Американский Научный Журнал NEW REGULATORY MECHANISMS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

The regulatory mechanisms for environmental protection have been reformed since 2014. These reforms engage the ecological aspects of the enterprise’s activities that have a negative environmental impact (NEI). This includes enterprises from the nuclear industry. The list of priority actions has been developed in order to stop using outdated and inefficient technologies. Enterprises are switching to the principle of using the best available technologies (BAT) and implementing modern technologies. Laws and regulations for defining the acceptable environmental impact with the use of BAT principles are being developed. The main BAT principles are being integrated into the national regulatory system for products (goods) manufacturing, work execution and provision of services. Скачать в формате PDF
34 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
NEW REGULATOR Y MECHANISMS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
V.A. Grachev
State Corporation “Rosatom”
Center for Global Ecology, Lomonosov Moscow State University
N.I. Kurysheva
Burnazyan Medical and Biological Center

Introduction
The regulatory mechanisms for environmental
protection have been reformed since 2014. These re-
forms engage the ecological aspects of the enterprise’s
activities that have a negative environmental impact
(NEI). This includes enterprises from the nuclear indus-
try. The list of priority actions has been developed in
order to stop using outdated and inefficient technolo-
gies. Enterprises are switching to the principle of using
the best available technologies (BAT) and implement-
ing modern technologies. Laws and regulations for d e-
fining the acceptable environmental impact with the
use of BAT principles are being developed. The main
BAT principles are being integrated into the national
regulatory system for products (goods) manufacturing,
work execution and provision of services.
In 2014, Federal Law No. 219 -FZ dated July 21,
2014 and entitled “On introducing amendments to Fed-
eral Law “On environmental protection” and some leg-
islative acts of the Russian Federation” was adopted.
According to this Law, it is required to change the re g-
ulatory mechanisms for environmental protection of the
corporation and subordinate organizations, as well as to
change institutional operating cond itions of facilities
using nuclear energy.
The environmental legislation in Russia has four
levels:
1. Laws, decrees and orders of the president, gov-
ernmental regulations;
2. Regulations of ministries and departments;
3. Regulations of regional authorities;
4. Regulations of local authorities.
The Constitution of the Russian Federation is at
the top of the legislature; it declares the right of the per-
son to enjoy a favorable environment and to receive
compensation for damage caused by pollution (Article
42).
The current situation. Regulatory mechanisms in
Russia, as well as globally, are based on the Constit u-
tion and laws. In the Russian Federation, there are 15
basic laws and several decrees of the president, as well
as many existing legal acts of the executive authority
[1-15].
In accordance with modern views, it is possible to
ensure environmental protecti on only by taking a set of
organizational measures, by adopting legal arrange-
ments and economic policies, which are aimed at envi-
ronmental protection and reduction of the negative im-
pact on the environment.
The environmental protection mechanism is
closely connected to organizational measures, legal ar-
rangements and economic policies, understood as a co-
herent whole and aimed at environmental protection
and provision of favorable living conditions for people.
The legislation of foreign countries is more or l ess
similar, in some, it is even stricter [16 -30].
European Union Law is based on the fundamental
principles of the EU.
The Directive 2001/42/EC6 includes the follow-
ing statements: Article 1 of the Directive determines the
necessity to carry out the assess ment of the environ-
ment in order to develop plans and programs, which can
have a significant ecological (environmental) effect.
Article 2 presents the definitions of plans and pro-
grams, the assessment of the environment and the re-
port that has to be provid ed. The Directive
85/337/EEC7 presents the projects that require an as-
sessment of the environment, such as agriculture, for-
estry, fishing, energy, manufacture, transport, waste
management, telecommunications, the tourist industry,
urban planning or other p rojects.
In the USA, they use interesting mechanisms for
the management of urban areas. Sixty -nine projects of
Columbia District have been studied, including their
classification, their organization and their impact on
people/residents for identifying the cause -effect rela-
tionships. It has been discovered that the main reasons
for project redesign include an insufficient initial
budget, a bad project design and a poor involvement of
local staff [9]. Ecological systems are complex sys-
tems. In order to solve environmental problems, it is
necessary to ensure interdisciplinary cooperation, con-
sideration of global aspects of sustainable development
and consideration for the relationship between ecologi-
cal and economic aspects. Moreover, interdisciplinary
studies should be carried out. The modeling issues and
their practical solutions should be part of the model sys-
tem, and should not be considered separately as it often
happens in practice. They should be aimed at support-
ing the management decisions and at creatin g new pol-
itics for socio -economic and socio -ecological systems
[20].
Less than twenty years ago, the concept of sustain-
able development was considered as too vague, alt-
hough its importance was emphasized in national, in-
ternational and corporate politics. I t was noted that in
the process of establishing the concept definition, there
were more attempts to consider separate elements of the
concept than to consider the concept as a whole [21].
Within the framework of Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA), Socia l Impact Assessment (SIA) is
also carried out in foreign countries. In the USA, they
started to implement SIA methods in 1969, after the
adoption of the National Environmental Policy Act
(NEPA), and an idea of EIA appeared almost at the
same time [22, 23].
The experience of SIA, as well as the resource im-
pact assessment and the ecological footprint [30],
should also be analyzed and implemented in Russia
[22 -28].
The relevance of the research topic. The aim
and objectives of the research

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 35
Today, environmenta l protection and the environ-
mental security of people are becoming more and more
important. This provokes changes to legislation.
The analysis and the systematic review of these
changes are a relevant objective.
The aim of this research is to carry out an analyti-
cal study of the changes to the legislation, and their sys-
tematic review, in order to help many natural resource
users to organize the implementation of BAT, as well
as to execute CEP and other documents in accordance
with the law.
The objectives of the research involve the analysis
of changes in regulatory mechanisms and their system-
atic review.
Results
The new requirements of environmental legis-
lation include:
▪the division of enterprises into four categories;
▪the application of differentiated government reg-
ulations to each category of enterprises;
▪the replacement of three existing permits on
emissions, discharges and waste by a CEP, a declara-
tion and a report;
▪the introduction of technological regulation based
on BAT principles;
▪the establis hment of a closed list of regulated sub-
stances;
▪the determination of the federal and regional su-
pervisory bodies;
▪the determination of requirements for the ecolog-
ical supervision in the industry;
▪the systematization of the ecological information
about e nterprises within the governmental accounting
of facilities;
▪the legislative regulation of payment for the neg-
ative environmental impact;
▪the implementation of mechanisms for promoting
the reduction of environmental pollution.
Federal Law No. 458 -FZ entitled “On introducing
amendments to Federal Law “On production and con-
sumption waste”, to certain legislative acts of the Rus-
sian Federation, and on annulment of certain acts of
legislation of the Russian Federation” was adopted on
December 29, 2014. Th is law has defined the main di-
rections of state management reforms regarding the dis-
posal of production and consumption waste. They are
as follows:
▪ the improvement of state powers of the Russian
Federation, the federal subjects and municipal organi-
zation s about waste management;
▪the introduction of governmental regulation on
handling goods (products), which have to be utilized
(used) after losing their consumer attributes;
▪the introduction of governmental regulation on
handling solid municipal waste (SM W).
The State audits the facilities with NEI in order to
receive true information about these facilities, to deter-
mine BAT application fields, to implement targeted
planning methods, and to plan state environmental con-
trol. The facilities are registered in a state registry enti-
tled the State Information System (SIS).

Figure 1. Stages of transition to a new system of environmental regulation.

36 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
Принятие подзаконных актов = Adoption of by Jlaws =
Разработка и публикация справочников НДТ = Development and publication of BAT reference=
books =
Постановка предприятий на гос. учет = State registration of enterprises =
Выдача комплексных экологических разре-
шении на основе программ повышения экологи-
ческой эффективности в пилотном режиме для: =
новых предприятий =
300 действующих крупнейших предприятий
«загрязнителей» =
Обратившихся в инициативном порядке
предприятий, в том числе предприятий 2 катего-
рии при наличии справочников НДТ =
Pilot issuance of CEP based on e nvironmental=
efficiency improvement programs for: =
new enterprises =
300 largest operating enterprises which are “pol-
luters” =
enterprises, which applied for CEP on their own
initiative, including enterprises of the second cateJ
gory, provided there are BAT refer ence books =
Реализация программ повышения экологиче-
ской эффективности =
Implementation of environmental efficiency im-
provement programs =
Оснащение источников приборами автомати-
ческого контроля =
Provision of automatic control devices to the
sources =
ГЭЭ планир уемых к строительству, рекон-
струкци и=объектов 1 категории =
State Environmental Expert Review (SEER) of
the first category facilities planned to by constructed,=
reconstructed =
Применение мер экономического стимулиро-
вания = Economic incentive measures =
Увеличение коэффициента платы: =
За временно разрешенное воздействие =
К=25 (сейчас –=К=5) =
За воздействие, превышающее разрешенное =
К=100 (сейчас К=25) =
Increase of the payment coefficient for: =
temporarily authorized impact =
K=25 (now K=5) =
impact exceeding the= authorized impact =
K=100 (now K=25) =
Распространение требований на все крупные
предприятия =
Imposition of requirements on all large enter-
prises =
The facility= category= (the= first,= the second, the
third and the fourth categories) wit h NEI is determined
during the state registration in accordance with Resolu-
tion= No.1029 from= September 28, 2015= issued= by= the
Government= of= the Russian Federation. According to=
this Resolution, the criteria are established and are apJ
plied to nuclear facilá ties, including: =
▪ nuclear plants (except for research nuclear plants
with zero capacity) and nuclear power stations;
▪ uranium and thorium ore mining facilities, ura-
nium and thorium ore beneficiation facilities, nuclear
fuel production facilities;
▪ radiation facilities (except for radiation sources
which include only radioactive sources of the fourth
and the fifth radiation hazard category), provided that
the facility emits and discharges radioactive substances
in the environment;
▪ storage facilitie s for nuclear materials and radio-
active substances, radioactive waste storage facilities,
and radioactive waste burial facility.
The main facilities of the first category of
Rosatom State Corporation include chemical produc-
tion facilities and waste managem ent facilities. In ac-
cordance with the criteria, the majority of nuclear facil-
ities, including nuclear power stations fall into the sec-
ond category of NEI.
The level of the state environmental supervision of
the Corporation’s organizations is determined in ac-
cordance with the criteria for defining the category of
facilities that are subject to federal state environmental
supervision. These criteria are established by Resolu-
tion No.903 dated August 28, 2015 and entitled “On the
establishment of criteria for facilities which are subject
to federal state environmental supervision”. The facili-
ties of the first and the second categories which have a
CEP are subject to federal state environmental supervi-
sion, as well as nuclear plants, including nuclear power
stat ions, uranium ore mining and processing plants, ex-
cept for research nuclear plants with zero capacity,
spacecraft and aircraft; radiation facilities (except for
radiation sources, which include only radioactive
sources of the fourth and the fifth radiation hazard cat-
egory), provided that the facility emits and discharges
radioactive substances in the environment.

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 37
Figure 2. State regulation measures in relation to the facility category.

Объект со значительным воздействием (1 категория) Facility with a significant environmental impact
(the first category)
Объект с умеренным воздействием (2 категория) Facility with a moderate environmental impact
(the second category)
Объект с незначительным воздействием (3 категория) Facility with a low environmental impact (the
third category)
Объект с минимальным воздействием (4 категория) Facility with a minimum environmental impact
(the fourth category)
Государственная экологическая экспертиза SEER
Постановка объектов на государственный учет State registration of facilities
Нормирование на принципах НДТ BAT -based regulation
Декларирование объемов воздействия Declaration of facilities with the environmental
impact
Производственны экологический контроль (дифферен-
циация по категориям объ ектов)
Production environmental control (differentia-
tion by the facility category)
Оснащение источников приборами непрерывного кон-
троля
Provision of in -process control devices to the
sources
Отчетность об объемах воздействия Reporting on the impact level s
Отчетность о выполнение планов мероприятий/про-
грамм внедрения НДТ
Reporting on fulfillment of plans/BAT imple-
mentation programs
Федеральный государственный экологический надзор Federal State Environmental Supervision
Региональный государственный экологический надзор Regional State Environmental Supervision
Только внеплановые проверки Only unscheduled inspection
The principles of transition to BAT
The Federal Law defines BAT as follows: “The
best available technology is the technology of manufac-
turing products (goods), execution of works, provision
of services, that is based on modern achievements of
science and technology, as well as the best combi nation
of criteria for environmental protection, provided that
there is a technical possibility for its application”. The
best technology means a technology which is the most
efficient for production and which allows achieving a
certain level of environmen tal protection. An available
technology means a technology which is developed to

38 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
be applied in a certain industry, provided that its imple-
mentation brings economic, technical, ecological and
social efficiency.
The Government of the Russian Federation has a p-
pointed the Federal State Autonomous Body Research
Institute “Environmental Industrial Policy Centre” as
the Best Available Technologies Bureau. A specialized
Technical Committee for Standardization of BAT has
been established for creating unified approac hes to the
development of BAT reference books. BAT reference
books are a part of the National Standardization Sys-
tem.
This work is rather extensive, as 6,000 descrip-
tions of operational procedures are needed for BAT im-
plementation. As of the end of 2017, t he plan had been
implemented, and 51 Information Technology Refer-
ence Books (ITRB) had been prepared. The BAT im-
plementation based on specialized handbooks is sched-
uled to start in 2019; the period of transition to BAT
should not last longer than 7 -10 year s, depending on the
type of production.
Stages of transition to BAT are as follows:
The assessment of company operations and the de-
velopment of a modernization plan that should include
a description of the operating activities and the stages
of BAT impleme ntation. A BAT is selected from the
BAT list and it must ensure an acceptable level of en-
vironmental impact.

Figure 3. BAT.

НДТ BAT
Наилучшие Best
Наименьший уровень воздействия на окружающую
среду, ресурсо - и энергосбережение
The lowest level of environmental impact, re-
source and energy saving
Доступные Available
Экономически эффективны, внедрены на двух или бо-
лее предприятиях, технология имеется в наличии
Cost -effective, implemented at two or more
enterprises, the technology is available
Технологии Technologies
Технологические процессы, технические способы, ме-
тоды, оборудование
Technological processes, technical methods,
methods, equipment
Технологические нормативы устанавливаются Technological regulations are established
Предприятиям 1 категории For enterprises from the first category
Исходя из количества выбросов, сбросов на единицу
продукции или др.показателях
Based on the amount of emissions, discharges
per a production unit o r other indicators
В отношении маркерных веществ In relation to markers
2. The agreement on the modernization plan and
the determination of temporarily approved emission
limits. The modernization plan shall be agreed with the
Authorized Territorial Administration Body (ATAB).
After the agreement on the modernization plan, tempo-
rarily approved emission/discharge limits will be estab-
lished for the enterprise. The program for offsetting of
funds will also be agreed to allocate a p ayment account
for company modernization for the payment of nega-
tive environmental impact.
3. Implementation of the modernization plan and
staged implementation of BAT. During the implemen-
tation of the modernization plan, ATAB will be entitled
to control t he enterprise’s adherence to the established
limits and the modernization stages. The BAT imple-
mentation will result in the achievement of an accepta-
ble level of environmental impact and the transition of
an enterprise to environmentally friendly technolog ies.
There is a list of 300 enterprises from the first cat-
egory that contributes no less than 60% to total emis-
sions, discharges of pollutants. So -called pilot projects
on the issuance of complex ecological permits will start
at these enterprises.
Organiza tions of the Corporation determine two
directions of technology modernization in BAT imple-
mentation, which are:

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 39
1) The change of the system environment pro-
cesses which are specific for a certain technology or for
an organization from the nuclear industry; information
about these processes is included in the vertical indus-
try -specific ITRB;
2) The change (creation) of the system environ-
ment processes which do not have any specific features,
such as an environmental management system, an in-
dustrial environmen tal control system; the information
about these processes is included in the horizontal inter -
industry ITRB.

Figure 4. Stages of transition to BAT.

Получение КЭР всеми объектами 1 категории All facilities from the first cat egory get a CEP
Оснащение стационарных источников автоматиче-
скими системами контроля
Stationery sources are equipped with automatic
control systems
Получение КЭР 300 действующими крупнейшими
предприятиями – «загрязнителями»
300 largest operating enterpri ses, “polluters”, get a
CEP
Разработка и реализация программ повышения эко-
логической эффективности
Environmental efficiency improvement programs
are developed and implemented
The compulsory requirements for the transition to
the technological regulation model based on the tech-
nological parameters of BAT have been established for
organizations’ operating facilities from the first cate-
gory.
The organizations operating the facilities from the
first category are obliged to get a complex ecological
permit by January 1, 2025. This permit is issued for a
seven -year period. It can be extended for the same pe-
riod under the conditions prescribed by law. In case an
organization cannot achieve acceptable levels of emis-
sions and discharges , the program on increasing eco-
logical efficiency shall be developed and levels of tem-
porarily authorized emissions and discharges shall be
established.
Implementation of an automatic environmental
control system for the enterprises is an important stage
of the transition to BAT principles. Stationary sources
of the facilities from the first category shall be equipped
with automatic devices for measuring volume or mass
of emissions, discharges and pollutant concentration.
Equipment for recording and transf erring information
about the volume and (or) mass of emissions, dis-
charges and pollutant concentration to the public data-
base of the State Environmental Monitoring shall also
be provided.
The facilities from the second category with mod-
erate NEI are less m onitored by the state, and fewer re-
quirements are imposed on these facilities. The facili-
ties from the second category are obliged to adhere to
qualitative descriptions and quantitative limits of emis-
sions and discharges. They have to submit an environ-
ment al impact declaration. In case there are relevant in-
dustry -specific ITRB on BAT, the facilities from the
second category are entitled to get a complex ecological
permit.
In case an organization cannot achieve acceptable
levels of emissions and discharges, the environmental
protection program is developed and approved. Levels
of Temporarily Authorized Emissions and Temporarily
Authorized Discharges (TAE and TAD) are estab-
lished.
The facilities from the second category can
choose:
— a technological regulation model, based on
technological parameters, established by the regulatory
documents. These regulatory documents are accepted
in a six -month period after the publication or the updat-
ing of ITRB on BAT, in case BAT are applied to the
main activities of the fa cility; and there are substances
that need to be regulated for emissions and discharges
out of the facility;

40 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
— an existing regulation system, based on previ-
ously established ADR, AER, rates of waste generation
and limits of their storage (“zero option”).
The benefit of new environmental legislation for
organizations is that they are able to use mechanisms of
stimulation and government support in their environ-
mental protection activities and BAT implementation.
These mechanisms include:
— offsetting expenses on reducing negative im-
pact and BAT implementation on account of payment
for NEI; use of the decreasing coefficient for accrual
NEI fee;
— tax benefits, including the use of decreasing co-
efficients for the investment tax credit, corporate tax
deduction, a ccelerated depreciation;
— provision of subsidies from the budget system
of the Russian Federation in accordance with the estab-
lished procedure.
The facilities from the third category with low NEI
are obliged to submit reports on environmental impact,
incl uding reports on generation, use, detoxification,
disposal of waste; estimation of AER, ADR is not re-
quired. A regulation model, based on the establishment
of rates is only necessary for radioactive, high -toxic
substances with cancerogenic and mutagenic pr operties
(substances of the first and second hazard class) and is
applied for the facilities of the third category.
The facilities from the fourth category with mini-
mum NEI are released from payment for NEI; they do
not have to submit ecological reports an d to undergo
scheduled inspections; estimation of AER, ADR is also
not required. Organizations, operating the facilities of
the first, second or third category are obliged to carry
out independent Industrial and Environmental Control
(IEC). IEC programs ar e developed and approved for
each facility, taking into account its category and ap-
plied technologies, and features of the production pro-
cess, as well as its negative environmental impact. Dur-
ing IEC, organizations of the Corporation are obliged
to estimat e emissions, discharges of substances, char-
acterizing the applied technologies and features of the
production process (markers).
Payment for negative environmental impact
Global changes in payment for negative environ-
mental impact have taken place recently .
Organizations of the Corporation operating the fa-
cilities of the first, second and third categories have to
pay for the following negative impacts on the environ-
ment:
▪ the emissions of pollutants to the air by station-
ary sources;
▪ the discharges of pol lutants into sewage water
that goes to water bodies;
▪ the disposal of production and consumption
waste.
Some increasing coefficients entitled stimulating
coefficients have been established for negative environ-
mental impact payment.
Since January 1, 2020, in case of non -reduction in
the volume or mass of pollutant emissions and dis-
charges, in a six -month period after the date stipulated
by the environmental protection plan or by the environ-
mental efficiency improvement program, the accrued
payment for exces s AER, ADR or technological rates,
shall be recalculated with coefficient 100 for the corre-
sponding reporting periods.
The new mechanisms of environmental regulation
involve a combination of legal instruments. This com-
bination depends on specific features of nuclear indus-
try’s facilities with NEI: their category, given during
state registration; their technological regulation; their
requirements for the permitting activities; their pay-
ment for NEI, their implementation of IEK program;
their implementation o f the environmental protection
plans and the environmental efficiency improvement
programs. It also depends on geographic criteria of the
territories, like the location of the nuclear facilities, the
socio -demographic and ecological situation of the ter-
ritories.

Figure 5. Payment for NEI.

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 41
Платежи за загрязнение окружающей среды = Payment for environmental pollutioå =
Платежи за загрязнение атмосферы стационарными источ-
никами =
Payment for air pollution by stationery
sources =
Платежи за загрязнение водных объектов = Payment for water pollutioå =
Платежи за размещение отходов = Payment for waste disposal =
Расчет суммы за негативное воздействие = Calculation of a fee for NEI =
Платежная база = mayment base =
Ставка платы = Payment rate =
«Стим улирующий» коэффициент = “Incentive” coefficient =
=
Figure 6. Values and rules on the application of coefficients for calculating the fee for NEI.

42 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
Коэффициент при расчете платы за НВОС =(с
01.01.2016 до 31.12.2019) =
Coefficient applied for calculating the fee for NEI
(effective from January 1, 2016 to December 31,
2019F =
За объем или массу отходов производства и потребле-
ния, подлежащих накоплению и использованных в
собственном производстве в соответствии с техноло-
гическим регламентом либо переданных для исп оль-
зования в течении срока, предусмотренного законода-
тельством РФ в области обращения с отходами =
For volume= or= mass= of= production= and consump-
tion waste, which has to be accumulated and used=
in the own production in accordance with the oper-
ating procedure ç r transferred for use within= the
period= stipulated= by= the legislation of= the Russian
Federation in the area of waste management =
За объем или массу выбросов, сбросов в пределах
ПДВ и НДС = For volume or mass within AER, ADR =
За объем или массу размещенных отходов производ-
ства и потребления в пределах лимитов на размеще-
ние, а также в соответствии с отчетностью об образо-
вании, использовании, обезвреживанию и о размеще-
нии отходов производства и потребления,
представляемой субъектами малого и среднего пред-
прини мательства в соответствии с законодательством
РФ в области обращения с отходами =
For volume or mass of the disposed production and
consumption waste within= the limits= on= disposal,
as well as in accordance with reports on= generation ,
use, detoxification and disposal of production and=
consumption wastes= ,submitted= by= small and meJ
dium Jsized businesses in accordance with the leg-
islation= of= the Russian Federation= in= the area= of=
waste management =
За объем или массу выбросов, сбросов в пределах вре-
менно разрешенных =выбросов на период реализации
плана мероприятий по охране окружающей среды или
программы повышения экологической эффективно-
сти =
For volume= or= mass= of= emissions,= discharges=
within= the limits= of= TAE for the period= of= imple-
mentation of the= environmental prote ction plan or
the environmental efficiency= improvement pro-
gram =
За объем или массу отходов производства и потребле-
ния, размещенных с превышением установленных ли-
митов на размещение, а также с превышением объема
и массы отходов производства и потребления, п ред-
ставляемой субъектами малого и среднего предпри-
нимательства в соответствии с законодательством РФ
в области обращения с отходами =
For volume= or= mass= of= production= and consump-
tion= waste disposed= in= excess= of= the established
limits for disposal, as well as =in excess of the volJ
ume and mass= of= production= and consumption
wastes submitted by small and medium Jsized busiJ
nesses= in= accordance= with= Russian legislation in=
the area of waste management =
За объем или массу выбросов, сбросов, превышаю-
щие установленные ра зрешениями количества =
For volume or mass of emissions, discharges in ex-
cess of the established limits =
The aim of= the state regulation= system= based on=
BAT principles is to simultaneously achieve ecological=
and industrial objectiv es of the Russian Federation. The
use of= modern= technologies= and modernized= technical
equipment leads not only= to= the compliance= with= the
environmental protection= requirements, but also= to= a
sustainable and innovative= development of= the indus-
try,= to= the ac hievement and maintenance of= an= high=
competitiveness of the national economy, to the import=
substitution= and to= the increase= of= competitiveness for
domestic industrial productsK =
The state ecological= supervision and public= eco-
logical control start to seem b etter structured in the con-
text= of= changes to= environmental legislation.= It= can
guarantee compliance= with= the new environmental reJ
quirements and ensure environmental securityK =
=

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 43
Figure 7. Incentive coefficients for NEI reduction and BAT implementation.

Коэффициент при расчете платы за НВОС (с
01.01.2020)
Coefficient applied for calculating the fee for NEI
(effective from January 1, 2020)
За объем или массу загрязняющих веществ, сбросов
загрязняющих веществ в пределах т ехнологических
нормативов после внедрения наилучших доступных
технологий на объекте, оказывающем негативное
воздействие на окружающую среду
For volume or mass of pollutants, discharges of pol-
lutants within the technological standards after BAT
implementati on at the facility with NEI
За объем или массу отходов производства и потреб-
ления, подлежащих накоплению и фактически ис-
пользованных с момента образования в собственном
производстве в соответствии с технологическим ре-
гламентом или переданных для использов ания в те-
чение срока, предусмотренного законодательство
РФ в области обращения с отходами
For volume or mass of production and consumption
waste which has to be accumulated and actually
used after its generation in the own production, in
accordance with th e operating procedure or trans-
ferred for use within the period stipulated by the leg-
islation of the Russian Federation in the area of
waste management
За объем или массу выбросов загрязняющих ве-
ществ, сбросов загрязняющих веществ в пределах
временно разре шенных выбросов, временно разре-
шенных сбросов
For volume or mass of emissions of pollutants, dis-
charges of pollutants within TAE, TAD
За объем или массу отходов производства и потреб-
ления, размещенных с превышением установленных
лимитов на их размещение либо указанных в декла-
рации о воздействии на окружающую среду, а также
в отчетности об образовании, использовании, обез-
вреживании и о размещении отходов производства и
потребления, представляемой в соответствии с зако-
нодательством РФ в области обращения с отходами
For volume or mass of production and consumption
waste disposed in excess of the established limits of
disposal or indicated in the declaration of the envi-
ronmental impact, as well as in reports on genera-
tion, use, detoxification and disposal of p roduction
and consumption waste, submitted in accordance
with the legislation of the Russian Federation in the
area of waste management
За объем или массу выбросов загрязняющих ве-
ществ, сбросов загрязняющих веществ, превышаю-
щих установленные для объектов 1 категории такие
объем или массу, а также превышающих указанные
в декларации о воздействии на окружающую среду
для объектов 2 категории
For volume or mass of pollutant emissions and dis-
charges in excess of the established limits for facil-
ities from the fi rst category, as well as in excess of
the limits specified in the declaration on the envi-
ronmental impact for facilities from the second cat-
egory

44 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
Figure 8. Incentive coefficients for NEI reduction in waste disposal.

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 45

Коэффициенты Coefficients
Применяемые при размещении отходов, понижающие Applied to waste disposal, reducing
Установленные в целях стимулирования юридических
лиц и ИП к проведению мероприятий по снижению
НВОС и внедрению наилучших доступных технологий
и применяемые с 01.01.2020 (п .7 ст.12 Федерального за-
кона №219 -ФЗ)
Established in order to stimulate legal entities
and individual entrepreneurs to take actions in or-
der to reduce NEI and to implement BAT and ap-
plied since January 1, 2020 (paragraph 7 of Arti-
cle 12 of Federal Law No. 219 -FZ)
Отходы 5 класса опасности добывающей промышлен-
ности посредством закладки искусственно созданных
полостей в горных породах при рекультивации земель
и почвенного покрова (в соответствии с разделом про-
ектной документации «Перечень мероприятий по
охра не окружающей среды» и(или) техническим проек-
том разработки месторождений полезных ископаемых)
Waste of the fifth class of hazard of mining in-
dustry , generated from artificially created cavi-
ties in rocks during recultivation of lands and soil
(in accordan ce with the section of the project
documentation “List of environmental protection
measures” and (or) the technical project on de-
velopment of mineral deposits)
Отходы производства и потребления, которые образо-
вались в собственном производстве, в пределах уста-
новленных лимитов на их размещение на объектах раз-
мещения отходов, принадлежащих юридическим ли-
цам и ИП на праве собственности либо законном
основании и оборудованных в соответствии с установ-
ленными требованиями
Production and consumption waste which w as
generated in the own production, within the es-
tablished limits of their disposal at the waste dis-
posal facilities, owned by legal entities and pri-
vate entrepreneurs on the right of ownership or
on the legal basis and equipped in accordance
with establis hed requirements
Отходы 4,5 классов опасности, которые образовались
при утилизации ранее размещенных отходов перераба-
тывающей и добывающей промышленности
Waste of the fourth, the fifth class of hazard
which was generated during utilization of the
previous ly disposed waste of processing and
mining industries
Отходы 3 класса опасности, которые образовались в
процессе обезвреживания отходов 2 класса опасности
Waste of the third class of hazard, which was
generated in the process of detoxification of
waste of the second class of hazard
Отходы 4 класса опасности, которые образовались в
процессе обезвреживания отходов 3 класса опасности
Waste of the fourth class of hazard, which was
generated in the process of detoxification of
waste of the third class of hazard
Отходы 4 класса опасности, которые образовались в
процессе обезвреживания отходов 2 класса опасности
Waste of the fourth class of hazard, which was
generated in the process of detoxification of
waste of the second class of hazard
Дополнительный ко эффициент 2
(Постановление Правительства РФ №913)
Additional coefficient 2 (Resolution No.913 of
the Government of the Russian Federation
В отношении территорий и объектов, находящихся под
особой охраной в соответствии с федеральными зако-
нами
In respect o f territories and facilities which are
under special protection in accordance with fed-
eral laws
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5. Forest Code of the Russian Federation, 1997
6. Federal Law “On Natural Curative Resourc es,
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7. Federal Law “On Specially Protected Natural
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8. Federal Law “On the Animal World”, 1995
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LIMITS TO THE GROWTH OF THE WORLD ALTERNATIVE ENERGY
V.V. Tetelmin
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor
Peoples' Friendship University of Russia
V.A. Grachev
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Peoples' Friendship University of Russia
Lomonosov Moscow State University

The energy and environmental security of human-
ity is the most discussed issue nowadays. The energy
and the energy industry form the basis of any civiliz a-
tion. As technologies continued to develop, humanity
uses more and more energy. In the 20 th century, human-
ity increased energy consumption by ten times. The ac-
tual energy capacity of modern civilization is going to
reach 20 billion kW and the average ener gy consump-
tion per person on the planet is 1,900 kg of oil equiva-
lent (OE) per year.
In 2017, the global production of coal, oil and gas
reached 11,425 million tons of OE; 945 million tons of
OE of energy was produced by renewable energy
sources (RES). Thus, humanity is about to use
160,160 х10 12 kWh/year of energy in households, in-
dustry and transport.
During the UN Climate Change Conference in Ka-
towice in December 2018, a non -governmental organi-
zation named Energy Watch Group (EWG) presented a
forecast about the transition of the EU countries to
RES, with consideration of energy stations and
transport, by 2050. In this forecast, the solar energy will
take 62%, wind energy – 32%, hydropower – 4%, bio-
mass energy – 2%. In our opinion, this forecast is un-
foun ded, as environmental limits will not allow satisfy-
ing the global demand for energy only by RES, espe-
cially by just one dominating source.
It is necessary to conduct a systematic analysis of
the limits to the growth for the selected RES. The
evaluation con cerning 62% of solar energy is clearly
overestimated. Its development will be restricted by
natural factors, material resources, and especially by
land resources.