
of zoning, was forced to refer to the category of
"artesian basins" as one of the main elements of such
zoning, along with "hydrogeological massifs", als o
taking place in the territory of the Tien Shan
groundwater basins called "artesian groundwater
basins", which in itself is nonsense.
7. The system of objectives in hydrogeolog ical
zoning. The given examples quite objectively
characterize the existing st ate of the system of goals of
regional zoning. The above often leads to a situation
where the question arises: why, for what purpose, in
fact, regional hydrogeological zoning is carried out, if
there are products of special hydrogeological zoning -
hydrogeol ogical maps of different scales (including
large regions, territories of the country), which in
principle reflect all the necessary hydrogeological
information. According to acad emician Veselov V.V.,
it seems appropriate and necessary to introduce a
hierar chy in the system of goals of regional
hydrogeological zoning [4]. "The main purpose of the
performed zoning is the accounting and assessment of
groundwater resources on the basi s of systematization
and generalization of the results of all hydrogeological
studies preceding zoning. The allocation of
hydrogeological reservoirs with a complete (and
complete within these reservoirs) cycle of groundwater
formation, with individual cond itions of their
occurrence and circulation, should precede the
accounting and assessment of groundwater resources.
Identification of patterns of formation of groundwater,
their chemical composition and, in addition, tanks is a
target function of the next, lower level. On the basis of
these regularities, the actual accounting and ass essment
of groundwater resources is carried out. Finally, the
goal or objective of the third, lowest level is the
allocation of hydrogeological reservoirs" [4].
The stated conce pt allows to answer fairly
objectively and clearly the question for what purpo se
zoning is carried out, it gives an idea of the
subordination of goals in the system and, finally, does
not contradict the already existing and rather vague
ideas about the tar get functions of regional
hydrogeological zoning.
The proposed system of goals of General
hydrogeological zoning clearly traces the connection
and subordination of General and private zoning.
Branch and General on this sign do not differ as in
quality of t he last the artificially entered difference on
object of a regionation acts. A s a feedback from the
General zoning to the private, in our opinion, it can be
called that zoning under the conditions of formation of
groundwater on the basis of a direct indica tor (for
example, in terms of the value of groundwater
resources) is possible only within the allocated
hydrogeological capacity with a full and complete
cycle of their formation [4, 15]. We share this view
[15]. Natural resources of underground waters
(un derground runoff) act as a characteristic of the
entrance to the selected hydr ogeological system
(capacity) and exit from it.
It is widely known that the most perfect General
scientific instrument of cognition in recent years is
system analysis. You also need to include the fact that
the methodology (including modelling) objects wh ich
are considered and a mapping model areas in
hydrogeology, developed after systemic ideas in
geography, where in the first place put forward the
problem of separation of funct ions geosystems (GIS)
[4]. By analogy with the geographical system for a
hydro geological system, the function is established on
the basis of studying the interrelations of the
components of the system, and the study of the
migration of material -energy flow s gives the territorial
timing of its intensity -territorial differentiation [2 3-27].
8. Modeling in hydrogeological zoning. The
involvement of models can be very useful for General
hydrogeological zoning, ensuring its logical
completeness. In this case, th e content of the General
hydrogeological zoning can be determined quite clearl y
[27 -29]. The latter is an attempt to obtain a discrete
distribution of any parameter over the area in order to
introduce weights of the selected territorial fragments
in the es timates of the integral value of the parameter
on the considered area. In turn , the integral values of
the parameter in the selected fragment are a
consequence of larger -scale zoning within the fragment
[4, 27 -30]. Thus, the detail of zoning is determined by
the level of generalization (scale) in which zoning is
carried out. The pro posed formulation of the content of
zoning clearly prescribes the sequence of zoning -from
large -scale to small -scale, which fully corresponds to
the obvious approaches to general ization in
cartography; small -scale maps are built on the basis of
large -scale , and in any case not the other way around.
9. Prognostic role of hydrogeological zoning.
Closely related to this is the problem of the predictive
role of zoning. It is shown th at " assignment of any
object to this or that taxon of classification or zonin g is
possible only on the basis of some minimum of

American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 2019 7

information about this object. Accordingly, the
classification of direct predictive value, understood in
such a way that the co rrelation of the object with some
taxon classification provides new informatio n about the
parameters that characterize the object, does not have.
Similarly, the need to generalize the parameters when
zoning from a large scale to a small one excludes the
po ssibility of a priori allocation of the object of small -
scale zoning and its b inding to the territory" [4]. Here
lies the reason for attempts to zoning on indirect
grounds -geological -structural, geomorphological,
climatic and other features of the territor y; the use of
the latter as a basis for zoning, in principle, eliminates
the p roblem of synergetic effect of zoning, since the
similarity of territories in terms of spatial
characteristics gives new information about the
hydrogeological conditions of regio ns not yet studied
[4, 13 -29]. The current hydrogeological study of the
territ ories of large regions, however, does not provide
the possibility of establishing clear direct criteria for the
zoning of these regions. But, on the other hand, it was
possible t o empirically establish a successful approach
to the zoning of pressure waters , for example, on the
basis of geological -structural (indirect) features -
geological -structural elements, as it was found, are
quite accurately identified with hydrogeological bod ies
having a complete cycle of formation of pressure
waters. Similarly, the us e of the geomorphological
parameters of the territory in the first place provided an
objective allocation of the boundaries of
hydrogeological bodies, which are characterized by a
complete cycle of formation of non -pressure
(groundwater) waters. For exampl e, watershed lines
(watershed for surface waters) in some cases quite
clearly fix divergent boundaries of groundwater flows,
and the lines of erosion bases -convergent boundaries of
these flows [4, 13 -29].
Summing up the review of the most important
works on the principles of hydrogeological zoning, we
note that these issues are most studied in the present
time for platform conditions. It is established and
recognized by the autho rs that the main regularities of
groundwater formation, expressed in the form of
hydrodynamic and hydrogeochemical zones, are
mainly determined by the geostructural position of
hydrogeological basins [6 -7, 11].
10. Features of hydrogeological zoning of
mo untain -folded regions of Central Asia. For
mountain -folded areas, these issues are clearly
insufficiently developed, poorly covered in the
literature. At the same time, according to Marinov's N.
A. fair remark, "the allocation of folded regions and
massifs on hydrogeological maps is already insufficient
at the present time, because it does not reveal their
internal content" [41]. Marinov N.A. considers that if
for a subject of hydrogeological zoning to take
underground waters and structures to which they ar e
confined, or geomorphology, in each concrete area it is
possible to establis h easily character of the
underground waters formed in them [41]. The first
experience of hydrogeological zoning of the territory of
the Tien Shan orogen is associated with the r esearch of
Terletsky B.K. [52]. As a basis for this zoning,
generally accepted geographical concepts are taken,
but, along with this, some geostructural and
lithological -stratigraphic features are also taken into
account. Krylov M. M. and Schmidt M.A. in 1 936
proposed hydrogeological regionalization of Central
Asia taking into accou nt the types of groundwater and
hydrogeological types [12]. These authors noted the
presence of vertical -zonal and azonal groundwater.
When zoning mountain areas, they considered it
necessary to take into account the underground
watersheds. Vasilevsky M. M ., Borsuk N.V. [3]
proposed the first hydrogeological zoning of the Asian
part of the USSR on the geostructural principle. They
are already considering the Tien Shan as part of t he
Pamir -Tien Shan mountain -fold hydrogeological
region. Within the Tien Shan, these authors distinguish
hydrogeological regions - the Karatau ridge, the
Northern arcs of the Tien Shan (with fractured waters),
the Issyk -Kul and Fergana hydrogeological basi ns
(with reservoir waters) [3]. Developing from these
positions hydrogeologica l zoning of Kyrgyzstan,
Grigorenko P. G. and Krylov M. M. [6] highlight for
the Northern part of the Chui, Issyk -Kul and Talas
basins and emphasize the emerging hydrogeological
zoning within the basins.
More broadly, the question of hydrogeological
zonali ty of intermountain basins was considered by
Lange O. K. on the material of Central Asia [38]. The
author singles out an independent hydrogeological zone
of foothill plumes and f oothill plains, the latter is
subdivided into a subzone -water absorption of
atmospheric precipitation and surface watercourses,
groundwater vyklinivaniya, immersion of underground
waters of alluvial valleys [38]. All mountain territories
(including Kyrgyzs tan) are allocated by Lange O. K. in
"area of azonal ground waters of differen t types" [38].
A little later Grigorenko P. G. United intermountain
depressions of Kyrgyzstan on geostructural and
geomophological signs in three main complexes -
mountain, footh ill and plain. Within the intermountain
depressions, peculiar geomorphological types are
distinguished - the cone of removal, the proluvial
weakly inclined plain, the alluvial draining valley, the
lake plain, which differ in the originality of different
complexes [6 -7]. The named complexes according to
Grigorenko P. G. "are at the s ame time
hydrogeological, as the main features of regional
regularities of their hydrogeological conditions are
most clearly reflected in geomorphology". In the work
[6] practica lly all the largest depressions of Kyrgyzstan
were systematized for the first time from the point of
view of their hydrogeology. Although this
classification was not without drawbacks, it was a
significant step forward in the systematics of the
hydrogeolog ical conditions of the Tien Shan as a
whole. Its main disadvantages include, i n our opinion,
exaggeration of the geomorphological factor in the
formation of groundwater and underestimation of such
important factors for the conditions of mountain -folded
reg ions as climate and landscapes, with their peculiar
patterns of distribution. Features of dynamics of
underground waters, especially deeply submerged, are
insufficiently clearly revealed in geomorphological

8 American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 20 19
forms. In [6 -7] there is no clear definition of
hydrogeological boundaries of isolated depressions. In
1971 P. Grigorenko propo sed a "Scheme of regional
hedrogeological zoning of the Kyrgyz Tien Shan" [7].
The main types of hydrogeological structures are
"artesian basins" and "hydrogeological massifs". T he
boundary between them is drawn by the contact of the
Foundation (pre -Paleoz oic and Paleozoic rocks) and
the cover (Mesozoic -Cenozoic formations). Artesian
Bassani divided into slope and intermountain;
intermountain – United later in four groups. Accordi ng
to the combinations of artesian basins and
hydrogeological massifs, hydroge ological regions and
sub -regions are distinguished.This detailed and
complicated scheme of hydrogeological zoning of
Kyrgyzstan is the most successful attempt to use
geological a nd structural principle in hydrogeological
zoning of the Tien Shan mountain -fold region (Rice.1).
However, under professional critical consideration, the
above Scheme (Rice. 1) has a number of significant
shortcomings, the main of which, being the
shortcom ings of the structural -hydrogeological
principle of zoning, are most pronounce d in the
conditions of mountain -folded regions such as Pamir,
Tien Shan, Tarbagatai, Altai, etc. On the example of
Kyrgyzstan, which occupies the vast part of the Tien
Shan mount ain -folded region, they can be formulated
as follows:
Allocation of hydroge ological massifs according
to the fair remark of Marinov N.A. is not enough at
present, because "it does not reveal their internal
content" [41]. This correct remark is particula rly
noteworthy in hydrogeological zoning of the mountain -
folded region, since it not only does not reveal the
essence of the dynamics of groundwater in mountain
areas, but, on the contrary, obscures the regularities of
groundwater formation, which become c lear only after
hydrogeological analysis and the corresponding
hydrodiamic dif ferentiation of sub -earth runoff of the
territory of hydrogeological massifs. The boundary
between the main hydrogeological structures of
artesian basins and hydro -geological mas sifs is drawn
by the contact of the projections of the crystalline
basement on the Earth's surface and the sedimentary
Mesozoic -Cenozoic cover. This contact is sometimes
tectonic and in some cases plays the role of a kind of
barrier to the movement of grou ndwater, which has led
to the opinion often prevailing among researchers -
Hydro geologists about the practical absence of
overflow underground from the mountain ranges into
the hollows of the bedrock. Studies carried Out by S. S.
Mirzaev [42] for the mountai nous regions of
Uzbekistan, V. F. Shlygina [51] for Kazakhstan,
Lagutin E.I. [ 14 -29] for Kyrgyzstan showed the
presence of such a flow in very tangible quantities,
which indicates a hydraulic connection between
artesian basins and hydrogeological massifs ( Fig.2).
This was well understood and noted by Mitgarts B. B.
and Tolstikhin N. I. in 1961 [43]. Following the path of
geostructural zoning with the allocation of the main
hydrogeological structures of artesian basins and
hydrogeological massifs, they did no t deny at the same
time the possibility of a second approach by which it
can b e carried out, since "the flow of surface and
groundwater is usually directed from the

Rice.1. Scheme of structural -hydrogeological zoning of Kyrgyzstan by P. G. Grigorenko [7]

1-5. Artesian pools: intermountain outdoor pools,
three -story buildings with a large capacity top -out
underground floor (1 big point), with small (private mi)
swimming pools (1 fine point) in the internal basins of
three -story buildings with relatively s mall capacity of
the upper floor of groundwa ter intermittent (2) and
solid (3) distribution; indoor pools in two -story
buildings (4), the middle floor falls; 5 - slope; 6.
Hydrogeological massifs: I -XXXI - numbers of
artesian basses and hydrogeological mas sifs; 1 -38 -
rooms of private and small indepe ndent pools); 7.
Hydrogeological areas: Tien Shan and Pamir -Alai
regions; regions: a -Chu -Talas, B -Issyk -Kul ; B -Naryn,
G-Sarydzhaz -Aksai. D -Ferghana. E -Alai; sub -regions:

American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 2019 9

A, - Chui. A2 - Talas, In The Northern Of Narinskii ;
B2 - South Of Naryn, G1 - Aksai , G2 - Saridzhaski, D1
- Has Chatkal -Fergana. D2 -Osh -Jalal -Abad. Dz -Alay -
Turkestan.8 -Boundaries: between regions, sub -regions,
artesian basins and hydrogeological massifs. Dotted
lines show the boundaries coincid ing with the zones of
regional newest faults or older ones, but updated with
the latest movements.
massifs towards artesian basins and ends with their
overflow into artesian basins. Water from the massifs
enters the basins in several ways, the value of whi ch in
the nutrition of the basins depends o n the local
hydrogeological situation. First, water is transferred to
the pool of permanent and temporary rivers, and
second, flows of groundwater of the Quaternary cover,
pouring into pools through the cones, in the third
streams and jets of fissure water s penetrating through
the thickness of the cover through the bed and sides of
the Foundation. The slopes of the massifs connected to
the basins, together with the artesian basins, form a
single water -pressure syst em hydraulically and
hydrodynamically" [43] . We share this view. If for
Central Asian large bass - f the above considerations are
hardly perceptible in quantitative terms, then in the
conditions of mountain -folded regions of Central Asia,
they are important in the first place. This is important
in u nderstanding the role of groundwater, i.e.,
underground

Rice.2. A fundamental comparative model of vertical - slit geohydrodynamics systems, artesian pools and
hydrogeolo -logical arrays in the scheme of formatio n of underground runoff
1 - geohydrodynamic s the top floor of the pore water - ground substage (1A) and substage subatomic waters
(1B); 2 - medium geohydrodynamics floor porous fractured and PLA -stove -pore water -soil (PA ) and subatomic
(IIB ); 3 - slope basins of underground -tion runoff, substage fractured groundwater - soil (SHA ) and pressure (SB
); 4 - lower geohydrodynamics floor fracture groundwater - groundwater (IIIA ) and pornih (IIIB ) ; 5 - the outer
part geohydrodynamics system (floor fractured under the earth, water - soil (SHA ) and pr essure (SB )); 6 -
permafrost zone; 7 -11 -terraces -7-geohydrodynamic floors, 8 -private pools of underground flow; 9 -geo -
hydrodynamic sub -floors; 10 -glaciation; 11 -groundwater level.

hydraulic boundaries, characte rized by the lack of
overflow or hydraulic c onnection between the shared
structures, while the boundaries of the contact of the
Foundation and the cover -are largely conditional.
Therefore, characterized hydrogeological zoning
Grigorenko P. G. (See. Rice.1) according to the
structural -hydrogeological principle [7], it can not be
fully used in the assessment of groundwater resources
(underground flow), because such methods as balance
and dismemberment of the hydrograph of rivers can not
be fully used .
B. Acc ording to the generally accepted opinion
ref lected in the publication "reference guide
hydrogeologist "artesian groundwater basin - is a
complex of aquifers, composing structures in the form
of syneclyses or synclinal deflections" [50]. From this
point of view, the very allocation of artesian basins in
the conditions of the mountain -folded region, including
in the Tien Shan, looks conditional, because artesian
basins can be allocated only in the cases of synclinal
structures with clearly marked water barrie rs. On the
other hand, in order not to viola te the principle of
zoning, the author is forced to unite in artesian basins
also basins with a known lack of pressure waters,
allocating them to a separate "group of artesian
groundwater basins", which is unacce ptable from the
classical point of view give n above. From the same
positions, the name "artesian" is hardly justified for the
basins of a single pressure complex of groundwater in
the upper "floor" - "ground and pressure waters of
Quaternary deposits" [19 -29, 32 -34]. It is well known
at the present time that the groundwater heads in this
particular case are formed not in the conditions of
synclinal structure, but by reducing the water supply
capacity of aquifers and creating a backwater in the
path of the u nderground flow. For such aquifers Lange
O. K. [38] proposed Ter -min "sub -pressure", which
allows to distinguish them from the" pressure "

10 American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 20 19
horizons and more corresponds to the essence of the
reflected phenomenon. Therefore, the latter term is
more appropri ate to use. At the same time, the necessity
of isolation of artesian basins in such a hydrogeological
development becomes obvious [29].
11. Conclusions on the basic principles of
hydrogeological stratification (zoning) and
fundamental proposals for assessi ng the resource
potential of groundwater. Ye ars of controversy and the
misunderstandings of the authors of the various
approaches to zoning in aquifers occurs from a lack of
appreciation of the fact that the underground
hydrosphere, including two major com ponents, the
fluid (aqueous solutions of com plex composition) and
enclosing litho -sphere substance (the entire amount of
the geological and tectonic formations) techniques are
respectively based on two completely different forms
of matter in motion. Modern state of the lithosphere is
the product and result of geological forms of matter in
motion its oscillations and cycle -mi, measured in many
millions of years old, and the movement of
groundwater (meaning under consideration in the zone
of active water exch ange) – there is a process that is
based pri marily on hydrodynamic parameters of water -
bearing environment pressure, permeability from one
side and then the cyclic effects of the elements of the
external environment that determine, in turn, the entire
osci llatory process and cycles in the movement o f
groundwater (subsurface runoff). In connection with
the above circumstances, the principles, schemes and
boundaries of zoning, performed on the basis of
mechanical mixing of the above regularities, can not
logi cally and in fact give a verified result, wh ich has
been shown and justified on the basis of
intracontinental orogens of Central Asia [32 -34, 37,52].
On this basis, zoning in the underground
hydrosphere should be performed separately for
hydrogeological r eservoirs, that is, structural -
hydrogeologic al formations containing deep
underground waters, and for groundwater moving in
the host medium, namely, for underground flow of the
"upper hydrodynamic zone" [13 -29, 44]. The laws of
formation, distribution of s uch substances, as well as
the boundaries of stratification units allocated on their
basis will be completely different. The structural -
hydrogeological principle of zoning can and should be
used mainly to characterize the distribution, quantity
and propert ies of groundwater in accordance with the
requirements of hydrogeology as a science. Thus the
description of hydrogeological structures (areas), it is
necessary to carry out with use of the mathematical
device that, will increase both quality and accuracy of
estimates [21,29 -30,34 -36].
The study of regional underground runoff, as well
as related surface runoff in the form of renewable water
resources, requires a kind of geohydrological approach
to the substantiation of its divergent and convergent
boundari es, the typification of the conditions of it s
formation, the assessment of moving masses of
groundwater. It uses the mathematical apparatus of the
theory of hydrodynamic systems absolutely necessary
justification for input parameters and using the
apparatu s of probability theory and mathematical
sta tistics as well as forecasting this process involving
the theory of random functions [ 26 -28,33 -37].
The lithosphere, together with the deep horizons
of groundwater contained in it, is the product and result
of the geological form of the motion of the ear th with
its processes, oscillations and cycles measured by many
millions of years. The movement and the nature of
changes in groundwater of the upper hydrodynamic
zone [37] is a complex oscillatory process determ ined
by the hydrodynamic parameters of the w ater -
containing medium (pressure, permeability of the
containing sediments), as well as by cyclic influences
of the elements of the external environment, that is,
factors that collectively determine the oscillato ry
processes and cycles in the movement of t he
underground flow.
General zoning in the underground hydrosphere
should be performed separately for hydrogeological
reservoirs as structural -hydrogeological formations
containing usually pressurized groundwate r, and
separately for underground flow movin g in the host
medium, confined mainly to the upper hydrodynamic
zone of the underground hydrosphere [37].
At the same time, “geohydrodynamic systems”
(see Fig.2.), the ideas of which are developed in our
studies [13 -37], naturally unite both categories of the
underground hydrosphere and on this basis can serve as
a single basis for the General stratification (zoning) of
the underground hydrosphere in the lithospheric part of
the Earth, which does not exclude the separate zoning
of the "second strand" withi n large hydrogeological
taxa.
Geological age stratification in the
hydrogeological area currently has a subordinate value,
acting only as an information base for the allocation of
hydrogeological reservoirs.
Geoh ydrology as a science that has renewable
wat er resources of the hydrosphere as the object of its
research, including surface and underground runoff in
their interrelation and interaction, is based on the study
of geohydrodynamic systems in the underground
hydrosphere of the Earth and the use of the original
methodology of quantitative estimates and forecasting
of renewable water resources [26,29,33]. Total
renewable water resources of the Earth include surface
and underground runoff of continents. They rema in
approximately stationary during the curre nt period of
geological development. In addition to its own original
ideas and methods [26,29,33,54], geohydrology also
uses the techniques and methods of boundary Sciences
with it -Geology, Geochemistry, geograph y, ecology,
hydrology, soil science, landsca pe, hydrodynamics,
probability theory and the theory of random functions.

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