Американский Научный Журнал ASSESSMENT OF THE LIBRARY INFORMATION SERVICE (MODERN PROBLEMS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES) (41-44)

It is known that the pricing policy in marketing activities includes the base price, the contract price, the variable price, the transaction price, the current price, the discount price, etc., combines pricing methods. Libraries can use all pricing methods depending on the general information market environment. Prices for paid library and information services, first of all, the volume and intensity of demand for the corresponding services, the quality and efficiency of services (efficiency, completeness, relevance, etc.), the cost of their development, the total amount of advertising costs, features of the service market, prices in other competitive markets. , the cost of labor incentives, wear and tear of equipment and, finally, income, profit, etc. is determined taking into account factors. It is known that the same costs arise for unpaid services. Undoubtedly, the formation of prices depends on the technology of preparing the corresponding services in each library and library system, the professional level of the staff and the general condition of the material and technical base of the library. For these reasons, it is not yet possible to establish a single price for the same service for all libraries. Currently, the most widely used pricing method in libraries is the average cost + profit method. The profit margin with this pricing method can be calculated from 20% to 50% of the average cost. This method dates back to Soviet times and does not meet modern requirements. From this point of view, the need to develop a unified methodology for assessing library and information activities remains relevant. The opinions of world famous experts in this area are also analyzed. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № ( 41) / 2020 41

СОЦИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

ASSESSMENT OF THE LIBRARY INFORMATION SERVICE
(MODERN PROBLEMS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES)

Kazimi Parviz Firudin Oqlu
Baku State University , Associate Professor, Doctor of Philosophy,
+99455370 4141
ORKID: - Parviz Kazimi4[0000 -0001 -5577 -4773]
Mammadov Mehmanalı Akbar Oqlu
Baku State University , Associate Professor, Doctor of Philosophy

ОЦЕНКА БИБЛИОТЕЧНО -ИНФОРМАЦИОННОЙ СЛУЖБЫ
(СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ПРОБЛ ЕМЫ БИБЛИОТЕЧНО -ИН ФОРМАЦИОННОГО ОБСЛУЖИВАНИЯ)

Ан но тация. Известно, что ценовая политика в маркетинговой деятельности включает базовую цену,
цену контракта, переменную цену, цену сделки, текущую цену, цену со скидкой и т. Д. совмещает методы
ценообразова ния. Библиотеки могут использовать все методы ценоо бразования в зависимости от общей
среды информацион ного р ынка.
Цены на платные библиотечные и инф ормационные услуги, в первую очередь, объем и интенсивность
спроса на соответствующие услуги, качество и эфф ективность услуг (оперативность, полнота,
актуально сть и др.), Стоимость их разработки, общий размер з атрат на рекламу, особенности рынка услуг,
цен ы на других конкурентных рынках. , затраты на стимулирование труда, износ оборудования и, наконец,
доход, пр ибыль и т. д. определяется с учетом факторов. Извес тно, что такие же затраты возникают и при
неоплачиваемых услугах.
Несомненно, формирование цен за висит от технологии подготовки соответствующих услуг в каждой
библиотеке и библиотечной системе, профессиона льного уровня сотрудников и общего состояния
матери ально -технической базы библиотеки. По этим причинам пока невозможно установить единую цену
на одн у и ту же услугу для всех библиотек.
В настоящее время наиболее широко используемым методом ценообразования в библиотеках
является метод «средняя стоимость + п рибыль». Размер приб ыли при таком методе ценообразования
можно рассчитать от 20% до 50% от средне й стоимости. Этот метод восходит к советским временам и не
отвечает современным требованиям.
С этой точки зр ения необходимо сть разработки единой методики оценк и библиотечной и
информационной деят ельности остается актуальной. Также анализируются мнения всем ирно известных
специалистов в этом направлении.
Annotation . It is known that the pricing policy in marketing activities includes the base price, the contract
price, the variable price, the transaction price, the current price, the discount price, etc., com bines pricing methods.
Libraries can use all pricing methods depending on the general information market env ironment.
Prices for paid library and information s ervices, first of all, the volume and intensity of demand for the
corresponding services, the qua lity and efficiency of services (efficiency, completeness, relevance, etc.), the cost
of their development, the total amount of advertising costs, features of the service market, prices in other
competitive markets. , the cost of labor incentives, wear and tear of equipment and, finally, income, profit, etc. is
determined taking into account factors. It is known that the same costs arise for unpaid services.
Und oubtedly, the formation of prices depends on the technology of preparing the corresponding servic es in
each library and library system, the professional level of the staff and the general condition of the material and
technical base of the library. For the se reasons, it is not yet possible to establish a single price for the same service
for all libra ries.
Currently, the most widely used pricing method in libraries is the average cost + profit method. The p rofit
margin with this pricing method can be calcul ated from 20% to 50% of the average cost. This method dates back
to Soviet times and does not meet modern requirements.
From this point of view, the need to develop a unified methodology for assessing libr ary and information
activities remains relevant. Th e opinions of world famous experts in this area are also analyzed.
Ключевые слова: информационный рынок, цена информации, информационное обслуживание,
библиотечно -информационное обслуживание.
Key words : in formation market, information price, information se rvice, library and information service.

The group of intangible resources in the
production process also includes library and
information activities. In the 21st century, the increased
interest of informat ion services in the production
process requires a separate study of these processes.
Professionals, intellectuals, inventors, regulat ory and
technical documents, brands, trademarks, copyrights
and many other information assets are valued in
integration wit h library information resources. Also,
new opport unities to search for information using

42 American Scientific Journal № ( 41) / 2020
modern means of communication, access to pai d and
free databases, rating and PR technologies are
associated with the process of information massaging
and dissemination of information, promotion.
Some economists also refer to "relationship
capital" as consumer capital. They call "relationship
capital " the relationship between the enterprise and the
organization's partners (suppliers and recipients). The
result of this re lationship is that buyers trust and prefer
the co mpany. Partnerships often provide more value
than material resources.
The specificit y of library and information
activities, its cultural, social, political, psychological
and pedagogical properties have alw ays been a factor
that hinders the development of a single formula for
evaluating this activity. This issue has always attracted
the attention of experts, and in this assessment several
directions were taken as a basis: political (representing
an attribute of the state and power) assessment and
value (re presenting a material equivalent).
The problem of assessing library and information
activities is becoming more and more urgent, since the
acceleration of information processes and the growing
influence of i nformation on everyday life and the
economy ensur e the capitalization of information.
Experts believe that the system of economic
met hods for managing the economy, financial
recovery, the development of market relations,
balancing the national economy, cha nging various
forms of ownership, self -financing, increasing the
efficiency of social production and national income,
improving econo mic mechanisms and its impact on the
final product - all this depends on implementation of
the pricing mechanism.
As the fo rms and methods of information services
increase, trust in information structures increases in
terms of the relevance of the service and the relevance
of the request.
At that time, the reliability of the information that
the library information service co uld provide was so
high that it was not available in any local or integrated
information retrieval system. The relevance of the
reque st can also be high due to the library factor. The
library information service is the only structure that
provides dialogue between the consumer and the
librarian. So far, there are no other ways to guarantee
the accuracy and relevance of information outsi de of
this dialogue.
For example, a small example. It is possible to
create a library with a collection of one hundred
thou sand copies for a school library, which, if
consi dered separately, may be considered a rich
collection, but would be useless in terms of supporting
the teaching in that school.
If this example is applied to the structures of
government, we will face a grea t information chaos. So
the success of the inform ation service is not in the size
of the fund, but in its rationality. At all times, the factor
that ensures this rationality has been that of the
professional librarian.
The desire to have full access to the growing mass
of information in the global inform ation space is
impossible and unnecessary. If professional library
information activ ity is used, the criteria of supply and
demand are properly studied, it is possible to correctly
assess the information pro cess, information product,
and get high rates. In his book "Modern problems of
librarianship" Professor A.A. Khalafov shows that the
use of modern technologies, the growth of information
masses, the complexity of consumer demands require
new approaches to the theory of librarianship.
Today, when the requ irements of consumers,
forms and methods of requesting information, methods
of searc hing for information are becoming more
complicated, a new level of professionalism requires
the assessment of information, information process,
information product with new criteria.
But how to evaluate library and information
activities? In the classical economic literature, pricing
is determined by the following formula:
Price = cost + profit + tax
In many cases, marketing c osts are added to the
above pricing formula, whic h play an important role in
pricing. Marketing is becoming more and more
important i n today's globalized society.
Building an informed society requires that the
assessment of library and information activiti es be
more differentiated and expressed in more s pecific
formulas.
The works of American, English and Russian
researchers on the prob lem are limited to commentaries
on the problem in only one direction. The work of the
British researcher B. Peter "Assessme nt of Library
Activity" (meaning the monograph tr anslated into
Russian in 2009) attracts attention in this direction.
Given the complex functionality of library and
information activities, B. Peter identifies and analyzes
the categories of assessment activ ities. When adding
the “goal” function to the Inv estigator Assessment
Model, the following picture emerges.
Resource -goal -proces s-product -result -impact
This can be an approximate structure of the system
for assessing library and information activities.
Eva luating the information, the experts tried to
app roach the issue from the following point of view.
1. Evaluation of information
2. Evaluation of the information product
3. Evaluation of the information process.
4. Rate the quality of the information.
The w ell-known Russian researcher Yuzvishin
considers the information invaluable. This is the main
tool for the development of nature and society. Other
experts evaluate an information product in terms of the
amount of time spent on it and the cost of the proce ss.
In the field of assessing the quality of info rmation,
researchers have put forward broader and more
mea ningful ideas.
American researchers recommend using the
criteria of accuracy and completeness when assessing
the quality of information. For example, out of 10,000
units of information, there is inf ormation that
corresponds to only 50 units of a request. R eal search
capabilities only find 25 units, of which only 20 match
the topic and 5 units do not match the query. In this
case, the accuracy is expres sed by the formula 20/25 =
0.8, completeness 2050 = 0.4. It is also noteworthy that

American Scientific Journal № ( 41) / 2020 43

these formulas can be a pplied to the service provided
by modern means of communication, as well as to the
traditional service of library information activities.
These metho ds are also used in modern automated
information retrieval systems and are used to determine
the effectiven ess of a service.
Methods for measuring the quality of library and
information activities can only be considered important
as a system. Thus, it is a dvisable to conduct a
systematic analysis of the organizational model. For
this, the structure of the asses sment system proposed by
B. Peter is extremely important.
When assessing the information activity of a
library, it can be considered only as a condit ional
assessment of the processes carried out in the direction
of creating an information product. Thus, th e
assessment of the socio -political effectiveness of
library and information activities, the assessment of
pedagogical and psychological effectivenes s are
calculated according to different criteria. Evaluation of
information services in the course of libra ry and
information activities serving state and national
interests should be carried out by evaluating the "result"
and "impact" functions in the alg orithms specified by
B. Peter.
At present, the as sessment of the goals of the
information activity of the l ibrary is interpreted by the
nature of the goal. For example, information security
and national interests are heavily funded and become
part of the d ay-to-day work of broad information
structures. I n a market economy, competing parties
often adapt pricing policies to their goals and
manipulate market prices.
In addition, since the outcome and impact
categories have social and political implications, th e
formula Price = Target + Income + Tax does not match
its estimate. In this regard, the proposed formula f or the
overall assessment of library and information activities
can be summarized as follows.
Price = Objective - (Information Product +
Result + Impact) = 0
In the presented formula
- general asses sment of the information activity of
the library,
- finan cial resources allocated in accordance with
the objectives,
- the cost of the information pro duct,
- the financial equivalent of the result.
So, Price = 0 if the financial resources allocated in
accordance with the conditional goals become a
relevant inf ormation product and the corresponding
result is obtained (then the average rational amount of
funds allocated to each consumer) and the effectiveness
of these results fully corresponds to the goals, the
optimal cost of the library's information activities is
zero. If the equality is above zero, we can talk about the
effectiveness of the team, the use of innovative methods
and best practices, if it is below zero, the lack of
professionalism of the team, they do not cope with their
responsibilities.
In Peter 's algorithms, all components characterize
and depend on each other. For example, an informati on
product resulting from library and information
activities ultimately becomes an information resource.
Information retrieval processes, as well as service
proce sses, the implementation of goals and objectives
depends on the material and technical base of the
enterprise, the results depend on it and affect the quality
of efficiency.
The "goal" component that we add to the
algorithms is involved in both shaping and evaluating
most of the other components.
Evaluation of the Objective component takes
place ov er time and space, defines policies and funding
systems, and is expressed in a specific framework. For
example, the scope of government funding for
educational li terature, the budget allocated to various
library and information institutions, the difference in
the cost of librarians' work is determined by goals.
Targets also contribute to the pricing of products. A
number of information resources, despite their spec ific
value, are distributed free of charge, which serves this
purpose. In other cases, the inf ormation sold in the
high -paying information marketplace for profit is also
consistent with the purpose.
Economic theorists argue that the globalization of
societ y has led to the transition from a commodity
economy to a financial economy, and the
informati zation of a global society has provided a
transition from a financial economy to an information
economy. Consequently, in the context of the
information economy, prices for information resources,
information products and information processes,
pricing mech anisms should be based on relevant laws,
formulas and be adequate. The results and effectiveness
of modern assessment methods (IF -impact factor) in
many cases can be justified in the scientific literature.
However, this does not apply to social literature,
especially fiction. According to the statistics of the
Russian State Library for 2010, Dantsova's works were
circulated in the country more than Dostaevsky's
wor ks, books were sold in publishing houses, more
books were made out in libraries. This increase s the
"impact factor" of Dansova, but does not make it more
valuable than Dostaevsky's works. Also, according to
M. Tunjay from Thomson Reuters, "the archaeologic al
excavations at the mound in the province of Kazakhstan
contain very important information f or Kazakhstan, but
according to the international rating, IF may be zero."
In the scientific literature, the IF score is based on
a reference system. Suppose that a chemical laboratory
has been working on an important project for 6 years
and submits a scie ntific article at the end of the project.
expressed in numbers. Since these rates are only valid
for one year, new rates are calculated for the next year.
In this case, the study is only mentioned in another
work, and this work is nominated for a Nobel Pri ze or
State Prize for its importance. This indicator does not
affect the impact factor of the article.
By the way, it should be noted that in the current
pandemic , the importance of various scientific articles
and scientific papers will not be able to comp ete with
the topic of Covid -19.
Many Russian researchers have noted in their
writings that the assessment based on "reference" is
conditional. However, since at p resent this is the only

44 American Scientific Journal № ( 41) / 2020
working mechanism in the rating assessment process
and is of a commerc ial nature, no alternative to
assessing the impact factor through the analysis of
“references” has yet been formed.
A number of international organizations involv ed
in information marketing use special pricing
mechanisms. These methods, widely used in prac tice,
can be grouped as follows.
1. Assessment per unit of information
2. Assess the use of information over time.
3. Evaluation of information "by number" of use rs.
For example, (conditionally) the use of the
Russian National Electronic Library occurs onl ine, and
a document (depending on its size) is sold to users for
0.1 –12 US dollars. The watch requires $ 8 for usability.
Another company, Lexis Nexis, determines the annual
subscription based on the number of people served by
the libraries. $ 5,000 for 50 thousand people, $ 8
thousand for 100 thousand people, 10 thousand for 250
thousand people, 20 thousand for 500 thousand, 35
thousand for 1 million, 60 thousand for 2 million, for a
library network with more than 2 million potential
customers At a price o f $ 70,000.
When analyzing prices in information resource
centers, which are especially active in the information
market, there is a serious impact on the prices of
marketing technologies, special PR -companies.
Information is capitalized gradually and cont inuously.
At the present stage of the rapidly growing
informatization of economic relations, the development
of market relations requires the emergence of a new
global market for information services, and this market
is being formed. The specificity of mod ern market
relations, involving the interaction of subjects of
different composition, interests and goals, requires the
formation of a new stage that allows every one to use
information resources.
Probably, the conditional "chaos" will continue on
the infor mation market for some time. In the near
future, it is necessary to take many legal and
organizational measures to regulate the information
market throughout the world.

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SOCIO -HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF THE RISKS OF SENIORS

Boč áková Oľ ga
associate professor
University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava
Faculty of Social Sciences
Slovak republic
Kubíčková Darina
assistant professor
University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava
Faculty of Social Sciences
Slovak republic

Abstract . Seniors need to have contact with other people because they are often not only dependent on them,
but very eager to have and feel the closeness of humanity. At the same time they feel lonely, their emotional
satisfaction is valuable at their age, bringi ng th eir own social price to the forefront and last but not least the priority
to belong to others. The aging phase is linked to the very narrow position of seniors in society, and their social
status is deplorably low. The manifestations of this dim ension are correlated with attributing the negative qualities
of their personality and the associated low competencies.
Keywords : Seniors. Society. Social status. Aging. Health.

People who retire change their established life
regime. The change and coping with it i s not easy for
everyone. By retirement, society loses its wealth,
valuable experience, and knowledge of the creative
paradigm. If we evaluate the current attitude in society
towards seniors, we can state that in the ranking of
values it is in t he neg ativ e bar. Old age is understood as
the next stage of a person's life path, which is classified