Abstract. Definition so far (2019 AD) of economically active population is mainly aimed at generation of wealth weighted in money, regardless of whether type of activity carried out is positive, negative (drug trafficking, liquor, armament) or superfluous (paid sport, beauty articles, bottled drinks) and INACTIVA (home care, student, retirees), completely ignoring sustainable aspect. Anthropoecology, defines the economic population as PRODUCTIVE, which can be positive, negative or superfluous and ACTIVE, which can also be positive, positive, unpaid, negative or superfluous, and INACTIVE, implicitly taking the sustainable aspect Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 23

Leonel Chacón Anchondo
Industrial Engineer, Technological Institute Cd. Juárez
Cd. Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua, Mexico, Tepeyac street # 4030, 31520

Abstract .
Definition so far (2019 AD) of economically active population is mainly aimed at generation of wealth
weighted in money, regardless of whether type of activity carried out is positive, negative (drug trafficking, liquor,
armament) or superfluous (paid sport, beauty articles, bottled drinks) and INACTIVA (home care, student, retir-
ees), completely ign oring sustainable aspect.
Anthropoecology, defines the economic population as PRODUCTIVE, which can be positive, negative or
superfluous and ACTIVE, which can also be positive, positive, unpaid, negative or superfluous, and INACTIVE,
implicitly taking the sustainable aspect.
Keywords : Productive e conomic population positive, negative, superfluous. Active, positive unpaid, nega-
tive, superfluous, Inactive, sustainable

A set of human beings economically and socially
strong and with good distribution of material wealth; is
that in which all or almost all individuals perform eco-
nomically productive tasks and the economically active
are a complement and are distributed among all indi-
viduals. This implies a horizontal and non -pyramidal
social and administrative stru cture.
The current classification to the economic activity
of human being is specific to define two types of popu-
lation within the economy:
Economically active population: people who are
of determined age to attend work centers from which to
provide labor in the production of economic goods and
services, or of which they are available and continue to
make efforts to be included in this category.
Unemployed or unemployed population: This
category includes individuals aged 16 and over who
meet all the conditi ons necessary for a job but are with-
out it.
Economically inactive population : All persons
16 years of age or older who do not qualify are in-
cluded. for work actions for various reasons and others,
such as the care of a person, home care, student, retir-
ees, unable to perform work, etc. They are considered
people who are neither busy nor unemployed.
[https://www.tipos.co/tipos -de-poblacion/]
• Economically active population: positive,
superfluous and ne gative.
• Economically productive population: pos-
itive, superfluous and negative.
• Economically population: neither active
or productive.
Within each area of activity of human being;
Which activities are indispensable?
Which are necessary?
Which are superfluous?
Has any census been made about activities of
human being according to this reclassification of
economic population?
SUCH AS: farmers, factory workers, business
managers, vendors, housewives, housewives who
work, parents or single mothers, musi cians, diverse art-
ists, professional athletes, students, army, police, poli-
ticians, drugs dealers, liquors, beauty articles, film crit-
ics, commentators of all kinds of events, video game
testers, creators of computer movies, etc. etc.
Objective or Marxist . Classic definition of objec-
tive current comes from Federico Engels who states:
"Political economy is the science that studies laws that
govern the production, distribution, circulation and
consumption of material goods that meet human
Subj ective or marginalist. Classic definition of
subjectivist definition is of Lionel Robbins, who says:
"Economy is the science that is in charge to study sat-
isfaction of human needs by means of goods that being
scarce have alternative uses among which it is neces-
sary to choose".
Other definitions:
a). "Economics study how people use resources to
meet their needs ... Basic problem that studies economy
is the problem of scarcity." [Van Sickle, John V. and
Rogge, Benjamin, A.]
b). "Political economy is the scien ce of develop-
ment social relations of production; that is, of economic
relations between men. It studies laws that govern pro-
duction and distribution of material goods in human so-
ciety throughout the various phases of its development.
" [Borisov, Zhamin, a nd Makárova. Dictionary of Po-
litical Economy. U.R.S.S.]
c). Marshall (Alfred) defined economics as, "... the
science that examines part of individual and social ac-
tivity especially devoted to achieving and using mate-
rial conditions of well -being".
d). "Eco nomics is the science that has as its object
the administration of scarce resources available to hu-
man societies: it studies the ways how man behaves in
faces the difficult situation of the external world caused
by tension between unlimited needs and limit ed means
available to agents of economic activity ". [Raymond
As this text shows, there are some definitions
where there are points of agreement, but aspect of sus-
tainable development is very open, which may have a
different meaning for each author.

24 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
Current human being bases his subsistence on de-
velopment of an economic activity and measure the
performance of this activity is accumulation of material
goods obtained from it, measured in money. Although
money is an efficient vehicle for exchange goods and
services; by itself, it does not contribute anything to the
economy or wealth, much less to sustainability of hu-
man being.
Systems of free economy or market have taught
and in some cases shown that saving money (paper) can
stop working in the la st years of life; Nature does not
say the same thing. How far and until when can the hu-
man being be superimposed on nature?
Work. It is a human activity through which ele-
ments of nature (production) are adapted and trans-
formed in order to satisfy huma n needs.
Adam Smith said: "that earth (nature) is the
mother and work is the father. Work and nature are two
elements that make up value of merchandise. If partic-
ular characteristics of different goods are eliminated,
work is what they all have in common".
According to Marx. "All work is at the same time
concrete work and abstract work; this is the double
character of work".
Concrete work: "refers to amount of physical en-
ergy invested to perform tasks necessary to obtain a
Abstract work: "is a sou rce of exchange value and
is related to merchandise or service that was created."
Qualified work: "is one whose performance re-
quires a very careful preparation and previous training
that in some cases equals some years of formal educa-
tion in classroom or a n intense experience".
Unqualified work: "refers to the person who works
in positions that, although they require care, responsi-
bility and security, do not require extensive prior prep-
aration compared to qualified jobs". [Gustavo Cruz
Definitions of qualified and unqualified work
obey a system of concentrating economy and centralist
government systems (which are called democratic).
With premise that bigger the better.
e.g. it is enough to see great and gigantic works
and constructions of human being that would not be
possible without concentrated economy.
Therefore, a category is lacking in the definition
of work; and this is integral or multidisciplinary work.
Currently (2019 A.D.) we do not take work as a means
of subsistence or philosophy of life; we take it illusive
and dreamily as a means to accumulate material goods
and above all money and live ostentatiously. Thinking
that that is happiness.
Integral or multidisciplinary work . In this text,
it is defined as a set of tasks where knowledge of di-
verse disciplines of planning, administration and exe-
cution is required to carry out an activity, which can be
achieved with positive instructional education.
e.g . in construction work there are very few with
the ability to plan, manage and execute construction of
a house from start to finish. This type of people has be-
come extinct due to concentrated economic system,
centralized and massive production systems; In this
specific activity, by the volume of construction, work
can be divided into specific tasks, requiring unskilled
workers instead of integral or multidisciplinary work-
ers. It does suppose, a multidisciplinary worker re-
quires certification. This is just o ne example of many
Multidisciplinary worker is one with capacity to
build a complete entity; e.g. build a house.
Industrial engineering is responsible for the divi-
sion of labor into mass production, undoubtedly reduc-
ing costs and making products more accessible to a
greater number of consumers; bringing as a conse-
quence people who have lived all their lives doing a
single task, feeling the same a specialist in this task and
acquiring fixations of behavior very difficult to change.
Skilled worker w ill learn to do just one task; that
requires specific training; he could be called a special-
ist; if in addition to knowing how to perform the task,
he knew everything peripheral about it, without forget-
ting the aspects that are known as quality work. Like-
wise, it is to be assumed that a specialist requires a cer-
tification. Specialization can cause stress, uncertainty
and frustration in the individual in situations of reduced
activity or economic crisis.
What is routine? An activity or a mental atti-
tude? Eve ry form of work is a routine, life itself is a
routine as an activity.
Every living being requires working to survive.
The human being needs to do it in a team where each
person has a function to fulfill. And core part are indi-
viduals that in this text are classified as economically
productive population; since they are the ones that truly
make things transform from raw materials to consumer
goods or execute a service through transporting goods;
even when in industry movement of material is consid-
ered a non -productive activity and the personnel who
carry it out are considered indirect. Starting from this
premise, said movement must be properly planned and
minimum possible. According to previous concept, that
moving material is a nonproductive activity.
Globa lization such as is first mistake it commits
even without including other risks.
Globalization does not see the individual as a so-
ciety, but as an economic factor.
Sometimes cheaper labor is available elsewhere;
Is it really cheap or poorly paid?
It is defined in this text as the group of individuals
that contribute indirectly to production of goods and
services, through administration and control of material
resources and economically produc tive population.
Some examples:
POSITIVE ACTIVE: administrative staff, ven-
dors in general, workers in public sector, media, police,
musicians, students, politicians, street vendors, etc. etc.
SUPERFLUOUS ACTIVE: army, professional
athletes, shows, diverse artists, beauty salons, beauty
products sellers, movie critics, commentators of all
kinds of events, video game testers, advertising, cin-
ema, television, etc. etc.

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 25
NEGATIVE ACTIVE: administrative staff and
sellers of drugs, liquors, weapons, pornography, c rime,
etc. etc.
The way in which concepts are shown on this sub-
ject, does not intend at any time to deny the necessity
of its existence; However, if we want to make it as clear
as possible that when it surpasses a certain proportion,
an excessively expensi ve organization is created.
Human being has given great importance to all ac-
tivities that motivate vanity and vainglory; likewise
paying a lot of attention to result of productive process
and forgetting almost all motivation and adequate com-
pensation to th e labor that really does work.
Administrative staff. Percentage of individuals
that are within this group increases when companies get
bigger. Although it is thought otherwise, because com-
panies, especially multinationals, are not enough to
conquer the commercial and labor market, but they
need to influence tendency of individual to prefer one
product to another only by the name of the brand.
At this level companies n eed a complete market-
ing system to create an image of the brand, most of the
time that image is reinforced or supported by a sports
or entertainment idol. This marketing system requires
another advertising company equal or greater than nor-
mally outside the company, but depends on it.
Another example of this is that large transnational
companies originate needs for standardization of ma-
chinery, equipment, services and procedures that they
require for their companies, so an office and personnel
are needed.
Me rchandising. This activity does not contribute
in least to productivity, and in another sense its funda-
mental premise is to obtain the greatest advantage in
any economic transaction.
At individual level, many traders increase price of
products beyond fair price; depending on how they see
client, this happens day by day, this is greed. Is this a
mental illness?
In normal situations, marketing is competitive un-
der certain parameters; However, in none of cases does
a competitor supersede another, when competit ive situ-
ation is critical, a price agreement is reached.
Merchandising of products and services even in
normal situations; sometimes uses bribery tactics, also
known as tithe, share, whisper, (depending on the re-
gion where this happens) when acquirer is pa rt of an
On other occasions the acquirer manipulates the
suppliers to favor the one that suits him and best to him-
Sometimes, marketing takes advantage of critical
situations in society, such as shortages of a product due
to natural even ts where goods are lost and there is a
sudden shortage of products and services; sometimes
speculation is reached by hiding and retaining products
to raise prices or as an instrument to manipulate politi-
cal situations, either by retaining or doing opposite , in-
vading market with large "offers" of some product to
affect one or some companies and even some govern-
ments, This attitude of greed, could be classified as
mental illness.
Marketing methods are aimed at flattering human
vanity and motivating laziness s uch as: "with this you
have more power", "with this you are the distinguished
one", with this, you are the only one "," with this you
will work less "," with this you will be more beautiful " ,
just to mention a few of phrases used.
With a marketing aimed a t consumer manipula-
tion, trying not only to sell their products but also to
create a culture to the brand of product in question
through idols. Directed artfully to children and young
people, who are most vulnerable and who quickly ac-
cuse those consequence s.
Marketing uses all kinds of tricks to sell, from lie
of offers, discounts and gifts to trials and pressures to
client, pretending another client interested in the same
product. Scoring is a dishonest way to measure loyalty,
friendship, honesty, fidelity or any other form of rela-
tionship between two or more human beings. Scoring
is learned and the person who executes it, seeks, in most
cases, to make sure of the future attitudes of the one or
defendants. A trial is based on distrust, it can be surrep-
titious and it is unilateral.
The scoring is an ancestral practice since biblical
A test; it is the demonstration of something,
openly and with bilateral commitment.
Public sector. Governments are the largest con-
tributors that contribute individuals directl y to econom-
ically active population; Governments in many cases
take tasks, activities or responsibilities that should be
left to society. When a task is performed by society that
task is dispersed and each sector or small group solves
it with the opinion o f their individuals according to their
wishes, style, possibilities or according to real and not
manipulated law of supply and demand. When govern-
ment centralizes and concentrates an activity, society
has no voice or vote. Control of this activity is exerc ised
by public sector with influence of the economic power
sector, which is the one that is truly executing this task,
which, because it is global, requires large economic re-
sources, so society has to follow and support what eco-
nomic power dictate, through the public sector.
Another dependence of governments with a very
specific task is army, used for good or for bad but that
invariably falls within the economically active popula-
tion. To which is built equipment and machinery exclu-
sively for it, with decept ion of achieving peace.
With a system of government subordinated to eco-
nomic power, manipulation and conflict are continu-
ous, where there is some servility, which are enough to
hurt and silence of others. With dishonest attitudes,
having as consequence ine fficiency in administration of
resources of society.
Centralization of political power has resulted in in-
terference and execution of many local tasks since we
have to wait for approval of lofty in turn. Human being
can not physically be in two or more plac es or do two
or more tasks directly at the same time; although it can
have the designation of many positions: president of
here, counselor of there, honorary member over there
etc. despite the fact that some only attend them every
now and then; due to the technological advance it is

26 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
possible for a human being to control the degree of per-
formance at a distance, but his decision will be attached
to his experience or whim, but hardly to reality; added
to this, it makes the system bureaucratic, since said
group has to wait for the "authorized" opinion, delaying
the planned actions.
Sports. This is an activity that has attracted many
children and young people because stars earn large
amounts of money and mass media raises them to cate-
gory of idols, causing a larg e number of participants
(dreamers) who by thousands are left on the road and
old people are still daydreaming and in the worst cases
involve their children. This economic activity that han-
dles large amounts of money, nothing contributes to
productivity, b ut contributes to manipulation of people
through merchandising.
In addition, athletes live their pride without caring
the group of followers or fans who are due; There
comes a time when they only see the amount of money
they can earn and public is only the means to obtain it.
Sports do not contribute anything to peaceful coexist-
ence and subsistence; rather, they exacerbate competi-
tion and rancor disguised as sportsmanship.
For this economic reason, a goal is awarded more
than the writing of a good book or g ood performance of
an agricultural community.
Entertainment. Shows of all kinds; it is an activ-
ity similar to sports that in no way contributes to
productivity, but if it handles large amounts of money
and exacerbates the vanity of human being.
Sports and shows are considered great sources of
work and in some way is real but price that society pays
to have them as they are handled in late twenty -first
(A.D.) is very high, both economically, morally and so-
Economically, it is people who contribute lar ge
amounts of money earned by protagonists of these ac-
tivities, reducing their family economy and in many
cases boasting about the amounts they obtain. Some
people say they are from the village, but they bring a
People only keep dreams and illus ions out of all
reality and that contribute nothing to their livelihood;
motivating him to any other thing but not to be produc-
tive, without providing any positive learning towards
life and to his social group. Since what is exacerbated
are behaviors of ar rogance, egoism and vanity, among
Normally morbid, pornography, prostitution and
vices go hand in hand with entertainment.
A comedian said: "You can live without a come-
dian; a plumber is more necessary than a comedian. "
[Jack Mason]
The more peopl e live by the word and other active
activities, but not productive, that implies that they live
of productive work of the rest of human beings.
Where is the equilibrium point, at what moment
can it break?
Still not including superfluous and harmful activi-
ties, such as: production of beauty articles, intoxicating
drinks and drugs among others.
When the group of people of an entertainment area
is scattered; e.g. comedians, for a whole country to hear
a story or a joke, these have to be said many times;
However, when that group of people is integrated into
a large administrative system and a means of commu-
nication of great scope is used; Many people hear the
joke in a single event, so the material runs out very
quickly; forcing the system to create new st ories and
jokes and it is at this point that in order to generate new
material, verbal comedy distorts the use of language in
an exacerbated way, abusing the double meaning,
screaming nonsense and in many cases obscenities.
Mass media. Some of these, both voice and video,
are currently gigantic businesses with great economic
power and influence on political power, being in some
other cases government itself. One of major criticisms
of these media is that they filter information and only
inform the people wh at is appropriate when it comes to
matters concerning society, especially in those media
that belong to governments.
Advertising as part of media is an instrument of
marketing for the promotion and sale of products. Lan-
guage is also abused and prostitution of the woman's
The prostitution of the woman's body is a source
of temptation in such a way that a lonely man, with few
economic resources, with shyness towards woman and
being continually bombarded by this type of publicity,
without a doubt, a poss ible sexual abuser is being gen-
erated. it can be presented in many ways, from the rap-
ist to the seducer; the cases of rape are made public
knowledge and not those of seduction that may remain
hidden. In these cases, only the bad behavior of the rap-
ist is e xacerbated, but never the sources that contributed
to provoke it.
Beauty products. Undoubtedly the production
promotion and sale of beauty products generate sources
of employment; However, the handling and advertising
of these products go directly to flatt ering the vanity of
women, including some of the male sex, cataloged as
metrosexual. Making woman instead of showing her
true beauty disguises herself to shelter of said products.
It can be said that this type of product does not
generate a beautiful woman , but an aesthetically attrac-
tive woman. How far some negative or superfluous ac-
tivities make us mentally ill?
Various activities. There are some services whose
individuals fall into this classification, among others
are tourist services and recreational p arks, writers of
novelties, professional speakers, religious services,
banking services, and even charlatans who with astrol-
ogy, letter readers, mediums, and others like they say
cure everything; In all these tasks a very significant per-
centage of the popu lation is occupied, whose standard
of living in most cases is much higher than those be-
longing to the economically productive population.
Tourist areas and recreational parks and ecological
reserves, these are considered sources of work and fun
and accordi ng to current standards at the beginning of
the XXI century (A.D.) fulfill their objective. These
creations of human being have little more than half a
century of activity and are already considered as indis-
pensable in some economic societies and in fact t heir
creation is promoted; when in fact they are sources of

American Scientific Journal № (25 ) / 201 9 27
superfluous economic movement, since with any mini-
mum crisis or simple manipulation (known as falls) or
alarm in the stock exchanges, they are the first affected.
Retired, in this group there is a great diversity of
criteria or feelings with respect to the event itself; Some
think that they are already ended and there is nothing to
do and the one who thinks like this actually happens to
In advanced countries there are companies that of-
fer all kinds of wonderful plans for retirement, of
course with money of retired. Explicitly promoting re-
tirement 40 years before through their raffles, with the
following slogan: "Retire 40 years before", this is just
one examp le of many similar promotions, many other
companies offer money to "hands full"; as long as...
Nature did not create living systems to work a part
of their life and then they could retire in their old age.
This artifice of human being could become a proble m
when economies are restricted for any reason. This hap-
pens because the economic system is not sustainable.
Retirement systems in old age have created a lax
mentality in oldies and curtailed leadership of family
group, instead of taking advantage of that wisdom to
create a more sensible world.
Writers of novelties, fashion literature or spectac-
ular biographies; but with nothing that truly enriches
the reader, books of read and throw away; as well as
publication of fashion magazines, inconsequential
events for society, where a high percentage are only ex-
plicit gossip.
It is necessary to keep quiet and get to work in a pos-
itive productive activity.
Professional speakers in this activity there are a
large number of areas or topics in which these individ-
uals pe rform. And everyone who uses the word to live
carries the risk of going beyond limit and becoming a
parasite of society.
It is defined in this text as the group of individuals
that contr ibute directly to development of human being,
through labor, transforming raw materials into prod-
ucts. Within economically active activities, the follow-
ing examples can be listed:
POSITIVE PRODUCTIVE: farmers, factory
workers, workers in general, housewive s (unpaid), pub-
lic sector workers, technicians in all kinds of work-
shops etc.
sweetening beverages, army,
producers of beauty articles, workers in beauty sa-
lons, creators of computer movies and video games,
NEGATIV E PRODUCTIVE: workers produc-
ing tobacco, drugs, liquors, and weapons, transporting
drugs, liquors and weapons etc.
At the beginning of the XXI century A.D. direct
labor jobs are poorly paid and manipulated through ex-
cessive benefits that should be given as wages (in Mex-
ico). Likewise, their social status is considered the low-
est and least educated, perhaps because it suits the eco-
nomic -political class. On the other hand, everyone
wants a high academic degree, forgetting the im-
portance of a well -trained work force through a positive
and well -paid instructive education,
Technological progress facilitates the accumula-
tion and control of resources and engineering divides
work in such a way that an activity is repeated thou-
sands of times a day, making work little or no motivat-
ing. And the solution is not necessarily automation.
Some companies in advanced countries look for
other countries with lower academic levels where they
can pay lower salaries.
In some cases, the tactic used is manipulation of
the political sy stem of the host country. This possibility
exists because centuries ago, conquest was with sword
in hand; today it is the same but executed in another
way since the technological advance has provided the
tools to achieve it.
The advanced countries that hav e companies out-
side their borders carry out activities of administration
and control, as well as development and application of
technologies that once proven in mass production are
sent to other countries for their application; normally
labor in advanced c ountries is highly qualified and in
most cases satisfied and motivated with their job.
Perhaps a false perception of some who carry out
an independent productive activity is to wait for "gains"
and if there are no profits then this activity is not worth
it. Most appropriate approach would be that such activ-
ity provides a way of life, certainty and independence.
It is defined in this text as that sector of human
beings that do not have an officially remunerate d job.
It seems that economists forgot this important
workspace, dictating all kinds of rules and laws about
activities that ultimately generate money and forgetting
the source of generation of the most important element
in production.
Retirees become part of this group.
In nature, all living being that stops dies.
Occupational therapy is good when you have the
habit of work and not as a remedy for someone who
does not want to work.
AT PRESENT. Mothers and housewives fall
into this category; nevertheless, t heir work more
than important is transcendental in the life of hu-
man being.
In economically strong countries, retirees base the
financial support of their retirement on personal sav-
ings, on government aid and on the shares they bought
in companies listed o n the stock exchange. In any way,
any case and in any country, the withdrawal is based on
money and not on sustainable productivity. Currently
some countries and many people have suffered in their
own flesh the fallacy of the value of money.
The political system is not as relevant as honesty of pol-
iticians, businessmen and population in general in dis-
tribution of wealth.
Seen from afar; countries of ExUSSR show a per
capita income that is much lower than other countries

28 American Scientific Journal № ( 25 ) / 20 19
in America and Asia; nevertheless, the standard of liv-
ing of population in general, is higher than those coun-
Countries of ExUSSR must remain united to level
the global uncertainty, in spite of their internal prob-
lems and differences between countries; otherwise,
they will be economically conquered one by one.
• Socio -cultural and recreational activities, such
as sports and entertainment, have
become economically preferable.
• The "solve problems" in its effect generates an
economic gain and not in its cause.
• An immediate revaluation of the salaries of the
economically productive population and an adjustment
to those of the economically active population is re-
• The law of supply and demand, widely accepted
by marketing philosophies and tech niques, is an im-
moral law
• Currently leaders of countries have and continue
to give convenient solutions and not the correct ones to
diverse problems; e.g. Social problems are given eco-
nomicpolitical solutions; technical -economic ones are
given political so lutions. When someone truly proposes
something beneficial, it is blocked to prevent sympathy
and to avoid exposing the badness of the control group,
this is a perverse game performed by the mentally ill.
• Direction of behavior and problems of human
being ha ve been the same throughout ages; current dif-
ference is the concentration of human beings in large
cities, power, as well as economic resources, making
systems more vulnerable.
• Money as an easy instrument of exchange is one
that has contributed most in gen eration of problems;
and therefore, will be the least contributing directly to
solution of these.
• For a society to be fair and sustainable it must
focus primarily on mental healing,changing our para-
digms towards honesty and eliminating greed and cor-
ruption . Political corruption and social corruption are
• Economic population, reeducate entrepreneurs
to eliminate corruption and monitor politicians. Make
the "socially responsible" slogan a reality by investing
its profits in infrastructure that ind ustry needs and that
sometimes they fraudulently make with the resources
of the country. We should not sacrifice social responsi-
bility for the sake of technological progress.
• When social activists appear, NGOs like "hu-
man rights" or others are a clear indi cator that rulers are
not fulfilling their task, or else, it is a well -orchestrated
farce, so that people have a way of relief.

1. Fundamentals of economics, José Silvestre
2. Basic Microeconomics, Gustavo Cruz Soto
ITCJ 2001
3. TV Magazine NOTES, November 13, 2002
4. Lic. Bernardo Stamateas, Posted by Sandra Pc
at 9:14 PM, Mar 12 2012,"Everything starts in your
head": Mental fixation. [nosvemosenlaci-
maclavedesan.blogspot.com/2012/03/fijaciones -men-