Seniors need to have contact with other people because they are often not only dependent on them, but very eager to have and feel the closeness of humanity. At the same time they feel lonely, their emotional satisfaction is valuable at their age, bringing their own social price to the forefront and last but not least the priority to belong to others. The aging phase is linked to the very narrow position of seniors in society, and their social status is deplorably low. The manifestations of this dimension are correlated with attributing the negative qualities of their personality and the associated low competencies. Скачать в формате PDF
44 American Scientific Journal № ( 41) / 2020
working mechanism in the rating assessment process
and is of a commerc ial nature, no alternative to
assessing the impact factor through the analysis of
“references” has yet been formed.
A number of international organizations involv ed
in information marketing use special pricing
mechanisms. These methods, widely used in prac tice,
can be grouped as follows.
1. Assessment per unit of information
2. Assess the use of information over time.
3. Evaluation of information "by number" of use rs.
For example, (conditionally) the use of the
Russian National Electronic Library occurs onl ine, and
a document (depending on its size) is sold to users for
0.1 –12 US dollars. The watch requires $ 8 for usability.
Another company, Lexis Nexis, determines the annual
subscription based on the number of people served by
the libraries. $ 5,000 for 50 thousand people, $ 8
thousand for 100 thousand people, 10 thousand for 250
thousand people, 20 thousand for 500 thousand, 35
thousand for 1 million, 60 thousand for 2 million, for a
library network with more than 2 million potential
customers At a price o f $ 70,000.
When analyzing prices in information resource
centers, which are especially active in the information
market, there is a serious impact on the prices of
marketing technologies, special PR -companies.
Information is capitalized gradually and cont inuously.
At the present stage of the rapidly growing
informatization of economic relations, the development
of market relations requires the emergence of a new
global market for information services, and this market
is being formed. The specificity of mod ern market
relations, involving the interaction of subjects of
different composition, interests and goals, requires the
formation of a new stage that allows every one to use
information resources.
Probably, the conditional "chaos" will continue on
the infor mation market for some time. In the near
future, it is necessary to take many legal and
organizational measures to regulate the information
market throughout the world.

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библиотечно -информационной деятельности. М.
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библиотечно -информационной
деятельности.2009. -390 стр.
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инжинерия.Германия.Ламберто Академия
Публикейшн. 2013. 84 с.
8. Голубенко Н.Б. информационные
технологии в библиотечном деле. Ростов н/д,
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кни гоиздании. - М.; Школа издательского и медиа
бизнеса, 2012. -221 стр.
10. Брофи Питер. Оценка деятельности
библиотек: Принципы и методы. -М.; «Омего -Л»,
2009. -357 стр.


Boč áková Oľ ga
associate professor
University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava
Faculty of Social Sciences
Slovak republic
Kubíčková Darina
assistant professor
University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava
Faculty of Social Sciences
Slovak republic

Abstract . Seniors need to have contact with other people because they are often not only dependent on them,
but very eager to have and feel the closeness of humanity. At the same time they feel lonely, their emotional
satisfaction is valuable at their age, bringi ng th eir own social price to the forefront and last but not least the priority
to belong to others. The aging phase is linked to the very narrow position of seniors in society, and their social
status is deplorably low. The manifestations of this dim ension are correlated with attributing the negative qualities
of their personality and the associated low competencies.
Keywords : Seniors. Society. Social status. Aging. Health.

People who retire change their established life
regime. The change and coping with it i s not easy for
everyone. By retirement, society loses its wealth,
valuable experience, and knowledge of the creative
paradigm. If we evaluate the current attitude in society
towards seniors, we can state that in the ranking of
values it is in t he neg ativ e bar. Old age is understood as
the next stage of a person's life path, which is classified

American Scientific Journal № ( 41) / 2020 45

in terms of negative perception, such as deterioration,
reduced competences, burden and often even a heavy
burden. Humanity and positive acceptance cannot be
consid ered in this dimension. The situation in the
current social climate calls for society to accept the old
age and the process of human aging as a reality and
natural development, because it is an inseparable part
of life. The vision and consequentl y the goal of our
living and existence in society cannot be the
segregation of seniors, but rather their integration into
it. Man begins to age at his/her birth, that is, at this very
moment of life, s/he begins the process of aging. The
key issue for the aging proc ess is the genetic base itself
and the equipment of the family environment. Aging is
an irreversible biological process that affects whole
nature. Life expectancy is genetically determined and
specific to each species. The same is true of humans
where a mu ltifactor type of inheritance is assumed. Old
age is the final stage of the aging process, it is the end
of the natural evolutionary process of each individual”
11 .
Social aging is manifested by a decrease in interest
in its environment, loss of var ious activities,
impairment of adaptation, etc. Draganová (2006) is of
the opinion that “the stage of old age as a social
phenomenon is dealt with by applied sociology, whi ch
is called gerontology. The increasing share of older
people in the demographic st ruct ure of the population
and the changes in social relations brought by old age
raise a specific social issue that is becoming the subject
of the sociology of old age”. Th e social aspect of aging
is closely related to retirement, which can evoke in the
elderl y the loss of friends, direct contacts, colleagues,
loss of status or financial loss 2.
According to Dvořáčková (2012), another
manifestation of social hardship is th at “elderly people
show loneliness, often feel lost, without love,
unnecessary, lacking support from family and loved
ones. All these aspects can lead to subsequent anxiety
or de pression, causing aggression, accompanied by
anger, which may further increase loneliness.” 3 In a
deeper analysis, the phenomenon of loneliness can be
distinguished from the perception of different aspects.
Kupka (2014) divides loneliness as follows:
• interpersonal loneliness,
• intrapersonal loneliness,
• existential loneliness,
• social isolation,
• emotional isolation 9.
According to Žiaková (2008), the causes of
loneliness are:
• causes of personality variables
• situational variables 15 
The first perception of causes is the long -term
survival of loneliness. Depression is closely e xpressed
and associated to this assignatio n. The content of the
loneliness is the fact that each person perceives and
experiences his/her life situation differently and
consequently the loneliness itself can manifest. The
most common causes belonging to th is state of causes
are e.g. long -term illn ess, divorce, care for sick parents,
etc. Hrozenská and Dvořáčková (2013) appeal to the
needs of seniors and recall that "the concept of social
functioning is considered important" 4.
“Since time immemorial, peop le have been forced
to contemplate their l ives and reflect on its meaning.
Although they understood the meaning of life in
practical terms, such considerations became a source of
inspiration and potential changes for which this
reasoning motivated them. Th ey lacked the concept of
quality of life a s we know it at present” ( 12 .
“The first approach was to the quality of life in
today's understanding of healthcare in connection with
psychiatric patients and even chronically ill people,
whose impact of the disease manifested itself not only
in the phy sical and mental sphere, but als o socially.
Later, the problem of quality of life came from
healthcare facilities to the general public, especially in
connection with new health and social problems” 12 .
“Family life is of great importance to the elderly
and he usually expects some help from the family. It
makes it possible to create an emotional and social
background for the last phase of life, which is
extremely important for aging and old age. In fact, the
emotional background function is actually the o nly
function that the present fa mily has retained and has not
given to society” 6
The aim of social policy is to eliminate or at least
alleviate the unfavorable social situation of the
individual, the family. The social policy tool is social
security, w hich consists of: social insuran ce, social
support, social assistance, and social services have a
special position 1.
Another important aspect for humans at any age is
health care. As stated in the statistics people in the EU
are most likely to die from circulatory diseases
(ischemic h eart disease, cerebrovascular disease) and
cancer. Risk factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol
consumption, unhealthy diets contribute significantly
to the development of these diseases. “Adult people,
leading a healthy lifestyle that includes physical
exercise, eating fruits and vegetables, avoiding
smoking and drinking alcohol can expect 12 years
longer life than they would otherwise” 5
The table shows that the chances of an individual
in his/her 70's to live 90's are decreasing with an
increasing number of risk factors in his/her lifestyle.

46 American Scientific Journal № ( 41) / 2020
Table 1
The presence of risk factors in the 70´s
None of the five risk factors 54
Sedentary lifestyle 44
High blood pressure 42
Obesity 32
Diabetes 28
Smoking 25
Three out of five risk factors 14
All five risk factors 4
Source: Yates et al., 2008, Sarafino & Smith (2011) 13 

The mission of protecting and promoting health,
including the senior population, is to consolidate,
protect and promote health through community -wide
measures, with the emphasis on multi -sectoral
cooperation. International and national community
programs, including seniors as the target group, are also
an important part of the support and protection of
seniors' health.
Seniors, as a risk group, very often become the
object of violence for various reasons and reasons. The
rights of seniors are dealt within our country by the
Program of Protection of the Elderly, adopted by the
Government of the Slovak Republic in 1999. The
seniors must feel sure that t hey will rece ive adequate
assistance in case of ill -treatment.
Piscová (2007) states that “the economic and
social level of aging is the most widely presented issue
in media. However, very little is said about how society
should reflect on old age as such, what quality of life in
old age should have, what conditions for old people
should be ensured by society itself ” 10  It is necessary
to state that the rights of the elderly unfold and
participate in the context of fundamental human rights,
without age re striction. "T he general rights of older
people are contained in the International Aging Action
Plan adopted by the United Nations General Assembly
in 1992. Equally, the rights of older patients are
declared in the Charter of the Rights of the Elder,
procla imed by the I nternational Geriatric Association
in Adelaide, Australia in 1997" 11 .
We can say that the poor or even morbid treatment
of older people by their own family and others has only
recently come to the attention. Kalvach (1995) states
that “risk groups in te rms of abuse and abuse include:
• ordinary women, widows, aged 70 -80 with
lower education than the secondary,
• pensioners on the poverty line, but also
elderly people with sufficient wealth,
• elderly people living with their relatives,
• defensel ess and vulnerable persons with
physical and mental loss” 7
Table 2
Profile of the victim of violence
Health group Socio - economic group
mentally ill people disabled
people with dementia lonely older people
somatically ill people wealthy ol der peop le
sensory impaired people poor elderly people
physically impaired roommates of older parents in multi -generation families
disabled people institutionalized older people
dying people
Source: Kovaľ (2001) 8
Table 3
Overview of forms of elder abuse
Harassment Neglect Exploitation Misuse Abuse
emotional active financial property mental
physical passive property emotional physical
sexually self -neglect physical political systematic
Source: Kovaľ (2001) 8

The issue of elder abuse is often taboo in our
society. However, this does not lead to the conclusion
that it does not exist. Mostly they are hiddenor more
precisely classified cases that rarely or at all come to
the surface.
Tošnerová (2000) explains that “the cultural
matu rity of a nation is m easured by various partial
sometimes comical measures of e.g. mouthwash, soap,
paper, water and so on. However, it is best documented
by how it cares for geronts and what the old age of
geronts of that nation is like.” 14 .

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sociálne zabezpečenie (vysokoškolská učebnica).
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263 -0938 -3.

American Scientific Journal № ( 41) / 2020 47

2 DRAGANOVÁ, H. 2006. Sociálna
starostlivosť. Osveta. ISBN 978 -80-8063 -240 -3.
3 DVOŘÁČKOVÁ, D. 2012. Kvalita života
seniorů – v domovech pro seniory. Praha: Grada. ISBN
978 -80 - 247 -4138 -3.
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HUXLEY, R., & GALE, C. R. 2010. Influence of
individual and combined health behaviors on total and
cause -specific mortality in men and women: The
United Kingdom Health and Lifestyle Survey.
Archives of Internal Medicine.
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Ošetrovateľský obzor 6, 2009, č. 3, s. 90. Dostupné na
internete: 2009 /zdrave -starnutie -a-kvalita -zivota -seniorov >.
7 KALVACH, Z. 1997.
Týrání, zneužívání a zanedbávání
seniorů jako medicínský problém Praha: Česká
lékařská společ nost J. E: Purkyně. 1997, roč. 136, č. 6.
ISSN 0008 –7335.
8 KOVAĽ, Š. 2001. Týranie starších ľudí.
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Bočáková Oľga
associate professor
University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava
Faculty of Social Sciences
Slovak republic
Adamkovičová Beáta
assistant professor
University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava
Faculty of Social Sciences
Slo vak republic

Abstract . In this paper, we focus on the self -governing region of Trencin. On the basis of statistical data, we
offer an overview of social policy and so cial security. We focus also on social care, social support in dimensions
of Trencin reg ion. As for social services, we deal with compensations for persons with disabilities.
Keywords: Self -governing region. Social care. Social policy. Social security. S ocial help. Social services.

Higher territorial unit, self -governing regi on, is a
basic unit of regional self -administration. As stated by
Peková et. al. (2002), the main objective of regional
self -administration, is a care for the needs of citizens of
given region or territory. In this paper, we focus on the
self -governing reg ion of Trencin in the dimensions of
social care for citizens and social help 4.
The self -governing region of Trencin is located in
the northwestern part of Slovakia a nd its area is 4,501
km 2. The self -governing region of Trencin has the
population of mor e than 587,364 citizens.
Districts of the self -governing region of Trencin
are shown on the Map 1.