Американский Научный Журнал RADIATION IN AGRICULTURE AND ACHIEVEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

In 2015, the UN General Assembly adopted resolution Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The content of the Resolution is well known, and all the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are in one way or another related to the increasing need for resources and energy as well as to the ongoing debate about which energy and food resources are the most effective for implementing the SDGs. Nuclear is not just the solution to energy problems, its radiation can play a vital part in SDGs related to the fight against hunger and social problems. Table 1 shows nine most important goals and their assessment by the IAEA, which actively aids the international community in the achievement of seventeen SDGs, helps countries use nuclear and isotopic methods and thereby contribute directly to the achievement of the nine SDGs. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 31
НАУКИ ОБ ОКРУЖАЮЩЕЙ СРЕДЕ

RADIATION IN AGRICULTURE AND ACHIEVEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
GOALS
Vladimir Grachev
Center for Global Ecology of Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityRussia
Natalia Kurysheva
Burnazyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center State Scientific Center
Russia 

In 2015, the UN General Assembly adopted reso-
lution Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development.
The content of the Resolution is well known, and
all the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs) are in one way or another rela ted to the increas-
ing need for resources and energy as well as to the on-
going debate about which energy and food resources
are the most effective for implementing the SDGs. Nu-
clear is not just the solution to energy problems, its ra-
diation can play a vital part in SDGs related to the fight
against hunger and social problems.
Table 1 shows nine most important goals and their
assessment by the IAEA, which actively aids the inter-
national community in the achievement of seventeen
SDGs, helps countries use nucle ar and isotopic meth-
ods and thereby contribute directly to the achievement
of the nine SDGs.


TABLE 1. INFLUENCE O F THE NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY ON ACHIEVIN G SDGS
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPM ENT
GOAL THE ASSESSMENT GIVEN BY IAEA
ENDING HUNGER, ACHIE VING
FOOD SECURITY AND IM PROVING
NUTRITION, PROMOTING
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULT URE
THE IAEA TOGETHER WI TH THE UN FOOD AND
AGRICULTURE ORGANIZA TION (FAO) SUPPORT C OUNTRIES
AROUND THE WORLD IN IMPROVING FOOD SECUR ITY AND
AGRICULTURE USING NU CL EAR AND ISOTOPIC TEC HNIQUES
TO PROTECT PLANTS AG AINST PEST INSECTS A ND TO
CULTIVATE NEW VARIET IES OF PLANTS, WHICH ARE
CHARACTERIZED, FOR E XAMPLE, BY IMPROVED CROP
YIELDS, AND RESISTAN CE AGAINST DISEASES OR DROUGHT
PROMOTING HEALTHY LI VES AND
WELL -BEING FOR ALL AGES

TO HELP ACHIEVING TH E GOAL OF REDUCING M ORTALITY
FROM NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES BY ONE THIR D, THE
IAEA HELPS COUNTRIES IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CANCER,
HELPING THEM TO DEVE LOP COMPREHENSIVE PR OGRAMS
OF CANCER CONTROL, T O CREATE NUCLEAR MED ICINE,
RADIATION ONCOLOGY, A ND TO DESIGN RADIOLO GICAL
UNITS, AS WELL AS SU PPORTING EDUCATION A ND
TRAINING FOR SPECIAL IZED PROFESSIONALS I N THE FIELD
OF HEALTH SERVICE
ENSURING ACCESS AND
SUSTAINABLE WATER AN D
SANITATION MANAGEMEN T FOR
ALL

WATER IS ESSENTIAL F OR LIFE. AS POPULATIONS GROW
AND ECONOMIES EXPAND , ACCESS TO CLEAN AN D SAFE
WATER MUST BE ENSURE D. ISOTOPIC TECHNIQU ES SHED
LIGHT ON WATER QUALI TY AND AGE. SOME COU NTRIES USE
THIS TO IMPLEMENT IN TEGRATED WATER RESOU RCES’
MANAGEMENT FOR THE S USTAINABLE USE OF RESOURCES
AND THE PROTECTION O F WATER AND WATER -RELATED
ECOSYSTEMS
PROVIDING ACCESS TO
AFFORDABLE, RELIABLE ,
SUSTAINABLE, AND MOD ERN
ENERGY FOR ALL

THE IAEA PROMOTES TH E EFFICIENT AND SAFE USE OF
NUCLEAR ENERGY BY SU PPORTING EXISTING AN D NEW
NUCLEAR PROG RAMS AROUND THE WORL D, PROMOTING
INNOVATION AND BUILD ING CAPACITY IN PLAN NING,
ANALYSIS AND NUCLEAR INFORMATION IN THE F IELD OF
THE POWER INDUSTRY AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGE MENT
BUILDING SUSTAINABLE
INFRASTRUCTURE, PROM OTING
INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAI NABLE
INDUSTRIAL IZATION, AND
STIMULATING INNOVATI ON

NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CAN MAKE AN
IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTI ON TO ECONOMIC GROWT H AND
PLAY AN IMPORTANT RO LE IN SUPPORTING SUS TAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT. WITH TH E IAEA ASSISTANCE, S EVERAL
COUNTRIES HAVE INCRE ASED THE COMPE TITIVENESS OF
THEIR INDUSTRIES, US ING THESE TECHNOLOGI ES, FOR
EXAMPLE, NONDESTRUCT IVE TESTING FOR SAFE TY AND

32 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
QUALITY TESTS, AS WE LL AS IRRADIATION ME THODS TO
IMPROVE THE DURABILI TY OF VARIOUS PRODUC TS
STARTING FROM AUTOMO BILE TIRES TO PIPELI NES, AND
FROM M EDICAL DEVICES TO CA BLES
TAKING URGENT MEASUR ES TO
COMBAT CLIMATE CHANG E AND
ITS IMPACTS

NUCLEAR POWER, ALONG WITH WIND POWER AND
HYDROPOWER, IS ONE O F THE LOW -CARBON
TECHNOLOGIES, WHICH CAN BE USED TO PRODU CE
ELECTRICITY. THE IAE A IS WORKING TO RAIS E GLOBAL
AWARENESS OF THE NUC LEAR ENERGY ROLE IN
CONNECTION WITH CLIM ATE CHANGE, IN PARTI CULAR, TO
ENSURE THAT THE ROLE , WHICH NUCLEAR POWE R CAN AND
DOES PLAY IN HELPING COUNTRIES TO REDUCE
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISS IONS, IS DULY RECOGN IZED
PRESERVING AND USING
SUSTAINABLY THE OCEA NS, SEAS,
AND MARINE RESOURCES FOR
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPM ENT
FOR SUSTAINABLE MANA GEMENT AND PROTECTIO N OF THE
OCEANS AND, IN TURN, SUPPORTING COASTAL
COMMUNITIES, MANY CO UNTRIES, WITH THE SU PPORT OF
THE IAEA, ARE USING NUCLEAR AND ISOTOPI C METHODS
FOR BETTER UNDERSTAN DING AND MONITORING THE
OCEAN CONDITION AND MARINE PHENOMENA, SU CH AS
SEAWATER ACIDIFICATI ON AND BLOOMS OF HAR MFUL
ALGAE.
PROTECTING, RESTORIN G AND
PROMOTING THE SUSTAI NABLE
USE OF TERRESTRIAL
ECOSYSTEMS, SUSTAINA BLY
MANAGING FORESTS, COMBATING
DESERTIFICATION, STO PPING AND
ABOLISHING LAND DEGR ADATION
AND HALTING BIODIVER SITY
LOSS
ISOTOPIC TECHNIQUES PROVIDE AN ACCURATE
ASSESSMENT OF SOIL E ROSION AND HELP TO I DENTIFY HOT
SPOTS OF EROSION THA T IS AN IMPORTANT TO OL TO
COMBAT LAND DEGRADATION AND SOIL RESTORATION.
SUPPORT OF THE IAEA IN THIS FIELD HAS HE LPED MANY
COUNTRIES TO COLLECT INFORMATION USING TH ESE
METHODS IN ORDER TO DEVELOP AGRICULTURAL
PRACTICES ENSURING M ORE SUSTAINABLE LAND USE AND,
ULTIMATELY, TO INCRE ASE REVENUE , AND TO IMPROVE
THE METHODS OF PRESE RVING AND PROTECTING
RESOURCES, ECOSYSTEM S, AND BIODIVERSITY
STRENGTHENING
IMPLEMENTATION MEANS AND
GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS FOR
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPM ENT
PARTNERSHIP WITH MEM BER STATES IS AT THE CORE OF
THE IAEA'S ACTIVITIE S. CLOSE COOPERATION BETWEEN
THE IAEA, THE UN ORG ANIZATIONS, OTHER
INTERNATIONAL AGENES ES, AND CIVIL SOCIET Y
ORGANIZATIONS HELPS TO MAXIMIZE THE EFFE CTIVENESS
OF THE SUPPORT OF TH E IAEA IN ACHIEVING THE
DEVELOPMENT PRIORITI ES OF MEMBER STATES
Today, nuclear has not reached its full potential,
mainly the lack of public consensus on nuclear facilities
and energy and on prospects for the development of the
nuclear industry.
However, radiation is important for the life a nd de-
velopment of mankind. As described in the IAEA re-
view Rio + 20: Nuclear Technology for a Sustainable
Future [2], population growth, accelerated economic
development, and rising living standards require more
and more resources from the planet. Excessiv e use of
resources forces us to find a compromise between the
aforementioned needs and biodiversity, clean air and
water, and the volume of arable land, which threatens
sustainable development. To help its government mem-
bers adapt to the situation, the IAI E has been develop-
ing a new methodology to model such a complex inter-
action called CLEWS (Climate, Land -use, Energy, Wa-
ter Strategies) that allows developing technologies
systematically (including radiation technologies) in the
area.
The IAEA review states that, in addition to the
production of clean and affordable electricity, nuclear
contributes to “building the desired future” [2].
Broader access to clean water has become possible
due to the use of nuclear radiation, which allows, for
example, mapping gr oundwater much faster and
cheaper than by using any other means.
Access to stable food sources will remain a top pri-
ority for decades to come. Based on existing trends, ag-
ricultural production has to grow by 70% by 2050 in
order to meet the demand. Through its extensive Tech-
nical Cooperation Programme, the IAEA also helps
make these achievements accessible to developing
countries.
Developing countries exploit radiation to boost
production by breeding and disease monitoring, to in-
crease grain crops yields, f ood safety, and production,
and to improve livestock nutrition. Moreover, radiation
can be used to assess the state of the soil and ground-
water. Furthermore, radiation helps monitor shifts in
the chemical balance in the ocean and provide accurate
diagnosti c medical information. In developing coun-
tries, epidemics, as well as malnutrition, create social
and economic problems, which jeopardize sustainable
development. Safe and well -coordinated use of radia-
tion in agriculture and medicine contributes to im-
prove d health and social stability all around the world.
Among the radiation technologies used in various
fields of science and engineering, radiation -biological
methods are the most actively developing today. This
is due to the fact that radiation -biological technologies

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 33
can be used in a wide variety of human activities, dif-
ferent in scale and nature: agriculture, food, medical,
microbiological, fishing, environmental protection
[3],[4].
The use of radiation in the agriculture and food in-
dustry is imperative d ue to long distances between the
majority of consumers (urban residents) and food pro-
duction sites, hence the need to develop and apply
means and methods for their storage. Unlike chemical
methods, UV irradiation, special food packaging, and
heat treatment (which in some cases cause loss of nu-
tritional value) that are often unsuitable for widespread
use, and sometimes are unbeneficial [4] -[6], ionization
requires less energy and can replace or dramatically re-
duce the use of food preservatives and fumigants that
are not always safe for the health of consumers. The use
of radiation allows cutting losses during transportation
and storage of fruit and vegetables without creating
special conditions, extending the storage time of meat,
fish, and a range of meat pr oducts, increasing the shelf
life during food storage, and managing biological con-
tamination of food causing diseases.
By 1994, radiation processing of food products
had been permitted and used in 38 countries, and pilot
and industrial installations for the irradiation of food
had been operating in 27 countries [6]. The USSR had
been producing powerful experimental (MRX -gamma -
20, Stebel, EGO, GUBE, etc.), experimental -industrial
(Sterilizator, “Stavrida), and industrial (Kolos, Sterili-
zatsiya) γ-assemblies. They were brought into wide use
at research institutes, universities as well as under
workshop and production conditio ns [4].
The current level of development of radiation
technologies is a result of several earlier developmental
stages: fundamental and applied research (from the in-
vention of X -rays and discovery of radioactivity in
1895 to the 1960s); pilot implementatio n and develop-
ment of design solutions (1960 –1980); “fragmented”
up-scaling of technologies (large -scale application of
radiation in 1990 –2010).
Today more than 60 countries around the world
expose agricultural and food products to radiation pro-
cessing. Acc ording to the UN FAO, over 200 thousand
tonnes of irradiated products are annually put on the
market in Europe alone. About 40 different food prod-
ucts are processed using this method. Optimal modes of
radiation processing have been determined for a range
of food products, long -term studies of suitability and
safety of these methods have been conducted, and radi-
ation equipment has been created for many types of
products.
In 2012, there were more than 218 food irradiation
centers in the world, more than half of them were lo-
cated in the USA and China (Fig. 1).

Based on the data of “Directory of electron beam accelerator facilities ”, IAEA (2008); “Food Irradiation Facilities Database ”, IAEA (2008); “List of approved facilities
for the treatment of foods and food ingredients wi th ionizing radiation in the Member States”, Commission of the European Communities (2003); “Directory of gamma
SURFHVVLQJIDFLOLWLHVLQPHPEHUVWDWHV´,$($  ³7KHGHYHORSPHQWRIIRRGLUUDGLDWLRQWR -date in Asia Pacific, the Americas, Europe and Afr ica”, C. Deeley; Int. Meet-
ing on Radiation Proc. in Kuala Lumpur (2006); Bain & Company analysis .
Figure 1. Locations of centers for radiation exposure of food in the world

According to expert estimates, significant tradi-
tional market growth for the use of radiation technolo-
gies will occur in the coming years. For example, the
monetary market for food irradiation is estimated to be
2.5 times higher by 2020 compared to 2010, and 6 times
higher by 2030 compared to 2010 [5].

Refere nces
1. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
[online] https://www.iaea.org/about/overview/sustain-
able -development -goals -sdgs (accessed 27.05.2019)
2. Nuclear Technology for a Sustainable Future.
IAEA. [online] https://ru.scribd.com/docu-
ment/100300519/Nuclear -Technology -for -a-
SUSTAINABLE -FUTURE -IAEA (accessed
28.05.2019)
3. A.K. Pikaev, “The current state of radia tion
technology,” Chemistry Advances , vol. 64 (6), June
199, pp. 609 –640.
4. D.A. Kaushanskiy and A.M. Kuzin, “Radia-
tion -biological technology,” Moscow: Energoatomiz-
dat, 1984, pp. 152 –164.
5. M.M. Mulyukov, “Radiation technologies.
Report at the VII Krasnoyarsk Economic Forum”, Feb-
ruary 2010, [online] http://www.csr -nw.ru›up-
load/file_content_431.pdf. (accessed 29.05.2019)
6. R. J. Woods and A.K. Pikaev, “Applied Radi-
ation Chemistry. Radiation processing,” NY: Wiley,
1994.




R SA: ~4
Fra nce : ~5 Total num- ber of centers in the world: ~218.
Br azil : ~3
Ch ile: ~2
Pe ru: ~1
Bel gium: ~2 Eng land : ~1
Chi na: ~78
Tha iland : ~2
Indo nesia : ~3
U SA: ~39
M exico : ~4 I ndia : ~9
Ge rmany: ~5