Abstract. Theoretical and practical prerequisites for connection of migration zones and combustible gas accumulation in coal-rock mass with the features of crystalline basement geology and subsurface stress state are considered. Patterns, criteria, and principles of formation of a minefield with abnormal gas content caused by the influx of hydrocarbon gases from deep –laid deposits have been identified. Considering this, early forecast of the presence of areas with abnormal accumulation of hydrocarbon gas becomes possible. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № (2 8) / 2019 25




Fig. 1. Geographic distribution of volcanoes [25].
Fig. 2. Changes in the concentrations of the gases in the atmosphere and the temperature over the years,
calculated on the basi s of thermodynamic modelling.
a, b – the surface layer of the atmosphere; c, d – the lower troposphere.


Taranik Alexander
Master of science,

Abstract . Theoretical a nd practical prerequisites for connection of migration zones and combustible gas
accumulation in coal -rock mass with the features of crystalline basement geology and subsurface stress state are
Patterns, criteria, and principles of formation of a minefield with abnormal gas content caused by the influx
of hydrocarbon gases from deep –laid deposits have been ident ified. Considering this, early forecast of the presence
of areas with abnormal accumulation of hydrocarbon gas becomes possible.
Keywor ds: Geological structures, gas anomaly prediction, mine gas explosions, mine safety.

Coal mining industry of any country is a critical
component of the fuel and energy complex; it provides
the raw materials to power sector, metallurgy, chemical
sector, a nd other industrial sectors. Coal mining
industry, having been victim of the severe situation
relat ed to reconstruction, sees a steady increase of the
volumes of coal mining after long —term period of
production output fall, and thus it is becoming one of
the key branches of economy.
But, to do the extended mining works on the depth
they are currently p erformed at including severe
subsurface conditions, several significant problems
related to production and science are to be reviewed.
Among most critical wa ys to solve the problems in 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100
Y e a rs
2, %
prizem naya
C O 2
C O 2+ C H 4
C O 2+ N 2O
C O 2+ C H 4+ N 2O
C O 2+ C F C l3
A ll g a se s 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100
Y e a rs
, 0C
C O 2
C O 2+ C H 4
C O 2+ N 2O
C O 2+ C H 4+ N 2O
C O 2+ C F C l3
A ll g a se s 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100
Y e a rs
, %
C O 2
C O 2+ C H 4
C O 2+ N 2O
C O 2+ C H 4+ N 2O
C O 2+ C F C l3
a ll g ases 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100
Y e a rs
, 0C
C O 2
C O 2+ C H 4
C O 2+ N 2O
C O 2+ C H 4+ N 2O
C O 2+ C F C l3
A ll g a se s

26 American Scientific Journal № ( 28) / 2019
question are enhancement of works performance safety
Mining safe ty problem and forecasting of
coalmine methane accumulation areas are closely
related to the abnormal emissions of flammable gases
into mine workings that is often a cause of explosions
of air and methane mix.
The gas dynamic activity of coal beds and
sand stones prone to outbursts is related, in numerous
scientists' opinion, to sections of formation with high
gas content. Based on it, and following an actual d ata
about recorded gas dynamic phenomena and sudden
emissions of hydrocarbon gases, the pattern of their
distribution over fields of the most dangerous mines of
Donbass region can be developed.
As experience of development coal beds show,
with increasing o f mine works depth, their gas content
is rather uneven within mine field and is often not
matched with natural methane content, which's values
have been detected during geological survey. No doubt
that the gas content of production sections does almost
all the times not match with data of calculations
performed on the basis of natural methane c ontent and
depends on geological or man -made factors [1].
Characteristics of spatial distribution of tectonic
disturbances are more complex that litostatic ones. It
can be stated that litostatic stress is normal, and tectonic
stress - abnormal. Distinguish ing between tectonic
stresses occurred due to planetary factor and stresses
induced by secondary deformation processes in
geological environment as motions of tectoni c blocks,
for example, is important. Moreover, stress fields may
be changed in course of t ime and, therefore, there can
be identified current stresses and paleostresses that
occurred in geological past and have partially or fully
relaxed by this time.
Over 50 years ago, a reference of sudden outbursts
of coal and gas to regions of contrast tect onic
movements has been made and relation of areas of their
occurrence to the newest tectonic movements and
abnormal stresses has been justified. For example, G. А.
Konkov noted that presence of rather intensive tectonic
stresses, conditions appear both for sudden outburst
sources and for slow generation of free methane.
Application of developed - to -date calculation
algorithms for stress fields caused by equilibr ium state
violation [2] based on geoid anomalies research [3]
enables observation of spatial re lation of dynamic
phenomena in minings with active geodynamic zones
of tectonosphere.
Paper [4] states that active geodynamic zones of
tectonosphere do appear in stress anomalies caused by
equilibrium state violation. Such areas, should stresses
acting the rein be sufficiently great, demonstrate
themselves as seismically active first [5].
In conditions of Donetsk basin, calculations for
assessment of geological env ironment stress state caused by
equilibrium state violation has been performed on the basis of
data of land gravimeter coverage survey scaled 1:200000
and digital model of terrain. Most of the region's
territory, based on original methodology, geoid
anomal ies have been restored across the grid 4×4 km on
land gravimeter coverage data - gravity force a nomalies per
Faye reduction (Fig. 1).
Geoid abnormarlities obtained have become a basis for
surveyed terrain stress fields calculations. Several sections to
cons ider have been similarly surveyed within the grid
1×1 km .
Relation of increased gas emissions into mine
workings with geostructural anomalies of coal and rock
formation can be reviewed for A.F.Zasyadko Coal
Mine, Shcheglovskaia -Glubokaia Mine.
A.F.Zasyadk o Coal Mine
These major players of the coal industry do apply
their approved concept of cintinous coal production
volume increasing because of high technical performance
with insufficient degree of solution of the problem
consisting in safety of mining wor ks at high m ethane
content of deposits being developed. This approach does
often lead to uncontrolled and thus hazardous balancing
between what can be done and what is desired. This is a
key issue for A.F.Zasyadko Coal Mine where works are
performed at 125 0-1400 m dep th and, despite the high
level of scientific researches being conducted, complete
solution of the problems related to sudden outbursts and
other emergencies related to flashes and explosions of
mine gas is not successful still.

American Scientific Journal № (2 8) / 2019 27

Fig. 1. Faye anomalies black -and -white pattern ( а) and geoid anomalies recovery result ( б), m.

Gas conditions at A.F.Zasyadko Coal Mine is
characterized with considerable methane emissions
into production workings where, except typical
methane emissions from the dept h 400 -600 m at
western wing of the mine where the low -amplitude
disturbances (h = 0.3 -2.5 m) are present caused by
Vetkovski No. 3 and No. 4 and Semenovski thrusts,
blowers have become active as well. They become
especially intensive and numerous staring f rom 700 m
depth during heading of Western by -level and airway
of l 1 seam.
Sudden outbursts of coal and gas have be come
predominant among gas dynamic phenomena from the
depth below 800 m. From 1990 to 2006, at mining of l 1
seam at the depth 802 -1120 m, 58 o utbursts of gas and
coal have been formally recorded provoked by shock
blasting with yield from 4 to 120 t, and 8 sudden
outbursts of coal and gas with yield from 8 to 75 t. Most
of them have occurred in minings located near flexure
bend of coal bearing fo rmation.
The same severe gas dynamic situation was
observed at A.F.Zasyadko Coal Mine by mining of m 3
seam in flex ure bend area where the synclinal fold axis

28 American Scientific Journal № ( 28) / 2019
passed about 1.5 km eastward of Vetkovskaia flexure.
As mine works go deeper, rate of accidents re lated to
emission of gas from host rock and gas dynamic
activity of m 3 seam grew up.
Shcheglovskaia -Glubokaia Mine
Field of Shcheglovskaia - Glubokaia Mine is
located in hanging wall of Frantsuzki thrust and is
limited with two large submeridional flexure f olds:
Vetkovskaia and Burozovskaia (Kalinovski).
Presence of abovementioned flexure folds makes
an overall sublat itudinal strike of coal formation more
complex. In western part of the area, exposure of
Vetkovskaia flexure appears – strike of formations in
this location goes from latitudinal one into NW forming
a clear sinclynal bend.
Tectonically, the area considered is rather
complex; here, the plicative forms of tectonics and
disjunctive forms, especially thrusts, are developed.
Main tectonic structures include the following thrusts:
Frantsuzki, Pastuhovski, Shcheglovski, Sofievski,
Ordzhonikidzevski, Grigorievski, Semenovski, Pologi,
and Novo - Chaykinski.
Gas capacity of host rock and structural and
tectonic complexity of the region are precondition for
both intense and short time gas emissions even during
geological survey. For example, during drilling of
borehole МС -261 (09.01.77) an intense gas emission
took place into exposure area of Bezymianny thrust
with blowing of the mud fluid to the height up t o 10 m.
Gas flowrate for this case made from 218.4 to 494.4
m3/day. The gas emission was observed during 50 days.
Considering that average daily flowrate and duration of
gas emissions, about 20000 m 3 of gas were emitted
from boreholes. It should be noted t hat during the
whole period of boreholes drilling six intense gas
emissions at depths from 550 to 1145 m were dete cted.
To consider is that during underground mining
works, in the area of exposure of above thrust, from
1964 to 1994 more than forty gas dyna mic
phenomenwith difference intensity of gas emissions
Considering that dynamic phenomena in mines
relat e to sediment formations of Donetsk basin, it is
obvious that their relation is to be found in local
footprint of stress field caused by equil ibrium state
violation; it mainly reflects the deformation processes
in sediment formations. Meanwhile, relation o f local
anomalies of stress field to gradient zones of regional
anomalies -an evidence of their origin during evolution
of fault block crystal line base (Fig.2).
Summarizing the gas dynamic conditions and
gravimetric survey data it must be stated that the a rea
covering the mine fields of Shcheglovskaia - Glubokaia
Mine and of A.F.Zasyadko Coal Mine, both in fields of
shear stresses and in fields o f example and in fields with
tension and compression stresses does have a
sophisticated structure of linear bound ones;
predominant are north -eastern and north -western
orientations of fields, including island -type alterations
of maximums and minimums
Theor etical speculations regarding relation of
dynamic phenomena, migration areas and
accumulations of hydrocarbons in coal rock formation
with specifics of the stressed condition of geological
environment allow using of the stress fields
conditioned by violati on of equilibrium state as
additional forecast criterion to solve problems of
forecast the regional zones of dynam ic phenomena
development in minings. Current assumption for such
definition may be the following statement: regional
zones of dynamic phenomen a development are
determined by degree of deformation processes that, in
their turn, are expressed in a local comp onent of the
stress field conditioned by violation of equilibrium
Patterns identified within fields of A.F.Zasyadko
Coal Mine and Shche glovskaia - Glubokaia Mine
advocate for assumption of relation of certain stress
field components with deformation processes running
in sediment formations and creating conditions for
occurrence of gas dynamic phenomena.
Studies performed resulted in identi fication of the
foll owing patterns of forming of the anomalies of gas
emissions into mine workings of coal mines and distribution
of gas dynamic activity zones that do obviously confirm
relation of gas dynamic phenomena to seams bending
1) local ano malies of stress fie ld relate to with
regional anomalies zones; this is an evidence of their
origin during evolution of fault block crystalline base ;
2) most of methane accumulation and gas dynamic
phenomena are adjacent to intense shear stresses
anomalies and gradient stress area; less areas are
adjacent to thrusts exposure areas and relate to
compressive stress anomalies;
3) forming of areas of methane transition into free
state and appearing of ways of its migration do closely
relate to increase of voids and permeability of
formation exposed to mechanical stresses occurring in
contrast tectonic movement areas;
4) under exposure to shear stresses, fissures get
opened and reservoirs are formed; degassing of
formation in this case will be much lower than it is at
opening of fissures under exposure to tensile stresses;
5) most of dynamic phenomena and methane
accumulation zones relate to local folds area; its nature
is closely related to the process reflected in local
tangent stresses intensity anomalies.

American Scientific Journal № (2 8) / 2019 29

Fig. 2. Pattern of local stresses caused by violation of equilibrium state at fields of A.F.Zasyadko Coal Mine (1)
and Shcheglovskaia -Glubokaia Mine fields (2) (coal mine fields are shown as completed objects)

30 American Scientific Journal № ( 28) / 2019
1. Taranik A. Scientific approach to coaibed
methane production areas searching. – LAP.:
LAMBERT Academic Publishing, – 2018. – 121 p.
2. Дослідження генезису і закономірностей
формування аномальних зон скупчення горючих
газів у вугільних шахтах з метою підвищення
безпеки гірничих робіт та розширення
можливостей попутного видобутку метану: Отчет о
НИР / УкрНИМИ; Руководитель Канин В.А. – 2-
06/12; № ГР 0110 U007405. – Донецк. - 2012.
3. Тяпкин, К.Ф. Новая модель геоизостазии и
тектог енеза [Текст] / К.Ф. Тяпкин // Геологический
журнал. – 1985. – № 6. – С. 1 -10.
4. Довбнич, М.М. Нарушение геоизостазии и
напряженное состояние тектоносферы / М.М.
Довбнич // Геофизический журнал – 2008. – № 4 –
С. 123 -132.
5. Довбнич М.М. Поля напряжений
тектонос феры, обусловленные нарушением
геоизостазии и геодинамика Азово -Черноморского
региона [Текст] / М.М. Довбнич, С.Н. Демьянец //
Геофизический журнал – 2009. – № 2. – С. 107 -116.


Черноножкин Александр Васильевич
Студент 4 -го курса исторического факультета, исторический факультет,
Омский государственный университет имени Ф.М. Достоевского,
г. Омск


Chernonozhkin Alexander Vasilievich
4th year student of the Faculty of History, Faculty of History,
Omsk State University named after F.M. Dostoevsky

Аннотация . Ра ссматривается проблема понимания космоса человеком в исследовании диалога между
двумя учёными: Александра Сереброва и Дайсааку Икедо. Через диалог строится их понимание космоса
и становление современной модели его исследования. В качестве примера успешного исследования
представлен метод Д ЗЗ (дистанционного зондирования Земли).
Abstract . The problem of understanding the cosmos by man in the study of the dialogue between two
scientists: Alexander Serebrov and Daisaaku Ikedo is considered. Through dialogue, th eir understanding of the
cosmos a nd the formation of a modern model of its research are built. As an example of a successful study, the
remote sensing method (Earth remote sensing) is presented.
Ключевые слова: Александр Серебров, Дайсааку Икедо, модель ис следования, космос, ДЗЗ.
Key word s: Alexander Serebrov, Daisaaku Ikedo, research model, space, remote sensing.

Можно начать с того, что после первого полёта
в космос, совершённого космонавтом Юрием
Гагариным, прошло уже более 55 лет. Сегодня
перед челове чеством открыты широкие
возможности для исследования безграничного
В начале XXI века, когда человеческа я
цивилизация находится на точке поворота, такие
вопросы становятся всё более актуальными, и их
нельзя будет обходить.
Для того, чтобы разобра ться в том, что можно
сделать для поисков ответов на основные вопросы
по определению космоса, философ Дайсаку Ике да
провёл беседу с одним из космонавтов
Александром Серебровым, который в течение 12
лет проходил испытания на орбитальной станции
«Салют» и «М ир» (1982 -1994), пробыв на орбите
373 суток. Он 10 раз выходил в открытый космос;
его рекорд, по количеству выход ов в космическое
пространство, зафиксирован в книге рекордов
Гиннесса в 1993 году.
Вообще, если взглянуть на диалог между
Икедой и Серебровым, то возникает двойственное
ощущение, относительно того, как воспринимается
космос. Диалоги разделены на 12 частей , в каждой
из которых представлено своё видение космоса,
качественно отличное от простого представления
об исследованиях. Особенности каждой ча сти
отражены в восприятии Александром Серебровым
разделения жизни на мир и космос.
В качестве подтверждения этом у можно
привести ответную форму диалога Икеды: «И
звёзды, и планеты, и цветы, и люди – все состоят из
одних и тех же элементов… Всё происходило и
происходит из «осколков звёзд». Стало быть,
универсум таит в себе биоэнергию – жизнь. А мы,
люди, - это отдель ные капельки огромного
космического океана. Другими словами, мы
нераздельны во Вселенной, а Вселенная включает в
себя все свои крошечные капель ки» [1, с. 38].
Из представленной диаграммы видно, что
восприятие мира Александром Серебровым
менялось, как по мере возраста, так и по мере
постижения им профессионального дела, в качестве