Американский Научный Журнал SOCIAL COOPERATION: CONCEPT AND ESSENCE

At the modern level of implementation of democratic reforms in Uzbekistan, the development of the foundations of civil society, state and public construction and management, the unity and solidarity of compatriots have a great importance. In this sense, the concept of “social cooperation” acquires a fundamental content, and the phenomenon of the theoretical and methodological analysis is currently an urgent task facing the social sciences. However, this concept, being the basis for effective implementation of the management or regulation of market relations in any society, has not been sufficiently studied from the theoretical-methodological point of view. As it is known from history, the state and the right provided by it at all times have been presented as factors that call on society to order and provide peace and tranquility, eliminating social opposites and contradictions. The theory of civil society, the history of political views created by mankind, have been improved on the basis of theoretical views on society and the individual, politics and the state, the development of societies, the origins of collectivism to this day. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № (22 ) / 201 8 55
СОЦИАЛЬНЫЕ НАУКИ

SOCIAL COOPERATION: CONCEPT AND ESSENCE
T.B.Matibaev,
Doctor of Sociology

At the modern level of implementation of democratic
reforms in Uzbekistan, the development of the founda-
tions of civil society, state and public construction and
management, the unity and solidarity of compatriots have
a great importance. In this sense, the concept of “social
cooperation” acquires a fundamental conte nt, and the phe-
nomenon of the theoretical and methodological analysis is
currently an urgent task facing the social sciences. How-
ever, this concept, being the basis for effective implemen-
tation of the management or regulation of market relations
in any soc iety, has not been sufficiently studied from the
theoretical -methodological point of view. As it is known
from history, the state and the right provided by it at all
times have been presented as factors that call on society to
order and provide peace and t ranquility, eliminating social
opposites and contradictions. The theory of civil society,
the history of political views created by mankind, have
been improved on the basis of theoretical views on society
and the individual, politics and the state, the dev elopment
of societies, the origins of collectivism to this day.
Currently, in the formation of civil society, one of the
most complex processes is the social assistance and pro-
vision of accommodation among people.From this point
of view, the multiplying in the society of the “directing”
and “realizing” forces by the medium of the social part-
nership factor directed towards social cooperation, is an
important socio -political process.In particular, the prob-
lem of creating and maintaining order based on social jus-
tice in civil society, is currently associated with a number
of factors. They occupy an important place in the for-
mation of social partnership, which is an integral part of
social cooperation. From this point of view, it is necessary
to give theoretical and methodological and practical con-
clusions, recommendations through studying the essence
and content, the constituent part, the functional features of
social partnership established on the basis of social coop-
eration. This, in turn, will provide social assistance and
agreements that are considered to be the main factors in
the development of civil society [1].
It is important to note that earlier the concept of “so-
cial cooperation” was understood unilaterally and was
considered as “reality in labor colle ges”, “social obliga-
tion”, “factor of the information of planned economy”.
From the time of receiving, the consciousness, thinking,
way of life of people who fundamentally change their ap-
proaches to entrepreneurship, the final result of labor, are
complete ly changed. In this sense, there is a need for a
broad analysis of the problem from the point of view of
scientific thinking, on the one hand, the processes of glob-
alization taking place in the world, on the other side, as a
kind of manifestation of modern ization taking place in
Uzbekistan, and also as a result of economic liberaliza-
tion.
As it is known, various clashes and conflicts took
place in the history of mankind in the development of so-
cieties. The efforts and the search for ways to eliminate
them w ere related to the issues of social cooperation. Nat-
urally, the views on social conflicts, their manifestations
in interpersonal relations, mutual labor activity, causes
and consequences have been the focus of attention of
thinkers for a long time to this day. For example, the
Greek philosopher Socrates is one of the first who put for-
ward the thesis about the necessity of contractual relations
between the state and free citizens. Laws that protect the
interests of the Motherland, he placed above parents, it
was these laws that were priority for citizens [2].
It should be noted that the idea of social cooperation,
which played an important role in the future in the East,
particularly in the work of thinkers in Central Asia, in the
worldviews of scholars suc h as Abu Nasr Forobiy, Abu
Ali ibn Sino, Abu Rayhon Beruniy, Alisher Navoi. Since
our research aims a special place on the teachings of East-
ern thinkers related to social cooperation, we again turn to
the views of European scholars.
The philosopher -educato r Jean Jacques Rousseau
(1712 -1778), the need for an agreement on the path to
achieving mutual cooperation in the life of society, was
substantiated within the framework of his concept of a
“social contract”. In such works as “Meditation on the Sci-
ences an d Art”, “Reflections on the Origin of Inequality
and Their Causes”, “New Heloise”, “On the Social Doc-
trine”, he presented particular peculiarities of personal
freedom and democratization of society. As Rousseau
wrote, during the transition of people from n aturalness to
society, as a result of concealment, by declaring equality
of all before the law, there was a difference in ownership,
in fact, property inequality was strengthened. Now des-
potism, as it was in ancient Rome, rests on rudeness, force
and intim idation. But “power does not create the right”,
on the contrary, citizens fully retain their right to go
against the government [3,4]. Rousseau substantiated this
right of the people in accordance with the idea of a social
contract advanced by him earlie r: the treaty is made not
only between the people and the government, but also
among all members of the nation. This treaty is not a mix-
ture of social atoms or a set of individuals, but a commu-
nity of fellow patriots. The will of compatriots does not
unite mechanically and arithmetically, it is not the “will of
all”, but a common will that demonstrates the common in-
terest of real compatriots is “always permanent, unchang-
ing and transparent” [4]. It embodies the indivisible and
inalienable people's sovereign ty, in accordance with the
people's will, takes executive power, if it violates this will,
it is worthy of overthrowing power from power. The so-
cial status of the members of society at first places a num-
ber of unknown restrictions. But members of civil soc iety,
along with these restrictions, achieve prosperity and good
deeds. In the social situation, an instinct that does not have
any responsibility turns into justice, and animal inclina-
tions become rights and duties. Even the restriction of
freedom as a to uch of beneficence and well -being, think-

56 American Scientific Journal № ( 22 ) / 201 8
ing is the perfection of psychological features [5]. The the-
oretical views of Rousseau, especially the scientific leg-
acy of the sovereignty of the people, made an important
contribution to the development of theoreti cal views on
civil society of that period. His scientific research on the
norms of morality and the creation of society on the basis
of a social contract do not lose their significance, and now
in the field of ensuring the freedom of the individual and
his rights.
The German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724 -
1804) was an active supporter of agreements and assis-
tance in socio -economic relations. According to his recog-
nition, in the human relations and mutual activities, an im-
portant place is occupied by assist ance, reconciliation in
the interests of each other.From the above, we can con-
clude that social cooperation in fact, as a kind of idea that
unites a particular society, has a wider significance in
comparison with simple partnership.By the new period of
his tory, it was enriched by the factor of the social agree-
ment in the light of the justifications of the concepts of the
right -wing state of such scientists as Locke and Rous-
seau.Such an agreement on the scale of the whole society
subsequently acquired legal significance. For example, in
the Constitution of the United States of America and a
number of other countries, the idea of social cooperation
based on a social agreement has evolved into a concrete
idea, because in such documents that have a high content,
not only relations between the state and society, but also
specific agreements, communication and cooperation be-
tween the state and the citizen, society and person.
Consider the idea of social cooperation, which was
just a reflection of social cooperati on in the twentieth cen-
tury, historically formed from the earliest period of human
life and enriched over the centuries with new values. In
other words, social cooperation was a product of phenom-
ena (events) that require social partners in the period of
industrial progress of mankind based on industry, as well
as reflecting the validity of capitalist society in contracts.
In Russia, the idea of social harmony was presented
by the economist and sociologist V. Bervi -Flerovsky
(1829 -1918) in the work “The St ate of Workers in Rus-
sia”, he criticized the way of life of workers, the state of
poverty in the family, the attitude of the master to the
worker, “struggle for life” –“solidarity for life” [6]. The
Russian economist, chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers
of that period N. Bunge (1823 -1895), the interaction of
workers and entrepreneurs considered the necessary part
of the process. Stressing that it is necessary to act “hand
in hand” on the way to the achievement of a common goal,
he associated success with th e participation of workers in
making a profit. He showed the important role of the state
and legislation in matters of controlling conflicts between
workers and capitalists and their reconciliation. Deeply
studied the development of industry in in the earl y twen-
tieth century, the scientist V. Litvinov -Falinsky revealed
the peculiar features of social partnership. In his opinion,
in the reduction of the interests of owners and workers, the
participation of the state is indispensable. Production
forces and pr oduction relations as an object of correspond-
ence of mutual ties and interests, a clash of interests of
employers and workers, as well as their complete solution
as the subject of these processes are reflected in social
partnership.
Thus, when interpreting the concept of “social part-
nership”, there are two different approaches (in a narrow
and broad sense). In our opinion, it is advisable in a broad
sense to use “social partnership”, and in a narrow sense –
“social partnership”. In particular, social partne rship is
treated as social labor relations between the state and
workers, businesspeople, segments of the population or
between social groups. In this case, the social partnership
will be aimed at the relationship of the employer with the
wage worker.
And now about social partnership. In the wide -scale
socio -political processes very often we meet the concepts
of “interaction”, “harmony of relations”, “unanimous ac-
tion”, “contracting, contracting activity”, “conducting
joint activities” reflecting the joint activities of peo-
ple.These categorical concepts are objects of study of eco-
nomic, sociological sciences. In particular, through these
sciences and various spheres of socio -political life, pecu-
liar features of social partnership are revealed. The prob-
lems o f health, education, economics, labor, social protec-
tion are also considered as objects of study of many re-
searchers. According to S. G. Grinko, a specialist who
fully described the peculiarities of pedagogical coopera-
tion in the field of education, “socia l partnership in the
methods of action, intersecting in the center of the appli-
cation of interests, means certain types of social coopera-
tion and relationships of people representing a variety of
optimized social models behavior and directions within
the f ramework of special forms of social harmony” [7]. As
shown by a number of definitions, social partnership,
above all, means a kind of socially -collective labor rela-
tions aimed at ensuring the interests of employers and
wage workers, various social groups. At present, the social
partnership is regarded as a kind of institution of social
partnership [8].
There are two theoretical approaches to the category
of social partnership: TheTredrichesky and the concept of
intersectional strategic partnership [9, 10].
At the first approach, the idea of the need is to coor-
dinate views and decisions in the field of social and eco-
nomic policy between business, government and trade -un-
ion organizations given priority. According to the second
approach, the essence of social partnership consists of mu-
tual constructive relations between three sectors of soci-
ety, that is, non -state sectors in solving problems of social
importance, relying on existing legislation. As supporters
of the second approach, we want to note that social part-
nership provides not only relations within the industry, but
also partnerships among various organizations. At the
same time, it is important to pay attention not only to the
relationships of the above three links, but also to the mu-
tual influences th at make up them and the relations of
many other positions and factors.
Thus, the analysis of the approaches of foreign spe-
cialists gives the possibility of asserting that social part-
nership is a mutually beneficial relationship of three par-
ties consisting of the state, the employer and wage work-
ers. But this view excludes other different approaches.
According to A. Malinkin, social partnership is an ideol-
ogy and practice that serves as the basis for a peaceful,
non -confrontational means of streamlining soci al rela-
tions among troupes and classes in the society [11]. Ego
expression has a value of its generalized singularity, since

American Scientific Journal № (22 ) / 201 8 57
in it social partnership is not associated with specific so-
cial institutions and units.
It is true that every phenomenon that has s ocial sig-
nificance is associated with certain factors. The emer-
gence and effective implementation of social partnership,
in our opinion, is facilitated by the following factors: 1)
social problem; 2) the interests of partners; 3) legal valid-
ity of cooperat ion; 4) the level and quality of its capabili-
ties and resources; 5) rules of mutual influence and con-
trol; 6) information area, which gives an opportunity to
highlight the edge of social partnership; 7) projects serv-
ing as a basis for cooperation; 8) const ancy and stability
in the process of social partnership; 9) innovative ways of
solving social problems.
Consider these factors in a generalized form. As you
know, the main cause of social partnership is problems,
the emergence of which is expected among pe ople in this
or that sphere, as well as in labor collectives. The level of
awareness of these problems on the part of the subjects, of
course, is different.
Therefore, aligning the interests, views and capabili-
ties of the parties is considered as a difficu lt task. In this
sense, in order to achieve these goals and objectives, it is
necessary to determine the interests of the parties, a deep
awareness of the importance of this problem, the joint
shaping of the goals and objectives of the activity, the
awaren ess of one's place and position in society, the abil-
ity to assess own possibilities for solving the problem,
positive results through the development of specific
rights, forces and resources involved in this process.
Social partnership is a joint developme nt of the sides
of a specific problem and its solution. At the same time,
relations based on equality can become a long -term and
mutually beneficial cooperation. In this regard, relations
in this direction in many cases need to be distinguished
from simple mutual influence or cooperation in the way of
resolving problems organized by management, continuing
short -term problems. In particular, the Western Specialist
L. Olsen in his book titled “Partnership for Social Wel-
fare” on social partnership writes: “Par tnership in compar-
ison with cooperation has wide content. It means the de-
velopment of a contractual culture that enters the arena as
an environment for the distribution of tasks and responsi-
bilities accepted by the parties” [12].
It should be noted that ev en after the creation of an
organizational ground for partnership, problems may arise
in the process of using available opportunities, distribu-
tion of tasks. In this, social partnership requires profes-
sionalism. A responsible approach of the parties to the
quality of the fulfillment of their obligations is needed.
Only in this way, their partnership activity will be effec-
tive, and the existing problems will be solved. It is im-
portant to remember that social partnership is realized
through the active partici pation of all social actors, pre-
senting reasonable ways and mechanisms for ending con-
tradictions, because no single individual in society has the
opportunity to solve social problems alone. From this per-
spective, mutual constructive relations are formed th rough
social partnership among forces in society, and conditions
for a decent life will be created.

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Т. В. Matibaev. Social cooperation: concept and es-
sence.
In the organization at the present level of implemen-
tation of democratic reforms in Uzbekistan, development
of the foundations of civil society, state and social con-
struction and management are of great importance to the
unity and solidarity of our compatriots. In this sense, the
concept of “social partnership” takes on the fundamental
contents and theoretical and methodological analysis of
this phenomenon is currently an urgent task facing the s o-
cial Sciences. However, this concept, being the basis of
effective implementation of management or the streamlin-
ing of market relations in any society are not well under-
stood form theoretical and methodological point of view.