Американский Научный Журнал ARTISTIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN KAZAKH, ENGLISH AND AMERICAN LITERATURE

Annotation This is devoted and analyzed materials of artistic relations between Kazakh, English and American literature go through reflection Kazakh theme into genre literature travelling, ideas if enlightenment in the Kazakh, English and American literature of nineteen century and creation of Kazakh classics into English interpretation.Progressive representatives of foreign countries have an big interest in the Kazakh people, their life and culture for the long time. The XIX century is rich in materials of penetration of various information about the life of the Kazakhs into France, Germany and other countries. There is also England - country where knowledge and ideas about Kazakhstan and its inhabitants penetrated. It should be noted that there were several main sources of information about the peoples of the vast region of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, and Western Siberia in the XIX century in England. The main source of information on the history of the ancient period and the Middle Ages was the manuscripts of Oriental authors in Chinese, Arabic, Persian and Turkic languages, many of which were translated for the first time in Europe into English. Another means of information was the works of English Orientalists themselves, ethnographers, geographers, anthropologists. In addition to strictly scientific literature, numerous information about the peoples of Asia were presented in geographic encyclopedias and other reference books and popular science publications. Finally, the most popular source of information for the general public was travel records, diaries, and travel essays, which long ago received the official status of the artistic and journalistic genre of travel in English literary criticism. According to the encyclopedic definition. Скачать в формате PDF
60 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
СОЦИАЛЬНЫЕ НАУКИ

IRSTI 14.35.07
ARTISTIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN KAZAKH, ENGLISH AND AMERI CAN LITERATURE
Smagulova Aigerim
candidate of philological sciences,
associate professor of diplomatic translations chair,
faculty of international relations,
al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Tussupova Alma
candidate of philological sciences,
associate professor,
Head of world language Department,
faculty of international relations
Central Asian University Almaty Kazakhstan
Lyudmila Kotiyeva
candidate of philological sciences,
associate professor
сhair of «Diplomatic translations »,
faculty of «International relations »
al-Farabi Kazakh National University,
Almaty, Kazakhstan ,

ҚАЗАҚ ШАҒЫН ЖАНЫРДА АҒЫЛШЫН ӘДЕБИ ПУБЛИЦИСТТІҢ БАС ТАҚЫРЫБЫ
Смагулова Айгерим
филология ғылымдарының кандидаты,
әл-Фараби атындағы Қазақ улттық университетінің халықаралық
қатынастар факультеті дипломатикалық аударма кафедрасының доценті,
Алматы қ., Қазақстан
Тусупова Алма
филология ғылымдарының кандидаты,
«Әлем тілдер» кафедра меңгерушісі доцент халықаралық қатынастар факультеті,
Орталық Азия Университеті ,
Алматы, Қазақстан
Котиева Людмила
филология ғылымдарының кандидаты,
әл-Фараби атындағы Қазақ улттық университетінің халықаралық
қатынастар факультеті дипломатикалық аударма кафедрасының доценті,
Алматы қ., Қазақстан

ХУДОЖЕСТВЕННЫЕ ВЗАИМООТНОШЕНИЯ МЕЖДУ КАЗАХСКОЙ, АНГЛИЙСКОЙ И
АМЕРИКАНСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРОЙ
Смагулова Айгерим
кандидат филологических наук,
доцент кафедры дипломатического перевода
факультета международных отношений
Казахского национального университета им. ал ь-Фараби,
г. Алматы, Казахстан
Тусупова Алм а
кандидат филологических наук
доцент заведующая кафедрой Мировых языков факультета Международных отношений
Цен трально -азиатский университет
Алматы, Казахстан
Котиева Людмила
кандидат филологических наук,
доцент кафедры дипломатического перевода
факультета международных отношений
Казахского национального университета им. аль -Фараби,
г. Алматы , Казахстан

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 61
Annotation
This is devoted and analyzed materials of artistic relations between Kazakh, English and American literature
go through reflection Kazakh theme into genre literature travelling, ideas if enlightenment in the Kazakh, English
and American literature of nineteen century and creation of Kazakh classics into English interpretation.Progressive
repre sentatives of foreign countries have an big interest in the Kazakh people, their life and culture for the long
time. The XIX century is rich in materials of penetration of various information about the life of the Kazakhs into
France, Germany and other cou ntries. There is also England - country where knowledge and ideas about Kazakh-
stan and its inhabitants penetrated. It should be noted that there were several main sources of information about
the peoples of the vast region of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, and Western Siberia in the XIX century in England.
The main source of information on the history of the ancient period and the Middle Ages was the manuscripts of
Oriental authors in Chinese, Arabic, Persian and Turkic languages, many of which were translated f or the first
time in Europe into English. Another means of information was the works of English Orientalists themselves,
ethnographers, geographers, anthropologists. In addition to strictly scientific literature, numerous information
about the peoples of A sia were presented in geographic encyclopedias and other reference books and popular
science publications. Finally, the most popular source of information for the general public was travel records,
diaries, and travel essays, which long ago received the of ficial status of the artistic and journalistic genre of travel
in English literary criticism. According to the encyclopedic definition.
Бұл мақалада қазақ -ағылшын жəне американ əдебиеттерінің нақты деректері арқылы көркемдік
байланыстар сұрыпталған. ХІХ ға сырдағы Қазақ, ағылшын, американ əдебиеттеріндегі ағартушылық
бағыт жəне əдеби жанрдағы қазақ тақырыбы, сонымен қатар, қазақ классиктері шығармаларының
ағылшын тіліндегі қабылдануы бейнеленген. XIX ғасырда қазақ өмірі құру туралы Франция, Германия
жəне бас қа да елдерде ағылшын тілінде өте көп ақпаратты берілді. Басты көздерінің қазақ халықтарының
туралы ақпаратты Орта Азия облыстың, Қазақстан, Батыс сібірі туралы айта кеткен жөн. Ежелгі жəне
ортағасырлық тарихы туралы қытай, араб, парсы жəне түркі тілдерінд е басты көзі кезең болды, олардың
көпшілігі Шығыс қолжазбалар алғаш рет ағылшын тіліне аударылған болатын. Қосымша ақпарат
географтардың жəне зерттеушілерді жұмыстарынан ағылшын антропологтарды жұмыстарынын көруге
болады. Ғылыми əдебиетте Азия жəне əйгілі ғылыми жарияланымдар туралы қосымша географиялық жəне
басқа да анықтамалықтарда энциклопедиялардаақпарат ұсынылды. Әдеби ағылшын сынға ең танымал
ақпараттың бір көзі саяхаттағы есептер күнделіктер мен эссе көпшіліктің журналистік жанрдың мəртебесі
болып ке леді.
Аннотация
В статье проанализированы материалы художественных взаимоотношений между казахской, англий-
ской и американской литературой, которые отражают казахскую тему в жанре путешествий по литературе,
идеи просвещения в казахской, английской и американской литературе. В XIX веке о создание казахской
классики в английской интерпретации было очень много информации о жизни казахов во Франции, Гер-
мании и других странах. Нужно отметить, что было несколько главных источников информации о народах
обшир ной области Средней Азии, Казахстана и Западной Сибири. Главный источник информации об ис-
тории древнего периода и Средневековья были рукописи восточных авторов на китайском, арабском, пер-
сидском и тюркском языках, многие из которых были впервые переведены на английский язык. Другое
средство информации было работами самих английских этнографов, географов и антропологов. В допол-
нение к научной литературе многочисленная информация о народах Азии была представлена в географи-
ческих энциклопедиях и других справоч никах и популярных научных публикациях. Наконец, самый по-
пулярный источник информации для широкой публики был отчеты о путешествиях, дневники и эссе, ко-
торые давно получили официальный статус журналистского жанра путешествия в английской
литературной крити ке.
Key words : Kazakh literary -publicist, genres, English interpretation, literature, languages, ethnographers,
geographers, anthropologists
Key words : қазақ публицисті, əдеби жанры, ағылшын тілдері, əдебиет, тілдер, антропологтар,
географтар жəне нəсіл зе рттеушілер.
Keywords : Казахский литературный публицист, жанры, английская интерпретация, литература,
языки, этнографы, географы и антропология.

Progressive representatives of foreign countries
have an big interest in the Kazakh pe ople, their life and
culture for the long time. The XIX century is rich in
materials of penetration of various information about
the life of the Kazakhs into France, Germany and other
countries. There is also England - country where
knowledge and ideas abo ut Kazakhstan and its inhabit-
ants penetrated. It should be noted that there were sev-
eral main sources of information about the peoples of
the vast region of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, and West-
ern Siberia in the XIX century in England. The main
source of inf ormation on the history of the ancient pe-
riod and the Middle Ages was the manuscripts of Ori-
ental authors in Chinese, Arabic, Persian and Turkic
languages, many of which were translated for the first
time in Europe into English. Another means of infor-
matio n was the works of English Orientalists them-
selves, ethnographers, geographers, anthropologists. In
addition to strictly scientific literature, numerous infor-
mation about the peoples of Asia were presented in ge-
ographic encyclopedias and other reference bo oks and
popular science publications. Finally, the most popular

62 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
source of information for the general public was travel
records, diaries, and travel essays, which long ago re-
ceived the official status of the artistic and journalistic
genre of travel in Eng lish literary criticism. According
to the encyclopaedic definition, “Travel is a literary
genre, based on the traveler’s description (bystander) of
reliable information about any, primarily unfamiliar to
the reader or little -known countries, lands, nations in
the form of notes, notes, diaries (journals), essays ,
memoirs " [1; c314] There are the works of travelers,
who collected many and varied information about the
spiritual material life of the peoples of the region, and
acquainted them with the general public in Europe.
Travelers who visited the Steppe Territory in the
XVIII -XIX centuries brought home a wide variety of
impressions about the life of a distant people, wrote
travel essays and letters about it, etc. Travelers talk
about this country with the ir inherent care for the details
of everyday life, the customs of the people, with respect
for him. Travel records open the rich world of folk art,
customs and traditions that have been preserved from
time immemorial.
The first information and facts about the ancient
clans and tribes, their consolidation in the Great Steppe
as the Kazakh people, the formation of its statehood as
an institution of the khanate, traditions, religion, eco-
nomic life, mutual relations with neighboring nations
and states that beca me known to the West, make us look
in the depths of ancient times and middle ages.
With the opening of the sea routes and the eco-
nomic development of European countries, the need to
explore new countries and to expand trade with them
were grown. The horizo ns of distant countries looming
tempted before the eyes of the Europeans, especially
the British. The British were the first to equip several
risky expeditions. English travelers of that time com-
bined the qualities of dexterous traders and courageous
intel ligence officers of unknown countries. The first ex-
pedition of the British, who sought to use the route from
Russia to China through Central Asia, crashed in 1553.
However, the English merchant Richard Chancelor,
who led this expedition, reached Moscow and was ac-
cepted by the Russians. On the return of Chancellor to
England, the Moscow Company was formed, which
played a large role in the Anglo -Russian relations.
In 1558, the diplomat and merchant Anthony Jen-
kinson, authorized by this company, arrived in Mos-
cow. With the assistance of trade relations with Central
Asia, he went to Astrakhan, where, until the founding
of Orenburg (1734), Russia's diplomatic and trade rela-
tions with Persia and Central Asia were concentrated.
From Astrakhan Jenkinson followed the Caspian Sea to
Mangyshlak, then got to Khiva and Bukhara. In 1562,
he again traveled the same route to Persia. In search of
a profitable market, other British travelers followed in
a chain. This period was the beginning of the penetra-
tion of the British i nto the depths of Russia and Central
Asia. The results of the journeys were summarized in
the works "English Travelers in the Moscow State in
the 16th Century". Jenkinson made maps of the Caspian
Sea, indicated the caravan route from the Mangyshlak
Peninsu la to the Barsa -Kelmes lake and to the dried Ai-
bugir Gulf of the Aral Sea.
On the road, laid in the XVI century by Jenkinson
and later by English travelers, various expeditions were
pulled. The expedition of Thomas Whitleme Atkinson
visited the Kazakh step pe. In the journey and the works
of Atkinson there are quite a few pages connected with
the description of our region, its inhabitants, customs
and their craving for beauty. T. Atkinson highly appre-
ciated the Kazakhs ability to poetry. He so conveys the
im pression of the performance of Kazakh akyns of folk
epic songs, considering them bards. "... and in the dim
light of the gray moon, the akyn's excited imagination
resurrected the dead generations who spoke about the
deeds of the past time. When the painter glorified the
genealogy before Genghis Khan or Tamerlane, the hazy
paintings of dreams took on a certain form. The old sul-
tan, all in the scars, rested on a rug in the middle of
close bear -bears of a gigantic physique. The bayan -
horde, the shepherd -poet, sat on his knees and played
strange chords on the dombra. He glorified the happi-
ness of a nomadic tribe, numbered his flocks, praised
the power of his sons, the beauty and beauty of women,
the jewel of clothing, the freshness of mountain waters
and the bea uty of the steppes. Listeners listened to him
silently, and no sound interrupted the new Homer. The
singer glorified the winter raids, night trips, rage bat-
tles, the cries of fighters and the happy attack, which
ended with the death of enemies. Old warrior s awak-
ened memories, their eyes glittered, their facial features
revived as ballads developed, they could no longer
hold, battle axes were in their hands, and in the middle
of the nighttime silence warriors echoed and wolves
echoed in the hope of profit fr om the corpses .. . "[2,44]
In the 1720s, after the Russians, who energetically
deepened into the wide Kazakh steppes, Western trav-
elers, merchants and diplomats also became frequent
visitors. Of these, English artist John Castl, who made
a great contribut ion to the study of the history and eth-
nography of the Kazakhs of the Younger Zhuz as part
of the Orenburg expedition of 1735 -1737, should be
particularly noted. His diary entries with rich illustra-
tions saw the light in 1784 in Riga in German as an ap-
pend ix to the collection "Materials of Russian history".
In this diary, the artist collected the most valuable ma-
terials from the everyday life of the Kazakhs and pro-
vided them with drawings. It reflected the political sit-
uation in the Younger Zhuz, the reacti on of social
groups in the region, the applied arts of the Kazakhs,
pictures of everyday life, economy, trade, material and
spiritual ties with the peoples of Central Asia.
Kastl describes the Kazakhs as people of "medium
height, black -haired, with a sharp look, excellent
health, hardy, hospitable people."
The artist met with Abulkhair Khan and his son
Eraly, the Sultan, who was in Orenburg as a hostage
among the Russians, left interesting information about
them and the batyrs surrounding them. The diary is dec-
orated with 13 drawings by John Castl, depicting Eraly
Sultan, Abulhair Khan, Bopai Khansha. There are epi-
sodes from the everyday life of nomads - moving to
Jailau, rites and traditions of the Kazakhs, etc.
In the XIX century, the Kazakh enlighteners
showed deep interest in England. Kazakh -Anglo -
American literary connections in the last century are

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 63
one of the important facets of the spiritual culture of our
people.
From the middle - XIX century, perhaps, no coun-
try could compare with England in the numb er of books
relating to the description of Central Asia and Kazakh-
stan. In 1865, John and Robert Mitchella translated the
works of Ch.Ch. Valihanov, M. Venyukov and other
Russian travelers and published them under the title
"Russians in Central Asia" "Russ ian in The Central
Asia", 1865. The preface to it was translated into Rus-
sian language and printed in the military newspaper
"Russian invalid". John and Robert Mitchell wrote:
“Among the travel reports in Central Asia presented
here, Captain Valikhanov’s r eports on Dzungaria and
East Turkestan featured prominently. Since Marco Polo
and Jesuit Goes, not a single European, with the excep-
tion of A. Schlagintweit, is known to us did not pene-
trate these countries. Fear and suspicion of Europeans,
as well as reli gious fanaticism of the population made
this country completely inaccessible for modern re-
search, and the sad fate of the enterprising traveler in
Kashgar serves an illustration of the danger that may
occur when trying to get there. "
About Valihanov in th is introduction to the book
was written the next: "... he is an officer of the Russian
service, and a well -educated person, the son of Kyrgyz
(Kazakh) sultan and a native of the steppes. Therefore,
he knows the languages and customs of the peoples
Centra l Asia and it could not be suspected in connec-
tion with Russia. He managed to get to Kashgar with
the Kokand caravan under the guise of a Margilan mer-
chant. His description of Kashgar and the political po-
sition of East Turkestan are an important contributi on
to the information we have about this country. During
this period, much was written by the British them-
selves: "Russians in 1870".
Herbert Barry, "The Heart of Asia by F.H.Srkayna
and E.D.Ross," A Journey to the Kirghiz Steppe, to
Khiva " Asia "printed in the second issue of" Atlantic
Mounthly "for 1895 and others. In 1887, in Lucerne,
Heinrich Moser organized a rich exhibition, which
demonstrated various items brought from Central Asia
and Kazakhstan.
In general, in the XIX century, a lot of information
about Kazakhstan penetrated into England, and this was
the way ties, historical conditionality and continuity of
traditions were developed, which developed throughout
the past century, continue to develop and strengthen in
our time. If we talk briefly abo ut certain phenomena,
then in 1845 foreign readers became acquainted with
the life and lifestyle of the Kazakhs according to the
story “Bikey and Maulena” written by V.I.Dal, a fa-
mous scientist and literary critic, friend of A.S. Push-
kin. In 1865, a large ethnographic collection of Broni-
slav Zalessky was published in London, which included
a number of scientific studies of Valikhanov. The book
of an outstanding Kazakh scholar Chokan Valikhanov
about traveling to Kashgaria in the English edition was
read wit h interest in European scientific circles.
The Kirghiz poems (formerly called Kazakhs) and
Steppe by the famous Polish poet of the 19th century
are imbued with great sympathy and sympathy for the
Kazakh people. Gustav Zelinsky [3]. Revolutionary
poet exile d first to Siberia, and then to Kazakhstan for
participation in the liberation uprising of 1830 in Po-
land.
Oh, the distant sound of the Kazakh song is mar-
velous,
Melancholic, like the silence of the fields,
Shivering like a continuous flight arrow
Sad, lik e the sadness of their homeland!
Silent surroundings, a long song heed,
The singer's chest trembles, and the sounds all
float.
And the sky seems to the steppes that the heavens
sing.
And the souls sleeping under the mound of the
grave,
Fathers and forefath ers, and forefathers fathers,
Hearing this tune, from dear heart to my heart,
And repeating it, carry in all ends.
And the older the barrow, the weaker the echoes,
But the echo is weaker ... and now the sound is
dear,
wandering among the hills dims and gro ws numb
And he becomes a deep silence.
(Trans. A. Zhovtisa)
So he glorified the Kazakh land in his poem "Kyr-
gyz". In this small work one can feel a kind and even
enthusiastic attitude towards the nomadic inhabitants of
the Kazakh steppes.
The poem "Kirgiz" has stood twenty -one editions
in European languages. Its translation into Russian was
first carried out in 1857. Subsequently, the poem was
translated into French, Italian, German and Czech.
Truthfully, he told in his poems about the heavy share
of the la boring Kazakh people, oppressed by tsar’s
power and local bais. The dedication of several poems
to this family also confirms the author’s great interest
in the people and their culture.
One of the Polish friends of the Kazakh people
was Adolf Yanushkevich, the author of the book Dia-
ries and Letters from a Journey through the Kazakh
Steppes, published twice in Polish. “I firmly believe,”
wrote A. Yanushkevich, “a time will come when to-
day's nomad will take a worthy place among the peo-
ples who are now looking down upon the higher castes
of Indo -Europeans at the unfortunate guy” [4,20].
The Polish revolutionary Severin Gross spoke
about the life and social structure of the Kazakhs in his
book “Common Law of the Kyrgyz” and the Polish rev-
olutionary.
Marshal of t he Polish Sejm Czeslaw Vytseh as-
sesses the value of the literary and scientific works of
the nineteenth -century Polish revolutionaries. About
Kazakhstan: "They participated in the discovery of un-
known mysterious nature for European science. For
their compa triots, they first of all discovered the origi-
nal culture and the beautiful soul of the inhabitants of
the steppe: generosity, hospitality, a sense of justice,
love of freedom." Progressive people of pre -revolution-
ary Russia not only told the world about t he nomadic
people - the Kazakhs, but also taught the Kazakh people
the revolutionary struggle, carried the Kazakhs about
what was happening in the world, introduced them to
the culture of the Russian and other peoples. The best

64 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
representatives of the Kazak h people learned from
them a new life, adopted knowledge, democratic ideas
and spread them among the Kazakhs.
Thus, the founder of Kazakh literature, Abay - an
expert on Russian and Western literature, was a distrib-
utor in the steppe of the best works of both Russian
writers and poets, as well as Western European ones.
George Byron became famous in the Kazakh steppe
thanks to the translations of Abai. Particularly receptive
to art and culture, Kazakhs, through word of mouth,
transmitted stories and songs h eard from Abay across
the province. Famous in Europe works "Lame demon"
A.Lesage, "Queen Margot" and "Three Musketeers"
A.Dyum. M.Rida's "Romances of the Prairies" in oral
retelling were very popular among the Kazakhs. He
loved the poems of Western and Eas tern classics.
Many generations of our ancestors left traces on
this land. Some of them were distinguished by such bel-
ligerence that even the formidable troops of Alexander
the Great could not subdue, while others were famous
for the advanced culture of th eir time, as evidenced by
the words of Aristotle: "The ethnic groups that inhabit
Asia are very intelligent and possess artistic taste. "
History is not only a moral imperative - books,
school textbooks, lectures, articles in the press. History
is also som ething that is inherent in ourselves, which
does not forgive unconsciousness. The curious and rest-
less man of the Earth has always sought to unravel what
is hidden under the huge layers of time. Day after day
goes by, and we do not notice how time nuggets merge,
forming years, centuries, epochs. And it is very im-
portant to know the history of our ancestors, because
there is no present without the past, just as there can be
no future.
The complex and controversial reality of today is
largely due to yesterday ’s day and, therefore, inex-
haustible interest in various aspects of the spiritual and
material life of the people in the preceding period.
Learning our past, we draw interesting infor-
mation not only from popular oral traditions and docu-
mentary sources, but from materials of foreign authors,
reflecting the Kazakh reality, history, culture and liter-
ature in their writings. The identification and study of
these sources is closely related to the problem of the
relationship of Kazakh literature with literatures of the
peoples of the East and West.
In critical literature, it is not customary to divide
the genre of travel notes and essays into “men's travel”
and “women's”, but if such a division existed, then a
number of characteristic features of “travel”, created on
the basis of personal impressions by women, could be
distinguished. As with all "female" prose, there is a
large degree of lyricism, emotionality, and psycholo-
gism in the narration. The authors - women are more
concerned with the problems of entertaini ng, liveliness
of style, fiction techniques in the presentation. Along
with the tendency to subject VNO -personal approach in
their descriptions very valuable is that particular curi-
osity and subtle observation in relation to people and
especially their way of life, which comes from a purely
feminine curiosity, but brings useful work in the form
of valuable information mainly ethnographic.
Finally, in the field of travel, women's testimony
and testimonies about other nations are also valuable
because they ar e usually free from political or ideolog-
ical reasons. When traveling, women are not interested
in industrial or military -strategic objects, not geologi-
cal, botanical and zoological realities, not scientific
problems, but alive, with their habits and belief s, with
their traditional way of life. The fact that they build
their relations with these people not on the basis of eve-
ryday and universal norms of morality, that their rela-
tions are primarily from the heart allows them to be
more sincere and benevolent, more tolerant and open to
other peoples and cultures. Following the popular
routes, many European ladies visited Asia, including
the Kazakh lands [ 5, 230 ]. Lady Atkinson and Mad-
ame Omer de Gell, who also accompanied their spouses
on their scientific exp editions, visited the territory of
present -day Kazakhstan. There were also certain trav-
elers, like de Uyfalvi -Bourdon, who were not afraid to
embark on a long and little -known path. We only be-
came aware of the names of those who, possessing the
happy gift of the narrators, were able to artistically pre-
sent their observations and memories in the form of
travel diaries and essays that can be attributed to the
“travel” genre so common in past centuries [5;88].
Making at first glance a somewhat abstract histor-
ical excursion, I would like to show that the historical
fates of the peoples of ancient and modern Central Asia
and Kazakhstan are so intertwined that, touching one
people, it is impossible to keep silence from the rest and
that among the ancient peoples o f Central Asia our an-
cestors occupied a significant place.
The Kazakhs were one of the few nations that have
preserved nomadic lifestyle until the beginning of the
20th century. In the language and artistic creativity of
the people, the memory of this cent uries -old specific
rhythm of existence is still fresh. Epos, folklore, songs,
music, dances, decorative and applied art, architectural
monuments of the Kazakhs - all this bears the imprint
of constant movement, movement and their peculiar at-
titude to space and time.
The spiritual life of the Kazakh nation inherited
from the past generations a distinctive culture that can
not only recreate the world around them with their own
artistic means in accordance with their own world out-
look, but also enrich and dev elop in the process of in-
teraction with the cultures of other nations, reporting in
turn their high aesthetic quality. And in order to see uni-
versal human values in the spiritual heritage of his peo-
ple, modern Kazakhs had to overcome the psychologi-
cal ba rrier, whose existence was associated with the no-
tion of nomads as the grim force of history that is
widespread in scientific and fiction literature.
One of the major researchers in the history of Ka-
zakhstan, A.I. Levshin, in his book quotes a well -
known o rientalist, G.Yu. Klaproth, that "at a time when
the Kazakhs were known (approximately 618 -907
years) under the name of the Khakas, their morals they
were as wild as they are now. They already had letters
and conducted significant trade with the Arabians, Bu-
kharians and other Western peoples, especially with the
Khazars, who lived in the Volga and the Don, were in

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 65
private relations with the empires of Constantinople
"[6,33].
A. Levshin reports that "it is reliably known that
Firdowsi, who lived around 1020, that is, two centuries
before the appearance of Mongol -Tatars in the West, in
the history of Rustem mentions the people of the Ka-
zakhs, the Kazakh khans." History suggests that in the
X-XII centuries. Kazakhstan's trade relations with its
neighbors develo ped. Through its territory transit trade
with Persia, China and Central Asia was carried out.
The power of the Kazakh Khan was mentioned in
the notes of Babur ( ХIII century), the founder of the
famous empire of the Great Mongols in India, who gave
his rela tive for the Kazakh Khan.
The history of the Turkic peoples in the last dec-
ades of the XIX century, was noted by French writer,
publicist, orientalist and scholar Leon Caen, who not
only dedicated works of art, essays, and scientific
works to Asia, was at that time "the only Western Eu-
ropean professor who recognized the opportunity to
read the general course of Central Asian history".
[7,238], who for several years taught this course at one
of the main university centers in Europe - Sarbonne. An
important e vent in the scientific biography of Leon
Caen was the presentation of a report on the history of
the Turkic peoples s - ancestors of Kazakhs Kirghizes
Uzbeks - mainly in periods of antiquity and the Middle
in I Orientalists International Congress, Paris (1 873)
[8,141]
Getting into the development of the East, with ever
deeper and sincere sympathy for the peoples of Central
Asia, Leon Caen sought to instill this respect in his
compatriots. In his essay "On the Türko -Mongolian
Writers of the 16th Century", in which he writes: "Ba-
bur is a writer, a poet and at the same time a statesman
and a great commander - gives us an idea of the degree
of perfection that can be achieved by the literary and
artistic abilities of a Turk ... I don’t know if there is a
book i n any other language, as well thought out, just as
simply written, as brightly marked by the author’s indi-
viduality as the work of Babur? And his book is written
in the purest Chagatai -Turkic language, not distorted
Persian idish and arabic borrowings ”[9, 21]. It is not by
chance that Leon Caen, who read Oriental manuscripts
in the original, wrote:“ And they don’t say that Babur
was an exception. It is enough to read other Turkic writ-
ers of that time to make sure that they all followed the
same aesthetic pr inciple, which consists in clarity,
brevity and simple syllable, striving first of all for the
depth of thought, and then for the accuracy of its ex-
pression. It is enough for me to quote the "History of
Persia" by Alisher Navoi, whose elegant and strict st yle
could serve as a model for many Western historians
"[10,24].
When studying the past of our people, the works
of travelers to our lands are of certain value. Among
them are the works of an Arab traveler, a Tanger by de-
scent, Mohammed Ibn Battuta, who ha s seen many
countries, including Turkestan, during 30 years of wan-
dering. Ibn Battuta - a native of Morocco, the largest
Arab traveler of the XVI century visited almost all
countries where Islam was common. In Morocco, he
published a series of books for ch ildren "Children's
Historical Series", "Ibn Battuta's Travels".
Centuries after the Greeks, Europe became inter-
ested in the East. From the thirteenth century began the
pilgrimage of Europeans to Central Asia. Until now, the
palm was considered to belong to the envoy of Pope
Plano Carpini (1246), an Italian born in Perugia, one of
the founders of the Franciscan monastic order. As part
of the mission, supplied by the Buddha Innocent IV, to-
gether with Benedict from Poland and Stephen from
Belgium in 1425, he l eft Lyon for the Mongol khan.
They were forced to travel through Khorezm, Semi-
rechye and Tarbagatay to Central Mongolia, where they
witnessed the enthronement of the great Mongol khan
Guyuk. Why travel, written in Latin, is a book, which
he called "Libellu s historicus", which has come down
to us in several editions. There were many handwritten
copies, one of the best is Leiden manuscript, made at
the very end of the thirteenth century. or at the begin-
ning of the XIV century. But at the end of the 19th cen-
tury, a manuscript of earlier origin was found in the li-
brary of the University of Cambridge with more work-
able text. This manuscript was used by Beasley
[11;c646]. Two manuscripts of Plano Karpini’s essays
are also available at the National Library of Paris , and
another is stored in the British Museum. Plano
Carpini’s book has been translated into many lan-
guages. The French translation of it was first published
in XVII in Pierre Bergeron’s book Voyages faits prin-
cipalement en Asie dans les XII, XIII, XIV and siècles
(Paris, 1634, reprinted twice in 1723 and 1735).
The English translation was also published in the
16th century. Hacklaet in his collection of journeys
"Principal Navigations" (1598) and Perkis (Purchas) in
his famous "His Piligrims" (1625). The b est Russian
translation from the Latin was given by A.I. Malein - a
highly qualified Latinist who published it in 1911.
Plano Carpini’s journey never remained the possession
of only one specialist, it was described in popular pub-
lications and articles, amo ng which the translation of
the book M. Sherwood "Former Ways to China" (M.,
1931), and M. Adamovich's articles in the magazine
"Our Country" (1940. N 10). [12,19]
A few years after the return of Plano Karpini, an-
other diplomatic mission was sent consistin g of monks
headed by the envoy of French King Ludwig IX Flem-
ish Wilhelm Rubrukvis, [13,90] participant of the sixth
crusade, where the king suffered a thorough defeat from
"infidel Saracens" in the battle of Mansur. And this de-
feat, and the capture of the king himself, and his long
stay in Asia, after a large ransom was paid for him, the
stubborn resistance of Muslim states — all these cir-
cumstances forced Louis XI to look for new opportuni-
ties to wage war. One of these possibilities was the con-
ceived plan of involving the Mongols in the war as al-
lies, with which this mission was sent. But upon the
return of Rubrukvis, having learned that the Mongols
were not going to march to the west, the French king
Louis IX militantly exclaimed: "If the Tatars come, we
will send them to Tartars." A replica of the king testi-
fies. that travelers, in addition to studying countries still
unknown, pursued political and economic goals.

66 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
Description of the trip to Mongolia in 1253 -1255
Rubruk gave a lot of new information not only for the
history of the Mongols, but also for the history of geo-
graphical knowledge. Rubruk's writing is considered to
be one of the most serious sources on the history of the
East, available in Western European literature of the
late Middle Ages. Rubr uk made his famous journey at
the age of 40 years. He was an energetic, intelligent,
well -educated, steadfast and resilient person who easily
endured the hardships of a long and tiring journey. He
always walked barefoot, which was undoubtedly diffi-
cult in the winter cold in Mongolia. Some of the way he
walked. According to him, "I was very pleased" be-
cause for him it was not always possible to find the
most powerful horse. His companion, Brother Bar-
tolomeo, could not bear the hardships of the return jour-
ney and remained forever in Karakorum. Rubruk cou-
rageously made all the way.
English scientist Roger Bacon, who met him in
Paris, writes about meetings with Rubruk. Bacon
[14,305], by his own admission, "diligently looked
through the book" by Rubruk. He used his travel data
for a geographical overview and a description of the
present position of Central Asia.
Rubruk was the only European who described the
Karakorum in detail. His writing was published many
times, but not all publications have reached us. One o f
them formed the basis for the earliest publication of
Rubruk's travel description, carried out in 1600 by
Hacklate. After a quarter of a century, another publica-
tion appeared, based on a more complete manuscript
found in Cambridge. Rubruck's journey ente red the col-
lection of Perkis' travels, called "His Piligrims." As
mentioned above, the French translation of the journey
was published by Bergeron in the 17th century. Since
then Rubruk’s work has been published several times
in many European languages. On e of the best publica-
tions is a book by V. Rockhill entitled "Fhe journey of
William of Rubruck to the Eastern parts" [15,97].
Rockhill supplemented the translation of Rubruk’s
work with numerous and detailed notes representing
the great merit of his book. Also noteworthy is the al-
ready mentioned book by Beazley [16], who studied all
the most important manuscripts of Rubruk and early
printed editions with interesting notes. One can men-
tion the book of Herbst [17], in which a benign transla-
tion from Rubruk’s Latin text into German is given.
As already mentioned, Rubruk’s English transla-
tion also appeared in the book The Mongol Mission.
This book, edited by Christopher Dawson in England
in 1955, is a collection of newly made translations of
the travel descript ions of Plano Carpini, Rubrak's Guil-
lome, Monte Corvino, Benedict -Polyak, Andre from
Perugia. The introductory article of C. Dauson is de-
voted, firstly, to the history of relations between the
East and the West in the 13th -14th centuries, and sec-
ondly, to the question of the propaganda of Christianity
among the Mongols in those same centuries. And this
book testifies to a certain interest of wide sections of
foreign readers to the wonderful journeys of the distant
past.
Valuable information about Central As ia was
compiled by the Italian Marco Polo. He traveled a long
time in Asia, was the first discoverer of Central Asia for
Europeans. Marco Polo 1254 -1323 introduces us to the
most unusual conditions of existence, his travels belong
to the second half of the thirteenth century, he reaches
the farthest East. In the book of Jule N. The book of Ser
Marco Polz. London, 1921, Vol.1 -2. For the first time
in European literature, cities and localities of Eastern
Turkestan - Kashgar, Yarkand were described: the
manner s and life of the inhabitants, the courtyard of the
great Mongol Khan and the Chinese Emperor Kublai.
In the X century Kashgar becomes the capital of the
Karakhanid state. Within the framework of the Muslim
culture, its Turkic medieval version is formed. T wo fa-
mous monuments of language and literature of the early
medieval Turks are connected by their appearance with
Kashgar - "Kudatgu bilig" by Yusuf Balasagunsky,
"Divan lugat at Turk" by Mahmud of Kashgar XIV.
The description of western and southern parts of East
Turkestan with Marco Polo for many centuries re-
mained the only European document relating to this
area.
L. Benefic talks about the predecessor Plano
Carpini and Marco Polo - Dominican missionary
brother Julian from Hungary, who visited our region
twice [18]. In the recording of his stories about the first
trip made by Brother Richard, it is said that maybe in
1231 -1232, one of the four Hungarian Dominicans Ot-
to's brother visited, apparently somewhere in the Kir-
ghiz steppes near the Volga. According to Otto, a new
mission went to the East from Hungary, which included
Julian. Around 1236 he was in the area of the rivers of
the Urals and Emba. In 1237 brother Julian took a sec-
ond journey. “He was the first European to write about
the outskirts of Eas tern Europe” [19,1 - 52], - says L.
Benefi.
Hungarian traveler Julian noted that the region
where he was "rich in horses and weapons and people
are very brave in wars" [20,75].
Do not lag behind others and the Spaniards. In
1404 Ta ¬ merlan was received by the ambassador of
the Spanish king Ruy González Clavijo, who left in the
records the rich material of his journey.
Along the beaten track, travelers across Central
Asia drew from Venice, Genoa, Florence, and also from
Spanish cities. Florentine Francesco B aluchchi Pego-
letti left a short description of this route from Saray on
the Volga through Saraichik (at the mouth of the Ural
River), Urgench (the then capital of Khiva), Otrar,
Almalyk (in Kazakhstan) to Khanbalik (Beijing). De-
spite the unsustainable poli cy, this trade route was used
for many years.
The first English sources of information "Anglo-
rum navjgatio ad Moscovitas" about Russia of the XVI
century. they began to quickly fill up with new data:
soon in England there appeared printed diaries of trips
to Muscovy, made by the British, and discourses on its
life and state structure. Just as the subjects of the Anglo -
Russian trade were introduced directly into the very life
of the British, so much information entered the con-
sciousness of the northern count ry — its people, nature,
customs, and customs — in a wide stream. Only this
variety of information sources can explain the abun-

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 67
dance of information about the Muscovite state pos-
sessed by ordinary Englishmen at the end of the 16th
century. They were heard a nd read about them in books,
poems, oral stories, personal communication stories,
not to mention special writings that occupied an im-
portant place in geographic literature. The number of
Englishmen visiting the central cities of the Moscow
State increased. Their stories, travel notes and diaries,
memoirs with the attachment of diplomatic documents
and reports "Muscou Company" published by Richard
Hakluyt in a large one -volume collection of travels of
the British to different countries of the world ("The
Pri ncipal Navigations; Voyages, Traffigues and Dis-
coveries of English Nation" 1589), ten years later
(1598 -1600) the second edition of this work appeared.
Reports of Chancellor, Jenkinson, St. Boro, Su-
khtem and Spark, letters of Gautri, Gray, Alcock, Lane,
Ucombe, Simkinson, Gargard and others: cities, among
them Arkhangelsk (founded in 1585), Volga, Caspian
Sea, Russian customs and lifestyle, wall dwellers, ways
of trading, the characteristic of the Russian authorities
- all this found its place in the materials published by
Gakluyt, which the historiographer collected directly
from eyewitnesses or from their closest friends. The
stories of J. Gorsey, who li ved for a long time in Russia
and was close to Ivan the Terrible at one time, appeared
in 1591. Fletcher’s book "Of the Russian Common-
wealth " [21,167] was published in 1605 - description of
the embassy Sir Thomas Smith ("Sir Thomas Smithe
Voyage and Entert ainment in Russia") [22,189 -201].
All these documentary and geographic sources
used in England quite widely known. For example, the
poet William Warner (William Warner, 1558 -1609)
praised the British voyages to Russia through the White
Sea in the eleventh book of his epic poem "Albion Eng-
land" (1602). This is a vast creation, in several thousand
poems, telling the story of England from ancient times
to the era of Elizabeth. A contemporary of his, Francis
Mires, ranked Warner among the first -rate poets of th e
time and put him on a par with E. Spencer, calling him
"English Homer" and with "deserving eternal glory"
Chanslohr and Jenkinson.
Two others follow then, eternal fame that wonne,
Our Chancellor, and with him, compare we Jen-
kinson,
For Russia both embarg ud ... [23].
At the end of the XVI century. The British read the
artless essays of mediocre travels or adventure seekers
personally experienced by their authors. Such, for ex-
ample, is the fascinating autobiography of Edgard
Webb, a cannon craftsman who sur vived three editions
in 1590 [24,154]. From this book we learn that in the
late 60s of the XVI century. Webb went to Moscow in
Jenkinson's retinue, from where he returned to England
after three years. In his reports, Jenkinson determined
the latitudes of s ome of the most important localities in
Russia and other cities, such as:
Moscow - 55 degrees 10 min...
Astrakhan - 47 degrees. 9 min ...
Mangyshlak over the Caspian Sea - 45 degrees. 0
min
He published notes on the roads, where he indi-
cated for how many days it is possible to overcome the
distance between the settlements. Jenkinson made
maps of the Caspian Sea, indicated the caravan route
from the Mangyshlak peninsula to the Barsa -Kelmes
lake and to the dried Aibugir gulf of the Aral Sea. Thus,
he describ es the caravan route of the Great Silk Road.
Interesting information Jenkinson on cities and peo-
ples. "... These cities are called Tashkent (Taskent) and
Kashgar (Caskar), the people are called Kazakhs (Cas-
sack), the Mohammedan faith ..." [25,184] their te rrito-
ries are characterized by the place of contact of various
civilizations, cultural originality of traditions and life of
its peoples . Many of them are connected by common
historical destinies with other peoples of Central Asia,
close to them in cultur e, languages, and customs.
The British in the Renaissance liked to travel and travel
encouraged by treatises on education, saw ways of ed-
ucation, in the course were travel books from philo-
sophical, pedagogical, commercial points of view. In
one of these bo oks, Jerome Terler (Gerome Turler) un-
der the title "The Traveler" "The Traveler", 1575. Book
1. ch.1V.). we find comparisons of various peoples, this
is one of the results of traveling along foreign lands.
One of the most valuable sources for the British w as
considered the book "Northern and Eastern Tataria"
(1692) - the result of many years of work by Nicholas
Cornelisson Witzen, a Dutch scientist, lawyer and
statesman. Witzen from the materials collected in Mos-
cow, where he was a member of the Dutch embas sy,
made up his own capital work, which was reprinted
several times.
The 18th century also accounts for several transla-
tions of historical works, various excerpts and extracts.
But the most serious and valuable work in Europe on
the history of the East b elongs to the Frenchman Joseph
de Guigne, an orientalist, professor of the Syrian lan-
guage at the College de I rançe and keeper of antiquities
in the Louvre. His book "Histore generate des Huns,
des Turcs des Mongols et des autijes Tartares occiden-
taux" wa s published in 1756 -1757.
All this small information contained in the works
of each of the travelers, about Central Asia and Kazakh-
stan, as if merged with the research of the XIX century,
turned into a solid source, which herd peoples needed.
Studies belonged to representatives of many countries
and are interesting in that they cover various issues.
The most significant and serious historical and
ethnographic source of the end of the 18th century is
the summarizing work of I. Georgi (Iogai Gotlib) “De-
scription of all living peoples in the Russian state”, pub-
lished in German. I. George, a German, a full member
of the Russian Academy of Sciences, participated in a
Russian expedition to the south -east of Russia. Altai,
Baikal, Transbaikalia, Ural, Volga re gion.
As mentioned above, at the beginning of the 19th
century, the German traveler, an orientalist, who gave
the first information about the Kazakh language, visited
Heinrich Julius von Klaproth at the beginning of the
19th century. Karl Ritter, professor at the University of
Berlin, author of Asia Farming; Chokan Valikhanov,
who was a recognized expert in the East, took part in
editing the Russian version and preparing for the pub-
lication of this book. For a long time Alexander Hum-

68 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
bold was associated with Priirtyshye (Ust -Kameno-
gorsk, Bukhtarma), who visited him in 1829 with his
colleagues S. Erenburg and G. Roze. A description of
Kazakhstan, which until then represents a white spot on
European maps, was set forth by Gustav Rose in his
two -volume book, pub lished in 1837 -1842. A little ear-
lier, F. Gobel arrived in Western Kazakhstan (at Elton
and Baskunchak) to study the results of his laboratory
works; he left an ethnographic description of the men
and women of the Bukeev horde.
The famous in Europe, scient ist Alexander von
Humboldt in 1829. traveled to the Urals, Altai, to the
Caspian Sea, visited the cities of Omsk, Semipalatinsk,
Ust -Kamenogorsk, Orenburg, Astrakhan. During his
travels, he made a scientific description of soils, ores,
climatic features, a nd the Kazakh steppes and moun-
tains. The result was the famous work "Central Asia,
studies on mountain chains and comparative climatol-
ogy." Humboldt met with the local population, with his
life, way of life, customs and customs; Kazakhs met
him hospitably. Detailed reports were kept on Hum-
boldt’s trip and the fame of an Asian explorer was en-
trusted to him. For travelers, a “Kyrgyz holiday” was
arranged with wrestling, horse racing, running, music
and singing, which apparently interested many German
scientis ts” [26; c1444]. It should be noted that the mu-
sic of the Kazakh people could not remain unnoticed.
She attracted the attention of not only travelers, but also
musicologists. Among the researchers of the profes-
sionals are well -known names of the German mus ician
Augustus Eingorn and his work "Kazakh music", re-
leased at the end of the last century, as well as accom-
panist pianist Pfening and his article "Folk songs of
Kirghiz and Sarts", written in German and published in
1889 in the journal "Ethnographic rese arch". In 1834,
the story of V.A. Ushakova "Kirghiz -Kaisak" was pub-
lished in Leipzing, translated into German.
Of the works published in German at the begin-
ning of the XX suit, the “Report on the countries of
Russian Turkestan” by F. Makhachek is of partic ular
interest. Professor F. Makhachek in 1911 visited Tien
Shan, and then in 1913 traveled to Russian Turkestan.
He notes: “Turkestan from the old days was such an
important trading point that, despite all the invasions
and ruin it experienced. Turkestan a lways maintained
lively trade relations with Persia, Afghanistan, India,
China and from the XVIII century with Russia”
[27,XVII ].
As it was said earlier, the British showed particular
interest in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. As life has
shown, the British were guided not so much by the dis-
interested goals of studying Central Asia and Kazakh-
stan, but by the pursuit of political and economic ad-
vantage.
England, which had become a great colonial
power, in whose hands were the destinies of a number
of countrie s in Asia and Africa, sought to expand its
influence in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. On the road,
laid in the XVI century by Jenkinson and later by Eng-
lish travelers, various expeditions began to stretch .
The expedition of Thomas Atkinson visited the
Kazak h steppes; there are many pages in the journey
and works related to the description of our region, its
inhabitants, their customs, and craving for beauty.
Thomas Atkinson (1799 -1861) - English architect,
landscape painter, he traveled around Kazakhstan, Si-
beria, Mongolia and Dzungaria for about seven years in
1847 -1854. Thomas U. Atkinson belonged to the cate-
gory of those strong and highly curious natures whom
they used to call in old England “man -nugget” [28]. He
was born in Yorkshire on March 6, 1799. As a boy of
six, he lost his parents He did not leave him any fortune,
and since then he was forced to earn his living by his
own labor.Taking to study some useful craft, he took up
architecture, and subsequently he had to build a church
in Manchester.
Atkins on says that the thought of going to Asia
was born to him afterwards, by the casual remarks of
Alexander Humboldt that many geographical, ethno-
graphic and other issues still have to be resolved within
Asia. This famous naturalist, as you know, had the op-
po rtunity, accompanied by Professor Ehrenburg, to
penetrate the Altai Mountains, and from conversations
with Russian mountain officials and merchants who
walked with a caravan in the steppes south of the Rus-
sian border, he managed to learn something interest ing
about countries which he did not see with his own eyes.
This circumstance prompted Atkinson to devote him-
self to a more thorough study of those countries, despite
the fact that he did not have significant funds at all. As
it seems, he acquired most of his income with a brush.
During his stay in the steppe, his ability to wield a gun
helped him supply himself with the necessary poverty,
and in remote mines and mountain districts, in all like-
lihood, the hospitality of Russian officials and people
who work ed there helped him a lot.
Having traveled from St. Petersburg through Mos-
cow and Yekaterinburg to the Altai Mountains in 1847,
and enriching his paintings with a collection of differ-
ent sketches, for which he probably helped out some-
thing, Atkinson return ed to St. Petersburg and soon
married an Englishwoman there. , for eight years, a
mentor in the house of General Muravyov, the gover-
ness of his daughter. "... It must be assumed that she
possessed the same kind of nature as he himself, and
from childhood u sed to adapt to all circumstances of
life, possessing, moreover, a rare ability to notice the
good sides of things, even when she had to be in an
awkward or unpleasant position. Health she was hard-
ened to such an extent, and she was such an admirer of
cold water that she was not afraid to even break the ice
in order to refresh herself. She rode both on horseback
and on a camel with the same courage ", about which
she wrote in one of her letters to a friend.
In February 1848, Atkinson with his wife left St.
Petersburg and arrived in Tomsk in March. Having vis-
ited together Altyn -Kul Lake (Golden Lake) in the Al-
tai Mountains, they made a trip to the Kyrgyz steppes
and made their way to Kopal, which lay at the foot of
the Alatau, while the extreme Russian outpos t in the
south. Here the family has increased the birth of a son,
whose educated parents christened Alatau Mountain
and the beautiful Chimbulak source nearby. This source
is located in a picturesque neighborhood, in a special
valley of the Alatau, forming a round boiler, along the

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 69
sheer walls of which thousands of small streams flow,
shining charmingly, like living diamonds in the sun.
Such an event on the part of the English travelers
greatly puzzled the local Kyrgyz, who, after accepting
the wife of T. At kinson as a man, imagined that both
travelers were brothers and believed that Allah had cre-
ated an unheard -of miracle, blessing the union of two
men with birth. Meanwhile, due to this circumstance,
Atkinson was forced, contrary to his original intention,
to stay for the whole winter in Kopal. They were eye-
witnesses to the beginning of the colonization of Russia
by Kazakhstan and the changes that took place in the
life and life of the Kazakhs, the emergence of new set-
tlements and cities on the Silk Road. For example, in
Kopalsk, the population at that time reached 11,000
people and the city gradually became a trading place.
Many Tatar merchants settled there and also a signifi-
cant number of Russians. In addition, a new town,
Verny, appeared at the Almaly Rive r, in the south -west
of Kopalsk. The population consisted mainly of Rus-
sian commoners who were engaged in various crafts.
The former fort of Almaly, called the Russian Faithful,
now served as a not unimportant point of commerce and
administrative center.
Although Thomas Atkinson is known mainly as an
adventurer, but in his books there are many things that
are interesting and useful for studying the history of na-
tions, their artistic life in the past, there are many inter-
esting descriptions of Kazakhstan, li fe, life, poetry of
their inhabitants. “Traveling through the Dzungar
steppes on which all vegetation had already dried up,
Atkinson noted that due to the lack of fuel, the steppe
inhabitants used horse and camel dung for this purpose,
which is therefore v ery thoroughly collected by the Ka-
zakhs around the yurts. It gives a very scant smoldering
glow without a bright flame, and since no other lighting
is used in yurts, it is very difficult at night to find a vil-
lage. Only in exceptional cases, Kazakhs have t he op-
portunity to burn branches of a bush, this is a special
kind of katsiya, which quickly burns and gives a good
light. In the eastern part of the steppe space in some
places comes across a huge amount of saxaul bushes,
most used in those areas for fuel" [29,321].
Atkinson learned a lot about the amazing custom
that existed among Kyrgyz (Kazakhs - TA) under the
name of Barymt - this terrible ulcer devastating the
ranks of the nomads. However, the Kazakhs inflict the
greatest harm and losses on themselves. Hurrying to hi-
jack as soon as possible and away from the beaten cat-
tle, during their attacks, the Kirghiz (Kazakhs - TA) do
not at all pay attention to the fact that many cattle and
horses die, and in addition, many in the dark run away
in different direc tions. At the same time, both the own-
ers and servants must constantly be on the alert for re-
sistance, and cannot spend a single night carefree, in a
dream. He writes that the Kyrgyz have little firearms
and rarely use them during the robberies they make.
Gunpowder, used by them, is very bad, and the result
from the Chinese is even worse. The Russians were
very strictly forbidden to sell this product to their trou-
bled neighbors, because the Kazakhs were so bold that
they even decided to invade the Russian po ssessions,
but soon such strong and strong measures were taken
against them that they became peaceful.
Atkinson's interesting observations were about the
meaning of kalym, shedding light on the character of
the Kazakhs and showing that they are not strange rs to
the tender sensations of love, and that often they even
risk their lives in order to just perform the given word.
The value of kalym in all the love or marriage stories
of the Kazakhs is quite important: sometimes its role is
the same as the value of the insurance or widow pre-
mium for a Kyrgyz wife. The fact is that the father of
the girl, having given his consent to the marriage, her
with a famous person, announces to him that he must
pay him for the daughter so much and so much camels,
horses, sheep and others. These herds make up the feces
and are kept in the girl’s father’s house in case she di-
vorces her husband or sends her back. Thus, she is
placed in much more favorable conditions than Euro-
pean wives. The size of kalym usually increases in pro-
po rtion to the title of the bride and parents, and just as
a poor artisan does not dare to offer a hand to some
princess, so too the poor in Kirghiz cannot or will not
dare to woo the sultan's daughter. For such audacity, he
could be punished from her own ha nds. When appoint-
ing kalym, the father of the girl usually takes into con-
sideration his own value, the number of his ancestors,
the number of his flocks and servants, his influence on
the population, etc. All these circumstances give the
reason for the bri de's father to increase the feast to enor-
mous size [29,478].
The hardships and trials suffered by Atkinson dur-
ing his travels did not remain without affecting his
health, he died at 62 from birth. Since he did not man-
age to leave the state to his family, h is numerous friends
took part in the fate of the orphan, and at the rally in the
British Society for the young Alatau -Chimbulak an im-
portant subscription was made. Atkinson published a
description of his journey in two volumes, "Central
Asia and Western Si beria" [30], decorated with numer-
ous drawings, and this example was followed by his
widow, who, after her husband’s death, published a
separate volume of his memoirs during a trip to Asian
Russia "Memories of the Tatar steppes and their inhab-
itants" [31,47 1]. Atkinson portrays the countries he has
seen and people primarily as a painter and nature lover;
he gave a detailed, well -written story about the path
made, the everyday side of their journey, digital calcu-
lations or historical references, descriptions of road en-
counters, clashes with the administration, a number of
difficulties that travelers had to face on the way. Since
Atkinson was bound by the dedication of his book to
Alexander II, for which permission was requested not
without a pile by him throug h the English ambassador
in St. Petersburg, so he refrained from any criticism of
the Russian authorities and its orders, from remarks
about Russian orders, conditions life, etc. All this was
done instead of him by his wife. Lively and talkative,
she chatt ed about everything in her book merrily, with-
out omitting any of the details that seemed worthy of
mention or evaluation, giving her husband his scientific
research and pictorial shots, she was the first to dis-
cover, learn , arranged their life and told ab out all this
vividly, interestingly, with subtle observation. A well -

70 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
known role in this regard was played by the fact that
Mrs. Atkinson had earlier arrived in Russia and, of
course, had mastered the Russian language much better
than her husband. In the bo ok, Mrs. Atkinson collected
authentic and processed on the basis of road notes and
impressions, preserved in memory.
In 1887 in Lucerne, Heinrich Moser organized a
rich exhibition, which demonstrated various items
brought by him from Central Asia and Kazak hstan.In
general, in the XIX century, a lot of information about
Kazakhstan penetrated to England, which characterize
the main connections, historical conditionality and con-
tinuity of traditions that developed throughout the past
century; these people cont inue to develop and
strengthen in our time.

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