The complication and expansion of the nosological picture of the development of modern childhood, as well as the aggravation and complication of the concomitant problems, imply the increased value of balanced innovative approaches, technological breakthroughs, and institutional shifts in special didactics. Teachers of the Department of Pedagogy, Faculty of Psychology, Bashkir State University, Russian Federation, systematically study the special educational needs of children with learning difficulties, the needs of society and family related to this problem cluster, develop effective approaches to organizing and providing categorical and individualized pedagogical tools needed by students. The field of special education for children suffering from dyslexia and dysgraphia is currently a particularly problematic special educational space - and, accordingly, the area of our immediate scientific interests. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientifi c Journal № ( 37 ) / 2020 31

УДК 159.99
ГРНТИ 14.29


Rybakova Elena Vladimirovna,
Sultanova Roza Miniakhmetovna,
Gayazova Gulshat Anifovna.
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir Sta te University,
450076, Republic of Bashkortostan. Ufa, Zaki Validi St. d.32.

Annotation . The complication and expansion of the nosological picture of the development of modern
childhood, as well as the aggravation and complication of the concomitant probl ems, imply the increased value of
balanced innovative approaches, technological breakthroughs, and institutional shifts in special didactics. Teachers
of the Department of Pedagogy, Faculty of Psychology, Bashkir State University, Russian Federation,
syste matically study the special educati onal needs of children with learning difficulties, the needs of society and
family related to this problem cluster, develop effective approaches to organizing and providing categorical and
individualized pedagogical tools needed by students. The field of s pecial education for children suffering from
dyslexia and dysgraphia is currently a particularly problematic special educational space - and, accordingly, the
area of our immediate scientific interests.
Keywords . Dysgra phia, dyslexia, supervision, correc tive education, targeted support for children and their

As is well known to specialists, practitioners,
scientists, and parents, the general public, there are now
more and more cases when there is a need for s pecial
support not only for the development and
communicative -cognitive activities of children with
disabilities, but also for their family environment.
Moreover, the more complex, more pronounced
nosological picture, the concomitant problems, the
more sig nifican t is the need for the child’s family to be
accompanied not only by psychological, but also by
comprehensive consultation of precisely the corrective
specialists who have information about the features of
this pathology, the organization of the corre ctive
approach [1, 2, 3], providing and supporting
overcompensatory processes, the perspectives and
specific issues of learning and development.
Studies of scientists at the Department of
Pedagogy of the Faculty of Psychology of Bashkir State
University ar e devoted, in particular, to the specifics of
organizing targeted support for children with autism
spectrum disorders, deficiency conditions, and similar
manifestations of a more local or temporary nature.
However, in order to increase the effectiveness of
family and professional support for children with
severe, persistent developmental disabilities, to prevent
associated risks and to identify the social and
educational resources of their environment, some
regular support structure is needed that provides
specialized and general supervision, emotional support
and external safety control to minimize various risks
kind of.
Supervision does not necessarily represent support
at the request of specialists and parents of the child,
provided precisely by a more ex perienced teacher or
psychologist. In some cases, a contact, acting specialist
may himself possess the necessary competencies -
however, the feeling of uncertainty in the results and
prospects of their work and the lack of pace of the
dynamics of developme nt of students experienced by
teachers and relatives of the child reduce the quality of
pedagogical reflection, psychological well -being and
self -positioning. Meanwhile, the image of the favorable
dynamics of the correctional development process, the
forth coming achievements of the child, personal
previous successes in the teacher’s professional activity
is an important resource for the productivity of social
and educational cooperation, including involuntary as
well as psychoemotional well -being of all its
Often, a colleague from the outside, not directly
involved in the special educational process, has the
opportunity to more objectively assess the parameters
and prospects of a particular didactic situation, offer
options for a pedagogical ap proach, effective
techniques and methodological sources. Many experts
note cases when a child reveals subjective preferences
regarding the appearance, age, and voice of a contact
Such a form of support is all the more promising,
when the structure that provides supervision can offer a
choice of specialists, both more experienced or
creatively wealthy, and more knowledgeable
accompanied by this particular nosological group,
namely similar cases, similar manifestations.
According to surveys of specia lists, heads of
educational organizations, as well as other institutions
in which specific and concomitant support is provided
for families raising children with severe persistent
developmental disabilities, there is a high unsatisfied
request for a socio -educational environment for a
similarly organized supervision, as well as the
organization of a comprehensive accompanying
children and adults with a nosological profile, as well
as ensuring continuing education in a special
educational ere the prevention and correction of risks,
konfliktologic accompaniment, positioning correction
process, including in the field of probability is called
"speech therapy marriage" - the less significant than the

32 American Scientific Journal № ( 37 ) / 2020
more well prepared for it, participants didactic
activities. Ev en in areas covered by comprehensive
support in the format presented here, as well as ongoing
support in the form of supervision, continuous training
of specialists and parents on the basis of the Counseling
and Correction Cabinet, situations of uncertaint y and
tension arise from time to time, associated with
especially complex violations, the heterogeneous
nature of the didactic position, cultural and linguistic
environment of the child, problems of medical, social
At present, the experience of pedagogical
supervision has been very useful for organizing support
for pedagogical and social support of children with
special educational needs in the form of distance
learning related to exacerbating the epidemiological
A significant indicato r of the high demand for
such support trends is the constant appeal of specialists
and parents, a combination of traditional and unusual
questions, requests, both for diagnostic and correction
positions, as well as for the organization of targeted
support, individualization of the educational route,
support for giftedness, adolescents, higher education,
and conflict studies counseling. Representative is also
an increase in the appeal of participants to specialized
literature of an ever higher level of compl exity, requests
for participation in scientific events, and intensification
of charitable activity and cultural joint events.
The need for professional and family support,
consciously or implicitly, among the adult environment
of children with special need s in the development of a
particularly complex, difficult to correct character that
is debatable for traditional pedagogical representations
of nature, is growing even more.
So, family members of a child with an autism
spectrum disorder admit that they don ’t have a feeling
that the child “just doesn’t” want to communicate,
“doesn’t need” loved ones and therefore they are
removed from him, either quickly, unconsciously, or
find it difficult to overcome the negative experiences,
expectations, reactions. Even competent teachers point
out that it is very difficult to overcome their own
didactic skills in order to follow the child and even
create some dissatisfaction with him, the desire to get a
little more from the teacher, to complete the game,
communicative, didactic action on his own initiative.
On the contrary, their self -observation reveals
spontaneous tendencies towards unjustified stimulation
of the child’s activity and overly categorical
assessments of the results of his activity, behavior and
motivation .
Education of children and adolescents with severe
intellectual disability, especially at home, provokes a
more energetic reaction both among parents and
teachers. They often find it unjustified to educate
children; parents feel constrained, unwillingness of
unnecessary trouble, do not see the prospects of
learning. Teachers, especially rural ones, feel like liars,
unwittingly correlating the child's achievements with
the program parameters of general education.
Due to the ambiguity, heterogeneity of the c ou rse
and manifestations, cases with dyslexia, respectively,
dysgraphia, as a rule, cause considerable difficulties not
only in the field of understanding the essence of the
violation and the problems of corrective maintenance.
Вut also in the process of a dopting didactic specifics in
this area of special education.
In addition, the nature of the difficulties and
feelings of adults accompanied by the above and other
situations characteristic of other nosological groups
may well, to one degree or another, accompany the
correctional and educational process in case of reading
and writing disorders due to the complexity of the
primary or secondary nature [ 4, 5, 6, 7].
The positions of targeted accompaniment of
children with difficulties in reading and writing in the
mode of professional supervision are divided into:
- organizational, allowing to prevent the negative
reaction of adults surrounding the child, including
teachers, to the expressed problems of teaching the
child to read and write, self -understandin g of
mathematical problems, since these problems are
usually perceived by adults as manifestations of
laziness or general inability and slowness;
- diagnostic, involving providing the needy child
with diagnostic support at various stages of identifying
his current and systemic, global problems, particular
difficulties and general, specific needs, including
access to narrow specialists in the study of specific
features of perception, analysis and synthesis of textual
- prognostic - that is, contrib uting to the
positioning and goal -setting of a number of explicit and
hidden tasks, opportunities, target and step -by-step
competencies in the system of interaction of many
factors that are not taken into account in the classical
socio -educational paradigm due to the spontaneous
actualization of certain abilities by children more
harmoniously developed, more effective learners with
less stress and anxiety;
- methodological - associated with the need for a
more subtle, more selective approach in ensuring
did actic and social -active, subjective effectiveness, in
the search for educational tools to overcome the
essential dialectic contradiction of special didactics,
when, for medical reasons, a child with special
educational needs needs a gentle approach, and in order
to overcome lagging trends, it is desirable for him to
ensure advancing trends in performance, - the key to
this favorable As a rule, lies in the organization of
overcompensatory development mechanisms,
according to the teachings of L. S. Vygotsky;
- individualized positioning - the quality of
accompanying a child, which is a significant problem
for adults, since the development of the relevant
competencies cannot do without classification,
categorization, unification of the elements of
pedagogical a nd social skills, which distances,
formalizes the care directed at the child, reducing the
possibility of updating his individual abilities, hobbies
priorities, distorting feedback, hindering the formation
of intersubjective resources and synergistic
mecha nisms of development of communication

American Scientifi c Journal № ( 37 ) / 2020 33

- corrections of the pedagogical approach, which
also poses a significant problem, both in the tactical
register and in the strategy of pedagogical self -
positioning, - of course, pedagogical technology shou ld
have an integral structure and general orientation, but
priority is still personal feelings, intentions,
achievements and difficulties of the child ; we teach
specialists and parents to note in the child even half -
hearted achievements, even insignifican t progress
towards the desired result, to avoid categorical negative
assessments and forecasts;
- interpersonal preference, which becomes all the
more important, the more difficult the tasks facing the
child and his environment, while it is easy to forget that
interpersonal harmony with difficulty is supported by
children who have speech difficulties, even if only in
written language;
- pedagogical reflection, the problems of which
are fully consistent with the complexity of educational
tasks and the ambigu ity of their understanding from the
standpoint of classical didactics, although the
philosophy of pedagogy is the key to overcoming the
difficulties from ancient times;
- follow -up support, which also has a problematic
manifestation of both a general natur e and a specific
plan, for example, associated with cognitive fatigue and
emotional stress of participants in a social and
educational dialogue; the need for correlating observed
and long -term results with the statistical observations
of colleagues and the scientific achievements of our
time is also essential;
- scientific analysis, as it is very difficult, being in
the context of intense cooperation between children and
adults, tracking current achievements and issues, risks
and projects, at the same time abstracting for effective
scientific analysis and modeling;
- rating support of specialists, families, teams,
services, which, of course, requires a third -party look,
authority and activity, and also assumes growing
importance for the organization of pedag og ical
education, propaganda, information and
methodological support.
Comprehensive support for families of a
traditional orientation or on a nosological profile
includes both traditional forms of support: pedagogical
propaganda and education [8, 9, 10, 11 ],
psychotherapeutic measures and involvement in group
forms of cooperation, as well as specific formats that
ensure acceptance, understanding of their children,
overcoming by parents of unlawful, often aggressive or
pessimistic trends in public opinion re garding the
nature of special educational problems, Projections for
the further development of their children, the excess of
consumer expectations and behavior of speculative
In relation to a group of dyslexic disorders, even
the structural comple xity of escorting families and
teachers, the need for constant support and emotional
reinforcement of existing specially -pedagogical ideas,
personal rightness and prospects for cooperation are
increasing. The experience of the participants in our
projects shows that educated, motivated, informed
adults in a situation of cooperation to correct dyslexia
and dysgraphia are easily lost, tend to more generalized
views and expectations, allow incorrect actions and
assessments, and even irritating statements about
The mastering by parents and teachers of general
education of information about the features of the
educational activities of dyslexic children and
dysgraphics must be constantly reinforced and
specified, not allowing them to be simplified and
reduced to common places.
It has become a tradition in our practice and
scientific work to develop simulators for the direct,
experienced reinforcement by participants of the ideas
about dyslexics experiencing general, specific and
psychological difficultie s in learning:
- temporal, that is, in practice, the environment of
the child can make sure that he often needs at least more
time to accept, comprehend, imagine the task, begin to
carry out it, indulge in contemplation of the results of
his work;
- motiva tional - participants in our workshops
have the opportunity to compare the willingness and
quality of cooperation between children and adults,
depending on personal interest, subjective
involvement, the desire to cooperate in this particular
composit ion of participants;
- environmental - because even the number of
participants is not indifferent to the motivation,
activity, performance of children with special
educational needs, as well as the distance, openness of
the room, and the overload of the vi sual f ield;
- operational, associated with the algorithmic
organization of special educational activities, the order
of actions effective specifically for this situation, this
case, this preferential status;
- ways of fixing new ideas and competencies of
childre n, both variative and selective, that is, one better
remembers vivid images of words and phrases, the
other is upside down, the third is made by your favorite
- social, personal and activity involvement [12, 13,
14, 15], which implies harmonious and a ctive
interaction of the child’s inner world and its external
- design significant, with an interested creation of
new elements by each subject of activity.
Thus, all participants in the socio -educational
space feel the personal and soci al sig nificance of their
collective employment, its content and orientation,
gaining a vision of the future and purposefully
achieving favorable results.

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