Американский Научный Журнал NEW IDEAS ABOUT THE FORMATION OF HYDROCARBON DEPOSITS IN THE RIPHEANLOWER-PALEOZOIC SEDIMENTARY BASIN OF THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN PLATFORM

Abstract. To date, the main oil and gas deposits in the Cambrian and Precambrian section of the south of the Siberian platform are confined to the terrigenous part of the Precambrian sedimentary cover, while in a much more powerful halogen-carbonate (HC) complex of the Vendian-Cambrian and the Lower Cambrian, the little commercial hydrocarbon accumulations were found. Therefore, the prospect of the largest reserve for increasing oil and gas deposits is associated with the carbonate complex. Along with the urgency of identifying the causes of existing imbalance in the development of deposits, there is a need to assess the realistic prospects of carbonate complex based on the discussion of nature and the mechanism of deposits formation. Methods of the study: correlation and cross-correlation analyzes of maps of geological reference points and seismic reflecting horizons, as well as maps of hydrodynamic performance according to the well test data, the results of which were correlated with the results of linear analysis based on data from space surveys and potential fields. In the synchronous deposits of a single Riphean-Lower Paleozoic basin in the south of the Siberian platform, the linear destructive zones are identified, which inherit the strike of formerly activated basin-forming fault systems of various directions and generations that influenced the HC deposits formation and disintegration. As a result, a discordant correlation of local structural plans of the deposit in the carbonate formation and the deposit in the Precambrian terrigenous deposits is established on multi-layer deposits. It is argued that deposits in the productive formation of the Precambrian terrigenous complex were formed due to sub-vertical fluid flows from sub-fundamental sources under the influence of fault activations of early northeastern generations, and in the productive carbonate horizons of the Vendian-Cambrian and Lower Cambrian - due to the re-formation of deposits in terrigenous formations under the influence of faults of late north-western generation. At the same time, the deposits were formed in the zones overlapping to faults of earlier generation. This means that in the carbonate reservoirs it is impossible to achieve the advanced development of deposits, and in determining the order of prospecting the terrigenous horizons should be considered as basic or priority. The results of the studies are consistent with the deposits distribution on 35 fields in the south of the Siberian Platform. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 41

НАУКИ О ЗЕМЛЕ И ПЛАНЕТЫ

UDC 553.98
NEW IDEAS ABOUT THE FORMATION OF HYDROCA RBON DEPOSITS IN THE RIPHEAN -
LOWER -PALEOZOIC SEDI MENTARY BASIN OF THE SOUTHERN SIBERIAN P LATFORM

Berzin 1 A.G.
Doctor of Geological Mineralogical Sciences;
Berzin 2 S.A.
1- M. K. Am mosov North -Eastern Federal University; 677000, Yakutsk, Belinsky St., 58.
2 - Geco -Prakla, Schlumberger Ltd

Abstract . To date, the main oil and gas deposits in the Cambrian and Precambrian section of the south of the
Siberian platform are confined to th e terr igenous part of the Precambrian sedimentary cover, while in a much more
powerful halogen -carbonate (HC) complex of the Vendian -Cambrian and the Lower Cambrian, the little
commercial hydrocarbon accumulations were found. Therefore, the prospect of the large st reserve for increasing
oil and gas deposits is associated with the carbonate complex. Along with the urgency of identifying the causes of
existing imbalance in the development of deposits, there is a need to assess the realistic prospects of carbo nate
complex based on the discussion of nature and the mechanism of deposits formation.
Methods of the study: correlation and cross -correlation analyzes of maps of geological reference points and
seismic reflecting horizons, as well as maps of hydrodynamic perfo rmance according to the well test data, the
results of which were correlated with the results of linear analysis based on data from space surveys and potential
fields.
In the synchronous deposits of a single Riphean -Lower Paleozoic basin in the south of th e Siberian platform,
the linear destructive zones are identified, which inherit the strike of formerly activated basin -forming fault
systems of various directions and generations that influenced the HC deposits formation and disintegration. As a
resu lt, a discordant correlation of local structural plans of the deposit in the carbonate formation and the deposit in
the Precambrian terrigenous deposits is established on multi -layer deposits .
It is argued that deposits in the productive formation of the P recamb rian terrigenous complex were formed
due to sub -vertical fluid flows from sub -fundamental sources under the influence of fault activations of early
northeastern generations, and in the productive carbonate horizons of the Vendian -Cambrian and Lower C ambria n
- due to the re -formation of deposits in terrigenous formations under the influence of faults of late north -western
generation. At the same time, the deposits were formed in the zones overlapping to faults of earlier generation.
This means that in the ca rbonate reservoirs it is impossible to achieve the advanced development of deposits, and
in determining the order of prospecting the terrigenous horizons should be considered as basic or priority.
The results of the studies are consistent with the de posits distribution on 35 fields in the south of the Siberian
Platform.
Keywords : Nepa -Botuobin anteclise, sedimentary and rock basins, activation, fault systems, HC traps,
terrigenous rocks of Precambrian, carbonate rocks of Vendian -Cambrian and Lower Cam brian.

INTRODUCTION
"Overview of the productive horizons in the
Cambrian and Precambrian section of the Siberian
platform shows that the main oil and gas deposits are
confined to the terrigenous part of the Precambrian
sedimentary cover. At the same time , in a much more
powerful Lower -Middle Cambrian halogen -carbonate
complex, a few industrial accumulations of
hydrocarbons have been discovered" [6] . This
conclusion, made by a team of authoritative geologists
of oil companies more than 3 de cades ago, conti nues to
remain unchanged by now and makes it urgent to
identify the causes of this imbalance in the deposit
development.
Section of the sedimentary cover of the Nepa -
Botuoba anteclise (NBA) in the south of the Siberian
platform, which conta ins the predomin ant part of the oil
and gas reserves established here, mainly form the
Vendian and Cambrian deposits. In their comlocation,
a number of productive horizons of terrigenous and
carbonate comlocation have been established and are
forecasted [5 ].
To date, at t he attained degree of geological and
geophysical knowledge of the said territory deep
drilling, predominantly gas -saturated clastic horizons
occurring in the lower sedimentary cover and allocated
in part of early Vendian terrigene complex a re
dominated. Th e carbonate horizons, on the one hand,
and the oil -saturated collectors of the Vendian -
Cambrian and the Lower Cambrian, on the other, play
a subordinate role against this background.
According to the existing concept, the carbonate
horizons in the Siberian platform are associated with
prospects of the largest reserve for increasing oil and
gas deposits. In the sedimentary cover of NBA the
productive formations are B 3-4-5 in the Upper Danilov
sub -horizon of subsalt carbonate complex ( Vendian -
Cambrian) and fo rmations B 1, B 2 in the Lower Usolsk
halogen -carbonate complex (Lower Cambrian). In the
territory of Yakutia, these are the Yuryakh (Vendian -
Cambrian) and Osynsk (Lower Cambrian) carbonate
formation [7]. There is a need to assess the feasibility
of these pr ospects based on the discussion of the nature
and mechanism of deposits formation herein.

42 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
In this regard, we should note that the existing
distribution of open hydrocarbon deposits, including
those in the Vendian -Cambrian and Lower Cambrian
carbonates, is not only in the NBA, but also in other
adjacent areas of the Siberian platform: Baikit
anteclise, Katanga and Vilyuchansk saddle, the
sedimentary cover of which is represented by one
Riphean -Lower Paleozoic sedimentary and rocky bas in
(SRB) (Table 1, Fig. 1).
Table1
DISTRIBUTION OF FIEL DS WITH DEPOSITS IN THE TERRIGENOUS COMP LEX OF RIPHEAN
AND EARLY VENDIAN AN D CARBONATE FORMATIO NS OF THE VENDIAN -CA MBRIAN AND
LOWER CAMBRIAN [22]
Superorder structures Baikit
anteclise
Katanga
saddle
Nepa -Botuobin anteclise within
the boundaries of Vilyu -
chansk
saddle
Total Republic of
Sakha (Yakutia)
Irkutsk
Region
Total Deposits 5 2 17 8 3 35
With deposits in the carbonates of
Vendian -Cambrian and Lower Cambrian 0 0 2 (1) * 5 3 10
(9) *
With deposits in the Vendian 3 2 17 7 3 32
With deposits in the Riphean. 2 0 0 0 0 2
* In the territory of Yakutia, the author refers only Talakan deposit to deposits with deposits in carbonates of the
Osynsk horizon. The central block of the Mid -Botuoba field, where the oil and gas manifestations in the Osynsk
horizon were noted in 3 wells, the HC reserves were not counted due to their insignificance.

In the territories of listed above superorder
structures, most of the oil and gas deposits of the
Siberian platform have been explor ed and operated.
The main prospects for increasing HC reserves in the
East of the country are also associated with them [13] .
Note that the north -eastern part of NBA within
boundaries of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) together
with the adjacent Viluchansk aya saddle form the Nepa -
Botuoba oil and gas area (OGA).

Fig. 1. The overview map of superorder structures for the Siberian platform with hydrocarbon deposits.
1. Siberian platform; 2. Folded environment; 3. HC deposits, wherein there are no deposits i n the Vendian -
Cambrian and the Lower Cambrian carbonates; 4. HC deposits, wherein there a re deposits in the Vendian -
Cambrian and the Lower Cambrian carbonates; 5. Structurally tectonic zone; 6. Route of the ESPO gas pipeline
under construction; 7. The larg est violation, intersecting the basement and sedimentary cover of [6]: a) north -
west stri ke, b) other than the north -west strike; c) violations coincided with the allocated "A -A" and "B -B" (Fig.7 -
II).

Of the 35 fields listed in the table above, only 9
have deposits in the carbonates of stratigraphic range
under consider ation and are characterized by extremely
uneven spatial distribution and zonal concentration: 3

American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 43

fields are located in the Vilyuchansk saddle and 4 out
of 6 are in the NBA (Talakan, Vakunays k, Upper
Chonskoye, Danilov) are confined to one structural -
tectoni c zone (Fig. 1). Such statistics and distribution
of deposits in carbonates on such vast and well -studied
territories cannot be explained by the possible omission
of reservoirs during drill ing for various geological and
technological reasons, and a scienti fic discussion is
required on the genesis of HC deposits.
An important role in substantiating the nature and
mechanism of deposits formation in the carbonate
strata has a choice of the flui d dynamic paradigm for
the deposits formation. The nature of open d eposits in
the NBA area lying near the crystalline base in the
sedimentary cover of low power, cwhich is haracterized
by a low content of organic carbon and the absence of
conditions for lo ng-term hydrocarbon migration,
cannot be explained from the standpo int of the
sedimentary -migration theory of oil and gas formation.
In this matter, we refer to the authoritative opinion of a
correspondent -member of the RAS, B.A. Sokolov [18].
Due to revea led giant scales of deep degassing of
the Earth, including hydrocar bon degassing (C Н4, CO 2,
N2,, H 2, etc.), the fluid dynamic schemes of oil and gas
accumulation processes are being developed in addition
to the classical biogenic, also due to degassing
pro cesses both direct and with an intermediate
accumulation of bacteri al mass and its processing into
oil [2, 6]. The theory of convergence in the formation
of HC deposits among the latter, in our opinion, is the
most acceptable for explaining the nature of N BA
deposits [10 ]. The correctness of this theory application
presup poses the existence of a sub -fundamental source,
a sub -vertical filtration of HC fluids, and a powerful
sedimentary stratum. Thus, in particular, the geological
and geophysical studies and modeling carried out in
recent years have made it possible to confi rm such
conditions in the territory of the Nepa -Peleduy arch
within the Nepa -Botuoba anteclise [15].
In fluid dynamic theories, the activated deep faults
with key characteristic "activated" are an important and
integral part of oil and gas basins [14]. The concept of
"active fault" appeared in the early 70s and came from
the definition of "live fault" [26]. Its meaning may vary
in different authors, depending on what features are
taken as a basis for the method of isolating the active
faults. The influence of fault tectonics on the processes
of oil and gas formation is universally recognized and
reflected in a variety of publications, but the
mechanism of influence, which is linked with the
activation parameters: cyclicity of the manifestation,
the direction of generation, the time and the period of
activation of the basin -forming fault systems (which
are defined below), remains insufficiently studied.
The intensive development of deformation and
fluid dynamic processes, which lead to a change in the
physical properties of the medium and to mass transfer,
established by modern methods of geodynamics in the
areas of active faults [17] allows us to presumably link
the formation and disintegration of multi -layer HC
deposits in the NBA with periodic activation pro cesses
of the basin -forming fault systems of various spatial
generation .
METHODS AND RESULTS OF THE STUDY
The theoretical basis of the study was the idea of
sedimentary rock (SRB) and oil and gas bearing basins
(OGBB) formation and development; methodical -
complex processing and analysis of multi -dimensional
geological and geophysical information based on the
modern geoinformation technologies. The article is
based on the results of curren t and past studies
conducted by authors, selected and consolidated by its
thematic focus for the argumentation of the dominant
role of fault tectonics in the nature of oil and gas
deposits in the south of the Siberian platform.
Methods of the study: correl ation and cross -
correlation analyzes of maps of geological referenc e
points and seismic reflecting horizons, as well as maps
of hydrodynamic performance according to the well
test data, the results of which were correlated with the
results of linear analys is based on data from space
surveys and potential fields.
Earlier in the marginal depressions of the east of
the Siberian platform (Vilyui syneclise), executed by
several sedimentary -rocky basins (SRB), the lower one
of which is the Riphean -Lower Paleozoi c basin, the
periodic processes of different ages activatio n for the
previously laid deep faults of different directions and
generations. We call such a fault system as a pool -
forming system. It is shown that those
consedimentation active systems have a si gnificant
effect on the sedimentation, formation and stages of the
SRB development [3]. It is suggested that they reflect
the relation between the evolution of sedimentary
basins and fault formation in the tectonosphere and, in
particular, with the phenome non of the main divisibility
of the earth's crust, its bloc ky structure, and certain
primary faults [1]. The turn seems to be caused by the
gradual activation of already existing, previously
embedded fault systems of various directions and
generations [12] , and is also caused both by a planetary
mechanism [8] and the processes occurring in the
Proterozoic -Phanerozoic in the areas of Siberian
continent articulation with other continental blocks.
It is established that activation processes of the
fault system s are characterized by cyclic (stage)
manifestation, the ti me and period of activation, as well
as the direction of generation. The cyclicity is
expressed in the directed turn of the structural plans of
the overlying SRBs in relation to the underlying ones
from the east -north -east to the north -west direction;
acti vation time - the time of SRB embedment, and
activation period - the time of SRB existence [3] .
In this regard, based on the universality of the
principle of cyclicity, it can be argued that all a ctivation
processes of the basin -forming fault systems in t he
post -Paleozoic time also took place in synchronous
deposits of a single Riphean -Lower Paleozoic basin in
the south of the Siberian platform, incl. in the territory
of NBA. These processes did no t change the structural
plan of the formed basin, but left in it the linear
destructive zones, which inherit the strike of systems
activated in the past that had an impact on the HC
deposits formation and deformation.
If one maintains the viewpoint of the dynamic
nature of deposits formation (deformation) during t he

44 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
geological time, the formation of deposits in carbonate
reservoirs belonging to the upper productive part of
SRB section was decisively affected by fault systems
of the last activation (during t he post -Cretaceous period
and to the present), having a nor th-west strike. The
activation of such fault systems and its nature are
identified in the territory of the Viluyi syneclise,
according to the results of processing various scale
lineaments of the e arth's surface relief from the data of
space images and is confirmed by data of special
processing of gravitational and magnetic fields [3] (Fig.
2).
It is assumed that under the influence of faults of
the north -west generation the simultaneously forming
processes of reservoir -filtering properties in the
reservoir carbonate rock and reorientation local
structural plans of traps that fall in their zone of
influence took place. The processes took place,
obviously, as a result of a directed change in the
physi cal properties of carbonate matrix skeleton
(primarily poro sity - fractured vuggy) under the
influence of aggressive fluid solutions (or magmatic
masses and post -magmatic solutions) that enter the
faults during their activation. This leads to a change in
the compression characteristics of the formation
(Young's mo dulus and Poisson's ratio) and its transition
to a new stress -strain state, which inherent the strike of
the activated fault system.

Fig. 2. Manifestation of the deep faults activation (north o f the north -west direction)

I− generalization of different -scale lineaments
based on space survey data (SSD) for the territory of
Vilyui syneclise: a) assembly of lineaments with
various directions; lineaments for directions: b) east of
the north -east; c ) north -east; d) north of the no rth -west;
e) rose -diagram of lineaments; II − lineaments of
magnetic (a) and gravitational (b) fields at the Atyakha
square in the Kempendyai basin. The arrow points to
the lineaments reflecting the fault system for the north -
west strike of the last activat ion, which "cross"
lineaments of other directions.
We emphasize that the reorientation concerns only
the local structural plans of the deposit, with respect to
the regional structural plan of SRB, resulting in a
discordant r elation between the structural p lan of
deposit in the carbonate reservoir with respect to the
regional plan or deposit plan in the Vendian terrigenous
deposits on the multi -layer fields, and the correlation
coefficient between the structural plans drops be low
0.7.
Let us illustrate the e xistence of a different age
activation of fault systems and the associated
discordant occurrence of deposits in the Lower
Cambrian and Vendian sediments in two typical
structural -tectonic zones noted in Fig. 1. In the first
zone - the Vernet -Vilyuchansk fi eld (Vilyuchansk
saddle) according to the processing of structural plans
(Fig. 3 -I). In the second zone − Talakan gas and oil
condensate (carbonate reservoir of the Lower
Cambrian) and Chayandinsk oil and gas condensate
fiel d (Vendian terrigenous reservoir ) (central part of the
NBA) according to the test data of gas and oil inflows
in the wells in order to establish the nature of permeable
zones [4] (Fig. 3 -II).

American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 45

Fig. 3. To the substantiation of the existence of a differe nt age f ault systems activation
I. Structural plans for Upper Vilyuchan field by productive horizons of: a) Yuryakhsky Yu -1 (the Yuryakhsky
formation of the Vendian -Lower Cambrian; б) Kharystansky (Kharystansky formation of the Vendian) (matrix
representat ion: lig ht tones - rising, dark - dipping); point - wells.

II. a) comparison of maps for the hydraulic
conductivity coefficients of gas reservoir in the
Botuobinsk horizon of the Vendian (the Chayandinsky
deposit) and the oil deposit of the Osinsk horizon of the
Lower Cambrian (the Centra l Talakan field) (matrix
representation: light tones - high, dark - low values of
coefficients) ; b) Correlation coefficients between the
structural plans of Lower Cambrian and Vendian
horizons at the deposits. Deposit contours: 1 −
Chayandinsky; 2 − Talakan.
We give examples of the c onformal behavior of
local structural plans for the Vendian and the Lower
Cambrian in the fields, where the HC deposits are
developed in the terrigenous Vendian deposits, but
there are no deposits in the Lower Cambrian carbonate
strata (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4. Structural plans and their two -dimensional autocorrelation functions for the Mid -Botuoba deposit (I) and
the Taas -Yuryakhsky deposit (II) (matrix representation).
A − by Botuoba horizon of the Vendian;
B− by Osynsk hor izon of t he Bilir formation of the Lower Cambrian. Points - wells. Arrows - direction of the
structural plans strike. R – a correlation coefficient between the plans.

For the practical application of the established
effect of the ag e-dependent fault systems activ ation on
the HC deposits formation in solving the oil and gas
field search problems, it is particularly important to
identify the pool -forming fault tectonics, which was
activated in anthropogenous times, and the traces of it s
manifestation in past eras.

46 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
The isolation of such tectonics, especially in the
first case, presents certain difficulties. The period of
activation of the basin -forming faults is equal to the
time of existence of the SRB (tens and hundreds of
millions of years), in the first half of w hich the basin
and fault are subjected to various -period deformations,
but the mode of expansion of the crust dominates, and
the second is the compression regime. For example,
detection methods and fracture activity indices h ave
been developed with a perio d of activation (hundreds
or less years) that trigger the trigger mechanism of
earthquake processes [24, 25], but the issue of the
identity of activated faults and the faults of basin -
forming systems identified by them has no t been
studied. There are suppo sed indirect indications of the
active faults detection, to which, in our opinion, the
transregional nature of the distribution and the linear -
zonal nature of the deposits location formed under their
influence can be attribut ed.
In the territory of the NBA and Vilyuchansk
saddle in the borders of the Republic of Sakha
(Yakutia), there are no problems in identifying the
formerly activated fault systems of the north -eastern
and sub -medial directions. On the maps of fault
tectonics o f various authorial collect ives, these
directions are predominant. The spatial location of
fields developed here with deposits in the Vendian (20
of 32 in Table 1) inherits the dominant northeasterly
strike and confirms the unequivocal connection
between t he nature of these deposits formation and fault
systems of such directions (Fig.5 -I).
It is less unambiguous to single out the fault
systems of north -western direction of late generation on
fault -tectonic maps. At a qualitative level, one linear
tectonic z one can be identified, whic h is close to the
northwestern strike in the south of the territory and
passing through the Talakan gas and oil field, in which,
along with the faults of north -eastern and sub -median
directions, there are faults of predominantly north -west
strike (location of the conditional center line "A -A",
Fig. 5 -I). It can be regarded as a zone overlapping the
fault systems of various generations of directions,
where conditions exist for the HC deposits formation in
Vendian -Cambrian and Lower Cambrian carbonates.
The T alakan field enters this zone and further on its
continuation the Vakunay, Upper Chonsk, Danilov
deposits in the territory of the Irkutsk region (Fig. 5 -I,
see Fig.1).
Finally, on the maps of fault tectonics, the
structural -tecto nic zone of the north -weste rn strike,
through the territory of Vilyuchansk saddle (location of
the conditional center line "B -B", Fig.5 -I), whose
existence could explain the local spatial location of
fields discovered here with deposits in Vendian -
Cambrian carbonaceous rocks in the framework of the
presented concept (Iktekh, Verne -Vilyuchansk and
Vilyuisk -Jerbinsk deposits) cannot be seen at all (see
Fig. 1).

Fig. 5. To the substantiation of the spatial location and localization of hydrocarbon deposits with deposits in
Vendian -Cambrian and Lower Cambrian carbonates
Maps with an overlay of local and superorder structures within the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia): I. fault
tectonics of All -Russian Geological Research and Development O il Institute [12]); II. Map of the magnetic field
T.
1 − field contours; 2 − contours of the structures: a) − in training funds, b) − inherit the strike of the fault
system; 3 − administrative border of Yakutia; 4 − boundaries of superorder structures (nam es of structures are in
Fig.2); 5 − location of the conditionally axial lines for fault systems of the north -west strike; 6 − contours of the
Nepa -Peleduy arch (NPA) and Myrninsky protrusion (MP) of the NBA; 7 − deposits that are referenced in the
text: 1 − Talakan, 2 − Upper Chon, 3 − Vakunai, 4 − Upper V ilyuchan, 5 − Vilyuisk -Djerba.

In our opinion, the available maps of fault
tectonics for the reasons noted above, incl. author's
subjectivity, are not a reliable basis for the
identification of activated fault systems of north -
western generation.
Our st udies in the territory of the NBA and the
Vilyuchansk saddle within the boundaries of the
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), followed by [19], confirm
the relation between the spatial location of deposits and
linear magnetic field anomalies. The connection is th at
some extended anomalies will i nherit the location of

American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 47

fault systems of the last activation, associated with the
deposits formation in carbonate strata, the
determination of which location on the maps of fault
tectonics is ambiguous or difficult. On the p resented
map of magnetic field ∆T , after its processing, two
linear anomalies along the conditional axial lines,
which we associate with the fault systems of the north -
west strike, are clearly distinguishable (Fig. 5 -II).
The first of them along the conven tionally axial
line “A -A” in the south of the territory confirms the
location of structural -tectonic zone of the north -west
strike marked on the map of fault tectonics. The second
one along the conventionally axial line "B -B" reveals a
structural -tectonic zone of a similar strike in the
northern part of the NBA, which also passes through
the territory of the Vilyuchansk saddle and does not
appear on the map of fault tectonics. (Fig. 5 -II).
Other structural -tectonic zones of the north -
western strike within the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
under consideration are not distinguished.
In search of justification for the allocated
structural and tectonic zones of the north -west strike
and establishing the nature of regional behavior outside
the north -eastern part of the NBA, their location is
com bined with a fragment of fault tectonics scheme
borrowed from the classical oil and gas potential map
of the Siberian platform, edited by A.E. Kontorovich
and A.A. Trofimuk, covering the territory of the NBA,
Katanga saddle , and Baikit anteclise [11]. On t he
fragment of this scheme, the map;s legend shows only
the general deep faults, according to the classification
of S.I. Sherman, in the crystalline basement and
sedimentary cover with a length of more than 150 km
[23] (see Fig. 1).
Such a "thinned" by the extent of the fault circuit
is dominated by the diagonal system, provided by
regional faults of north -eastern and north -western
directions, two faults of the latter direction are
confirmed in the north -eastern part of the NBA as the
faults of last generat ion (see Fig. 5 -II). For these
reasons, in the first approximation, we can assume that
in the scheme the activated in the past and the present
faults of different spatial generation are shown.
We should note two important f eatures of the
spatial faults dis tribution on the diagram, which are
consistent with the above provisions on the nature of
deposits and the nature of deposits location in the areas
of the above -mentioned superorder structures. First -
the faults of late no rth -western generation pass throu gh
the territory of the NBA and the Vilyuchansk saddle or
are located on it and do not affect the territory of the
Katanga saddle and Baikit anteclise. Two of these faults
- one is in the north, the second is in the center of the
NBA, have a trans -regional distribution and cross the
entire Siberian platform. Second, most of the faults of
early north -eastern and sub -medial generation pass
through the NBA and the Vilyuchansk saddle (see Fig.
1). These features of fault tectoni cs, in our opinion,
explain the r eason for overwhelming number of open
fields location with deposits in terrigenous strata and
carbonate reservoirs (28 of 35, Table 1) in the territory
of the NBA and Vilyuchansk saddle.
In this regard, the prospects for de veloping
deposits in the Vendian -Cambrian and Lower
Cambrian carbonates in the NBA territory within the
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) are associated with areas
adjacent to the identified fault systems in the central
and northern NBA (conditional axial lines "A -A" and "
B-B"), as well as on the continuation of the latter in the
Predpatom trough, which width of influence zones
remains unknown. For the rest of the NBA territory,
recommendations regarding the prospects for areas
adjacent to the fault systems of t he north -west strike
remains rele vant, but the location of fault systems
should be specified in this case.
DISCUSSION
With the outlined concept, if it is correct, the
expected stages of fluid saturation and deposits
formation upwards along the section are closely linked.
When the early P aleozoic faults were generated in
the early north -eastern generation, the deposits in the
HC traps were probably formed initially in deep -seated
reservoirs of the basal Precambrian terrigenous
complex under the influence of ascending fluid flows
from sub -fundamental (cryptogenic) and mantle
sources. The subsequent generation of faults of other
directions, prior to the manifestation of the activation
of northwestern generation system, obviously
influenced the fluid saturation of the overlying Vendian
strata and the reorganization of HC deposits between
them, but did not lead to the formation of deposits
beyond its boundaries. In the territory of the NBA,
within the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), these are
productive horizons in the Talakh, Parshin, Kursk,
Khary stakh and Buchka sunks, which are overlapped
by a thick stratum of low permeability carbonates from
the Uspun and Kudulakh sunks.
The influence of fault tectonics of late north -
western generation on carbonate strata led dir ectly to
the formation of deposit s therein due to the reformation
(or deformation) of those in the underlying terrigenous
complex. The effect was more complex and occurred
taking into account the above -mentioned intensive flow
of deformation and fluid dyna mic processes. It was
accompanied by a change in the physical properties of
the environment, the inheritance of local reservoir plan
with the direction of activated fault system and led to a
discordant relation between it and the regional
structural plan o r local reservoir plans in terrig enous
reservoirs.
Mindful that the deposits formation in the HC
traps depends on many other factors not related to the
intensification of fault systems, we believe that the
proposed staging of their development under the
influence of faults is not sufficie nt, but a necessary
condition for the deposits formation. This makes it
possible to explain the statistics of discovered fields in
general, including with the HC deposits in Vendian -
Cambrian and Lower Cambrian carbonates (T able 1).
The traps of fields, whe rein the HC deposits are
developed in the Riphean and Early Vendian
formations, the influence stage of faults of the north -
eastern and/or subsequent north -north -eastern and sub -
meridional generations were conducted. This is
evidenced by the fact that the o verwhelming majority

48 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
of such fields, 27 of 34, were developed in the NBA
and Vilyuchansk saddle (Table 1), on the structural
maps of the territory of which the faults of marked
orientation predominate, as well as the simila r extent of
the NBA contour and d eposits on it (Fig. 7 -I).
The traps in the fields, wherein the HC deposits
were dieveloped in the Vendian -Cambrian and Lower
Cambrian carbonates, were supposed to be in the zones
of influence of the activated system of lat e north -
western generation and one or more zones of influenc e
of the activated systems of earlier generations. In other
words, the HC deposits in the carbonate strata of these
deposits can be developed in the fields, wherein the HC
deposits were previously formed in productive strata of
the Precambrian terrigenous complex and which are
located in the zones of interference of fault systems of
early and late generation. It explains the low statistics
of such deposits development (Table 1).
The conducted hydro dynamic and structural
constructions on the gas -oil deposit of Osynsk
carbonate horizon (the Lower Cambrian) at the Talakan
field made it possible to reveal the features of such a
zone of superposition of fault systems. There is a low
similarity of the flo w maps and reservoir deposits R =
0.67 in the centra l block with the almost identical
direction of plan strikes on the maps reviewed. It was
found that the location of areas with improved reservoir
properties and increased productivity of wells is not
cont rolled by the deposits hypsometry, but their
confine ment to nodes crossing the faults of north -west
directions with faults of other directions (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6. Map comparison on Talakan square (matrix representation: high marks and debits - light tones):
a) structured along the Osynsk horizon; b) Osynsk horizon productivity map with the author's option of fault
tectonics.
1 − contour of the Talakan field ; 2 − blocks of the field: a − Talansky; b − Central Talakan; c − East Talakan; 3
− scheme of fault tectonics; 4 − wells: a − not considered, b − considered.

The figure maximum flow rates (around wells
17964, 17952.17953) is displaced relative to the
sur face maximum marks near the well 17954, and their
location fits into the triangle formed by faults of nor th
north -western, sub -meridional and north -eastern strike.
On this basis, two assumptions were made. The
first is that the location of such nodes is a vertical
projection of the channels of fluid flow migration;
second - during the deposits formation in th e Lower
Cambrian carbonates, the faults of late north -western
generation were primarily active, and the associated
fault sections of earlier generation – inductively active
and participated in the reservoir fluid -saturation
processes.
The stated relation b etween fluid dynamic
processes in the zones of active faults and processes of
the simultaneous HC deposit formation, and filtration -
volumetric characte ristics of the reservoir in the
carbonate rock is evidenced by the data of the acoustic
well logging in p arameter D, reflecting the rhythm of
sedimentation, in the Talakan deposit spectrally -depth
scanning (SDS) [5]. The activity of fluid dynamic
processes , caused by the activation of faults, is related
to the fracturing and accompanying secondary porosity
of carbonate formation, and manifested in different
nature of the SGS in the supply and not supply wells
along the productive Osynsk horizon. In this cas e,
differences in the SGS patterns cover the interval of
occurrence of the entire carbonate (V endian -Cambrian)
and carbonate -halogen complex (the Lower Cambrian),
as most susceptible to fracture and cavernous formation
processes (Fig.7).

American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 49

Fig. 7 Compar ison of GGRs on the entire trunk for unproductive (803,806,818) and pr oductive (812,825,826)
wells along the Osynsk horizon of the Talakan field [3].

Within ellipse - the interval of occurrence of
carbonate and carbonate -halogen complexes of
Vendian -Camb rian and Lower Cambrian.
The fault systems that determine the block
divisibility of the earth's crust and play an important
role in the HC ontogenesis, according to most
researchers, fit into a planetary grid of faults, the main
of which are orthogonal (la titudinal and meridional
directions) and diagona l sub -perpendicular (north -
eastern (NE) - oriented from the south -west to the
north -east, and the north -western (NW) - oriented from
the south -east to the north -west directions). Priority of
the systems manif estation in any other region is
determined by th e specific character of its geological
structure [1].
In the above -mentioned influence of fault systems
on the stage of HC deposits formation and the fault -
block structure of NBA, in particular, the more
sig nificant role of diagonal fault system of planet ary
directions with the subordinate role of the orthogonal
[16], the nature of which is still to be ascertained, is
identified.
CONCLUSION
1. Fields formation in the HC traps of synchronous
deposits of a sing le Riphean -Lower Paleozoic SRB
within the NBA probably occurred due to subvertical
fluid flows from sub -fundamental sources and the HC
deposits reformation between productive Vendian
strata under the influence of periodic activation of fault
systems of dif ferent spatial orientation.
2. HC deposits in productive strata of the
terrigenous Vendian complex were formed under the
influence of active faults of early north -eastern and / or
subsequent north -north -eastern and sub -meridional
generations, and HC deposi ts in the Vendian -Cambrian
and Lower Cambrian carbonate horizons - under the
influence of active faults of late north -west generation
with the inheritance of local structural plans for the
strike horizons of these faults. This leads to a discordant
correl ation of the local structural plan of deposit in the
carbonate strata with respect to the regional plan or
formation plan in the Vendian deposits at the multi -
layer fields.
3. A stage is established in the deposits formation
in the SW traps upwards along t he section. At the first
stage, under the acti on of fault systems of the early
north -eastern and subsequent generations, the north -
east and sub -meridional north form and then reform
deposits in the productive Vendian strata. Deposits in
the productive Vend ian -Cambrian and Lower
Cambrian carbonate hori zons are formed at the second
stage under the influence of faults of late north -western
generation in the zones of their overlapping to faults of
earlier generation due to reformation (de -formation) of
deposits in terrigenous Precambrian reservoirs.
4. From the standpoint of the HC deposit in the
Vendian -Cambrian and the Lower Cambrian carbon
rocks, the HC deposits can be developed in the territory
of traps in which HC deposits were previously formed
in the prod uctive strata of the Precambrian terrige nous

50 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
complex. At the same time, the success rate of field
development with such deposits in relation to the total
number of discovered fields is about 0.25 (according to
Table 1). This means that in carbonate reservo irs it is
impossible to achieve the adva nced deposits
development and in determining the order of
prospecting surveys the terrigenous horizons the
surveys should be considered as basic or priority.
5. Prospects for the deposits development in the
Vendian -Cambrian and Lower Cambrian carbonates
within the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) are associated
with areas adjacent to the identified fault systems of the
north -western strike, which width of the zones of
influence remains unknown, as well as continuation of
the fault system B' - 'B' in the Predpatom trough.

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American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 51

PICTURE CAPTIONS
Fig. 1. The overview map of superorder structures
for the Siberian platform with hydrocarbon deposits.
Siberian platform; 2. Folded environment; 3. HC
deposits, wherein the re are no deposits in the Vendian -
Cambrian and the Lower Cambrian carbonates; 4. HC
deposits, wherein there are deposits in the Vendian -
Cambrian and the Lower Cambrian carbonates; 5.
Structurally tectonic zone; 6. Route of the ESPO gas
pipeline under const ruction; 7. The largest violation,
intersecting the basement and sedimentary cover of [6]:
a) north -west strike, b) other than the north -west strike;
c) violations coincided with the allocated "A -A" and
"B -B" (Fig.7 -II).
Fig. 2. Manifestation of the deep f aults activation
(north of the nor th-west direction)
I− generalization of different -scale lineaments
based on space survey data (SSD) for the territory of
Vilyui syneclise: a) assembly of lineaments with
various directions; lineaments for directions: b) ea st of
the north -east; c) north -eas t; d) north of the north -west;
e) rose -diagram of lineaments; II − lineaments of
magnetic (a) and gravitational (b) fields at the Atyakha
square in the Kempendyai basin. The arrow points to
the lineaments reflecting the fau lt system for the north -
west strik e of the last activation, which "cross"
lineaments of other directions.
Fig.3. To the substantiation of the existence of a
different age fault systems activation
I. Structural plans for Upper Vilyuchan field by
productive horizons of:
a) Yuryakhsky Yu -1 (t he Yuryakhsky formation
of the Vendian -Lower Cambrian; б) Kharystansky
(Kharystansky formation of the Vendian) (matrix
representation: light tones - rising, dark - dipping);
point - wells.
II.a) comparison of maps for the hydraulic
conductivity coefficient s of gas reservoir in the
Botuobinsk horizon of the Vendian (the Chayandinsky
deposit) and the oil deposit of the Osinsk horizon of the
Lower Cambrian (the Central Talakan field) (matrix
representation: light tones - high, dark - low values of
coefficients ); b) Correlation coefficients between the
structural plans of Lower Cambrian and Vendian
horizons at the deposits. Deposit contours: 1 −
Chayandinsky; 2 − Talakan.
Fig.4. Structural plans and their two -dimensional
autocorre lation functions for the Mid -Botuo binsky
deposit (I) and the Taas -Yuryakhsky deposit (II)
(matrix representation).
A − by Botuoba horizon of the Vendian; B − by
Osynsk horizon of the Bilir formation of the Lower
Cambrian. Points - wells. Arrows - direction of the
structural plans strike. R – a correlation coefficient
between the plans.
Fig.5. To the substantiation of the spatial location
and localization of hydrocarbon deposits with deposits
in Vendian -Cambrian and Lower Cambrian carbonates
Maps with an over lay of local and superorder
struct ures within the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia): I.
fault tectonics of All -Russian Geological Research and
Development Oil Institute [12]); II. Map of the
magnetic field T.
1 − field contours; 2 − contours of the structures: a )
− in training funds, b) − inherit the strike of the fault
system; 3 − administrative border of Yakutia; 4 −
boundaries of superorder structures (names of
structures are in Fig.2); 5 − location of the conditionally
axial lines for fault systems of the nor th-west strike; 6
− contour s of the Nepa -Peleduy arch (NPA) and
Myrninsky protrusion (MP) of the NBA; 7 − deposits
that are referenced in the text: 1 − Talakan, 2 − Upper
Chon, 3 − Vakunai, 4 − Upper Vilyuchan, 5 − Vilyuisk -
Djerba.
Fig.6. Map comparison on Talakan square (matrix
rep resentation: high marks and debits - light tones):
a) structured along the Osynsk horizon; b) Osynsk
horizon productivity map with the author's option of
fault tectonics.
1 − contour of the Talakan field; 2 − blocks of the
field : a − Taransky; b − Central Talakan; c − East
Talakan; 3 − scheme of fault tectonics; 4 − wells: a −
not considered, b − considered.
Fig.7 Comparison of GGRs on the entire trunk for
unproductive (803,806,818) and productive
(812,825,826) wells along the Os ynsk horizon of the
Talakan field [3].
Within ellipse - the interval of occurrence of
carbonate and carbonate -halogen complexes of
Vendian -Cambrian and Lower Cambrian.
Information about authors
Anatoly G. Berzin Professor of the Department of
Geophysics, G eological Prospecting Faculty, M.K.
Ammosov North -Eastern Federal University (AIS
Department Member), Doctor of Geological
Mineralogical Sciences. Graduated Artem
Dnepropetrovsk Mining Institute in 1963. Specialty:
mining engineer - geophysicist. Chief geo physicist of
the "Yakutskgeofizika" trust in the period of the most
extensive study of the territories of Western Yakutia in
order to search for oil and gas fields (1980 -1990).
Scientific intere sts: studying the geological structure
and tectonic nature of oil and gas fields in Western
Yakutia on the basis of modern geoinformation
technologies for processing and interpreting geological
and geophysical materials. Author of 60 publications
and 1 mon ograph.
Sergey A. Berzin - Engineer of WesternGeco
(Geco -Prak la, Schlumberger Ltd.) He graduated from
the Ivano -Frankovsk Institute of Oil and Gas with a
specialization in geophysical methods. Author and co -
author of 10 scientific works. He has a 20 -year
production experience in the field of application of
geophysic al methods for prospecting and exploration of
oil and gas fields. Scientific interests: application of
terrestrial and marine 2D, 3D and 4C seismic surveys.
In the past - Senior Geophysicist / l eading specialist of
the "Yakutskgeofizika" Trust (1993 -1998). He
conducted the processing of 2D CPM, participated in
the preparation of joint projects with such companies as
Maxus, Exxon, South Korea, and JNOC