Giant OTR tires (GOTR) are not made in Russia. The annual import of only 33.00R51 tires, which are the most common in Russia, costs the country more than 10 billion rubles. The article considers a modular method of GOTR tire production in two stages. The first stage – a GOTR manufacturing plant produces "modules" i.e. incomplete tire blanks without tread, not fully vulcanized in a "smooth" (“slick”) mold without its working surface engraving. The second stage – a Russian tire repair/retreading factory, located closely to GOTR tires consumers accomplishes assembly and vulcanization of modular tires in a serial segmented mold or by a modified moldless method used by tire repair/retreading plants. With minimum capital expenditures, the proposed method will raise tire uniformity, efficiency and repairability, will reduce the cost of tires at mining enterprises and their import dependence; improve environmental safety of production; it will contribute to the full utilization of existing capacities, the creation of additional jobs, improvement of the technical and economic performance of tire manufacturers and consumers. Скачать в формате PDF
42 American Scientific Journal № ( 40) / 2020
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Victor Evseyevich Evzovich,
PhD in Technical Sciences,
Corresponding Mem ber of Public Academy of Quality Problems RF,
Mosc ow
Artur Samvelovich Barsegyian
Direct or of ООО “SP -Service”
(a service company for large -size tires),
Vladimir Efimovich Shekhter
Chief Technologist of Automobile Tire Production,
ООО “SP -Service ”.

Abstract . Giant OTR tires (GOTR) are not made i n Russia. The annual import of only 3 3.00R51 tires, which
are the most common in Russia, costs the country more than 10 billion rubles. The article considers a modular
method of GOTR tire production in tw o stages. The f irst stage – a GOTR manufacturing pla nt produces "modules"
i.e. incomplete tire blanks without tread, not fully vulcanized in a "smooth" (“slick”) mold without its working
surface engraving. The second stage – a Russian tire repair/retreadin g factory, loca ted closely to GOTR tires
consumers a ccomplishes assembly and vulcanizatio n of modular tires in a serial segmented mold or by a modified
moldless method used by tire repair/retreading plants. With minimum capital expenditures, the proposed m ethod
will rais e tire uniformity, efficiency and rep airability, will reduce the cost of t ires at mining enterprises and their
import dependence; improve environmental safety of production; it will contribute to the full utilization of existing

American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 43

capacities, the creation of additional jobs, improvement of the technical and economic performance of tire
manufacturers and consumers.
Key words: Modular tire. Modular two -stage production. Tire non -uniformity. Diffusion of gaseous
substances from tire. Smooth (slic k) mold. Tire d elivery to consumers. Efficiency of mo dular tires for their
producers and consumers.

1. Introduction
There are two categories of large -size automobile
tires for open -pit haul trucks: large -size tires (OTR)
18.00 -25, 21.00R35, 24.00R33 for haul trucks with a
load capacity of 30 to 55 tons, and g iant tires (GOTR)
27.00R49, 33.00R51, 40.00R57, 46/90R57, 59/80R63,
60/80R63 −− for haul trucks with a load capacity of 90
to 400 tons.
In recent years, the global tire market has
developed a steady defi cit of GOTR. As an example,
the article considers th e medium -sized 33.00R51
GOTR, which a re the most popular in practice. This tire
of the premium Bridgestone brand, the most common
in Russia, has been adopted as a standard (reference
GOTR tires a re not produced in Russia. The
growing demand of dom estic enterprises (primarily in
the m ining industry, open -pit mining) is satisfied with
the supply of radial GOTR tires of leading tires
companies - monopolists: Bridgestone, Michelin,
Goodyear. The cost of these tires, including custom -
house fees, is extr emely high. The price of each tire
exceeds the price of a medium -powered car, for
example, the price of a 33.00R51 tire adopted as the
standard is 1,320 thousand rubles. Expenses on GOTR,
along with fuel, are the highest in the operation of
special machine ry (the second item in the budget of a
mining facility). The annual import of 33.00R51 tires
(about 8000 pcs/year) costs the country more than 10
billion rubles. Less expensive large -size tires from
other manufact urers are losing their positions in Russia
from year to year due to their relati vely small mileages
One of the reasons for the reduced service life of
GOTR is their lack of uniformity. When making a tire
in the conventional way during its vu lcanizati on in the
process of tread pattern molding, the tread rubber
compound flows into the engraving recesses of the
mold working surface, and drags the undertread rubber
compound, impairing the stability of its thickness along
the tire profile. Especia lly in ti res with a deep
articulated tread pattern. In radial tires with such a
pattern t here may be some displacement of belt cords
and rising of belt edges (Fig. 1а). As a result, tire
uniformity becomes impaired, its performance,
durability and repairab ilty fall . Tire non -uniformity
contributes to the em ergence of local sites of increased
heat generation and its failure. This is especially
dangerous for highly loaded large -size tires that are
prone to overheating to temperatures above critical
ones. Heat withdraw al from their inner layers is
extremely lim ited, due to the large thickness of t he tire
walls and its weight (from 1.3 to 5 tons), due to the
large number of carcass plies and belts (which can
withstand loads from 18 to 63 tons), and a heavy tread
(30 -40% of the total tire mass).
The large thickne ss of the cover rubber of large -
size tires, especially in the shoulder area, prevents the
exit (diffusion) of gaseous substances , i.e. air trapped
during tire building, cement solvent vapors that have
not had time to escape, water vapor and gases formed
during vulcanization, which are the cause of internal
defects (blisters, ply sepa rations, porosity).

Figure 1. Sections of serial (a) and modular (b) tire s: 1- tre ad; 2 – undertread (of white rubber);
3 –belt/breaker; 4 –carcass

In Russia, modern e nterprises have been
established for ret reading of large -sized tires by
molding and moldless (hot and cold) methods [ 2]:
− «Povolzhskaya Tire Company» (PTC) in the
Samara Region uses the molding method of ret reading
with tire curing in a segmented mold, as in the
production of new tires;
− “Ecopro mservice” Company in the Kemerovo
Region retreads large -sized tires using a moldle ss “hot”
method with the application of tread by winding a
narrow strip of rubber com pound, curing in an
autoclave and subsequent cutt ing of a tread pattern;
− ООО “Retreading Technology Service”
(RTS) in the Leningrad Region retreads tires using a

44 American Scientific Journal № ( 40) / 2020
moldless “cold” process with the application of cured
tread sections by the Rosler method. How ever, GOTR
tires retreaded by this method have no t found use in the
foreign and Russian practice in severe conditions of the
mining facilities [ 1].
Due to the difficulties of collecting repairable
large -sized tires, the created capacities for their
retread ing are used inefficiently, by less than 40% [ 1].
The "modular" tire production, which w as
investigated in detail at the Tire Research Institute, will
help to overcome these difficulties and disadvantages,
to reduce the cost of GOTR for their consumers, a nd
eliminate their import dependence. Also, the m ethod of
“a two -stage tire building and curing” [ 3,4 ]: at first an
incomplete tire blank is built and cured in a “smooth”
mold (with no engraving on its working surface) –
without tread, with decreased thick ness of the
undertread and sidewalls – to produce a “module”, and
then the fully built ti re is cured in a serial segmented
mold. In the first stage, the above -mentioned flow of
the rubber compound during vulcanization is
eliminated, and the "exit" of gases through a thin layer
of cover rubber is facilita ted. All structural elements of
the tire are fixed in the position assumed during
assembly, which does not chan ge during the second
stage of modular tire production (Figure 1б).
As a result, a tire with incr eased uniformity, good
performance and high repai rability is obtained [ 3, 4 ].
This articl e considers the features of the
production process for modular GOTR tir es, their
effectiveness for manufacturers and consumers, the
procedure and conditions for experi mental verification
of the modular production eff ectiveness.
Here below the least expens ive way is presented
to manufacture experimental modular tires in two
stages [ 3, 4 ]:
− the first stage – manufacture of a “module” at
a tire plant (TP) - manufacturer of comparatively cheap
radial GOTR (in China, India , Belarus), for example, at
the JSC “Bel Shina” plant whose 33.00R51 tires at a
price almost 40% less than the r eference price (Table 2)
have limited sales in Russia [ 1];
− the second stage – manufacture of a m odular
tire at a tire repair plant (TRP) in Russi a, that retreads
large -sized tires and i s located closely to GOTR
Thus, there will be not ready -made tires imported
to Russia, but their blanks – semi -finished (modules) at
a zero customs duty. Th e manufacture of a modular tire
from this semi -finished product im Russia, along with
the raising quality of GOTR, will contribute to their
imports phase -out (w ith a gradual transition to the full
domestic GOTR production), to utilization of the
existing c apacities, creation of additional jobs, essential
reduction of expenses for tire delivery to the consumer
(Table 3).
2. Specific features of the experimental
modu lar production of GOTR
in two steps.
2.1. Manufacture of experimental “modules” at
a tire plant - manufacturer of GOTR. A tire plant ( TP )
produces modules as per the adopted technology of the
serial production of large -size tires [ 5] with the use of
the available standard set of equipment, supplemented
with a “smooth” mold for module curing. The mold is
not segmente d, with an equatorial split and no n-
engraved working surface of the appro priate profile.
The cost of such molds and their maintenance is at le ast
half that of segmented molds used in the conventional
technology [ 1,6 ].
The “module” made by TP contains all tire
components, except for the tr ead, about half the
thickness of the si dewalls and the undertread layer,
which make up about 40% of the larg e-size tire mass
(Table 1). The share of the cost of the above said
rubbers, without which modules are manufactured, is
approximately 30% of the new serial tires cost [ 6].
The internal l ayers of the module are not fully
vulcanized. It is known that to obt ain a monolithic
rubber product without pores, the degree of its
vulcanization in the mold at the required pressure
should be within 30 -40% of the o ptimum [ 2, p. 477; 5,
p. 353 ]. In addit ion, since the period of heating a blank
to a required temperature
Table 1.
Mass of OTR tire cover rubber [6].
Tire size 24.00R35 27.00R49 33.00R51
Tire mass , kg. 785 1358 2214
Tire cover rubber mass, kg
Tread c ap 207,6 382,3 618,8
undertread 89,9 81,2 128,9
sidewall 103,5 183,6 392,9
Mass of tread cap plus ½
mass of undertread and sidewalls, kg.
(% tire mass )



Note: calculation is done for the option of modular tire manufacture by the molding meth od. In the case of the
moldess method, the module is manufactured with full -profile sidewalls marked according to the technical
specifications for experimental modular tires .

(the main part of the GOTR curing cycle) is
proportional to the mass of the art icle, the module
scorch time is 2 -3 times shorter tha n the curing time of
a serial tire (even with a one -and -a-half time margin for
its vulcanization compared to the r equired rated
conditions). Accordingly, the costs o f energy carriers,
curing bladders, an d other expandable material s. are
reduced by more tha n a half.
At the same time, the degree of cure of the external
and internal surfaces of the module reaches the
op timum. The outer surface of the module is suitable
for mechanical processing in the manuf acture of

American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 45

modular tires at the TRP , and the cured inn er layer
allows you to use cost -effective moldless and
bladderless molding methods of modular tire curing.
The mod ule is transportable without its damage.
For the r easons mentioned above, the modules
ma nufactured by the TP will feature higher uniformity
and consistent quality compared to the tires produced
by the TP in a conventional way; the risk of internal
defects appearing during vulcanization (blisters,
cavities , ply separations, porosity, etc.) cau sed by
gaseous subst ances that easily diffuse through the thin
layer of the module's cover rubber decreases;
production rejects and expenditures for the
manufacture of rejected products and their recycling
are reduced; the volume of curing (and other) gase s
emitted into the a tmosphere decreases in proportion to
the reduced weight of the module compared to serial
The TP will be able to produce large batches of th e
same type of modules instead of small batches of
different models of serial tires, whic h will be
manufactur ed at the second stage of modular tire
manufacture – at the TRP . The cost of equipment
changeover from model to model of manufactured tires
is sign ificantly reduced. A stable centralized supply of
the TP products to the Russian market t o large
consumers (tire repair fa cilities) is provided, complete
with the materials used in the manufacture of modules,
necessary to finish the assembly of a modular t ire. The
problems of logistics, sales and storage o f finished
products are eased.
The pr oduction of modules, along with the noted
improvement in product quality and environmental
safety, will increase the technical and economic
efficiency of the TP . Takin g into account only the
factors related to the redu ction in weight and curing
conditions of modules, compared with serial tires, the
cost of GOTR modules manufacturing is estimated at
60% of the serial tire cost [ 6]. We can expect that in
production practi ce, the prime cost of modules will be
less than 50% . According to JSC Be lSh ina's
calculat ions, the expected p rice of a 33.00R51 module
will be 400 000 Rub., i.e. 48,5% of a new tire price
(Table 2), and that of the 27.00R49 module – 262
thousand rubles (47 ,6%)/ [ 1]
2.2. Manufacture of experimental modular tires
at the Tire Repair Plant that h as mastered retreadi ng
repair of GOTR tires.
Maufacture of experimental modular tires –
application of rubber compounds received from the TP
(for tread, cushion, belt, undertread, sidewalls) and tire
curing – is carried out at the Tire Repair Plant (TRP),
located close to GOTR tire consumers, with the use of
the available equipment and under its technology for
GOTR retreading by the molding, moldless hot and/or
cold met hods which differ in a number of advantages
and disa dvantages [ 2].
The molding method is characterized by the
following benefits:
– when using the materials supplied by the TP and
used in the serial production, and curing of a modular
tire with the high p ressure of pressing (2МПа ) in the
segmented m old as in the serial production of serial
tires, with sidewalls engraving necessary for standard
tire marking, a modular tire becomes practically
indistinguishable from a serial tire, and its performance
and ser vice life are estimated as equal and higher than
tho se of control tires of a serial mo del [3, 4 ];
− low customs duties for the used “raw”
imported rubber compounds − 5% (same as for the
“hot” moldless method of tire retreading);
− the prime cost and retreadin g cost of a tire is
half as low as that of a new tir e [ 1].
Disadvantages compared to the moldless method:
− higher capital investment;
− the range of retreaded tires is limited by the
availability of segmented molds at the plant;
− the high cost of segmented m olds, the high
costs of their maintenance and replac ement i n the
The moldles s " hot " method has the following
benefits in comparison with the molding one :
− less capital investment (and therefore less
depreciation charges);
− practically unlimit ed range of tires to be
− the ability to q uickly change over from one tire
type and size (model) to another;
− the ability to adjust the thickness of the applied
tread and the depth of the pattern (when cutting it),
depending on the margin of the t ire carcass
− reduced risk of rubber ove rcure a t the base of
the tread patter n recesses and its cracking during
− higher throughput performance of the
autoclave compared to an individual vulcanizer, at the
same price, and consequently , less specific cost of tire
Disadvantages o f the m ethod :
− due to the low working pressure of pressing in
the autoclave (0.6 MPa), the solidity of the tread rubber
is less, the adhesion and wear resistance of the tread are
− increased consump tion of tread rubber
compound and additional costs o f recyc ling rubber
waste generated wh en cutting the tread pattern;
− the appearance of tires after the pattern cutting
is worse than that of tires cured in the mold;
− sidewalls are practically not restore d by this
Moldless “cold” method has the fol lowing
benefits (compared to the “hot ” moldless method):
− the tread sections to be used, vulcanized in the
molds of special curimg presses under high pressing
pressure (6.0 -8.0 MPa), have a high -quality t read
pattern, high rubber solidity and wear resistan ce.
The disadvantages of the method a re:
− the high cost of cured tread sections of GOTR
and their delivery . abroad;
− the range of retreaded tires is limited by the
models of tread sections . delivered;
− sidewalls are not restored by this method;
− the high complexity of the tread sectors
prec ision application on the carcass of the tire to be

46 American Scientific Journal № ( 40) / 2020
retreaded. The overall dimensions of the carcasses
differ significantly from each other (even in tires of the
same m odel [2, p. 187, 188]) , making it difficult and
some times excluding the exact matching of the patterns
of the joined tread sectors. In case of failure to meet the
requirements of the precision building technology there
is a risk of the sectors joints openi ng in tire service. As
mentioned above, GOTR tires h ave not found practifal
application i n the severe conditions of mining
enterprises. In modular tire production, unlike
retreading repair, this disadvantage can be eliminated
by standardizing (matching) th e dimensions and
profiles of the “modules” suppled b y the TRP , and
cured tread sectors/th eir patterns,. However it will
require additional investments in amounts unacceptable
for the manufacture of prototype modular tires.
2.2.1. Features of the productio n technology of
experimental modular tires
Figure 2 shows the flow chart of modular tire
production at the TRP:
Unlike tire retreading repair technology, labor -
intensive and energy -intensive operations are excluded
or reduced, such as:
− the collection of re treadable tires, their
washing, drying and pre -sorti ng are excluded;
− local damage repairs are excluded (for GOTR,
the complexity of related repair of numerous damages
is 85 -90 % of the total labor input of their retreading),
and the materia l consumption fo r this operation is
− skiving (cutting off) the remaining worn tread
and buffing (usually to the middle of the undertread
layer and sidewalls) are replaced with a less expensive,
thin, velvety buffing (scarfing) of the module cover
rubber surface to 1.5 mm in depth, thereby significantly
reducing e nvironmental pollution with b uffing gases
and dust compared to retreading repair.

Process flow diagram for modular tire manufacture at the Tire Repair Plant
Figure 2. Flow chart of the second stage of modular tire manufacture at tire repair facilities by the methods of
molding cure (Povolzhskaya Tire Company ), hot moldless cure (Ecopromservice) and cold moldless cure (RTS) .

American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 47

The curing process becomes cheaper compared to
tire retreading:
– the curing cycle is shorter by a fraction of the
prevulcani zation degree of the module inner layers,
and, accordingly, the volume of emitted curing gases;
– the risk of ply separations and other defects
emerging during vulcanization due to excessive carcass
moisture, characteristic of worn tires to be retreaded,
reduces and accordingly the cure process and industrial
waste processing become simpler and cheap er.
As a result, in comparison with retreading repairs,
the TRP’ s own technological costs for the production
of modular tires (without material costs) are
appr oximate ly halved, which make up 20 -25% of the
cost of materi als in the cost of GOTR retreading [ 2,
p.588 ]. The amount of the TRP’s own technological
costs ( Tc ) for the production of modular tires is
determined by expression ( 1), which is 1/8 of the cost
of materi als:
Tс = P m х k : f = Pm:8 (1)
where: Pm– price of materials, in this example
Pm=139 000 rubles. (Table 2, item 3.1.2),
k – the ratio of the own technological costs of the
TRP to the price of materials, k = 0.25,
f –- reducing by half the TRP’s own tec hnological
costs for the production of modular GOTR’s in
comparison with their retreading repair, f = 2.
Environmental safety of production increases:
waste and environmental pollution reduces in the main
technological operations, including pollutio n by
rejected tires with operat ional defects (usually up to
30% of the volume of production of retreaded tires at
the TRP ).
An essential feature of the technological process
for the production of modular tires is the operation of
rubberizing the surface o f th e module directly after i ts
mechanical processing – "scarfing" with an abrasive
tool ("ve lvet" buffing).
The above -said “scarfing” of the module (along
with removing from its surface an oxidized film formed
in the period after its manufacture, and cre atin g a
developed microrelief on the module surface, which
increases contact with applied rub ber compound)
initiates the formation of chemically active sites – free
radicals of polymer molecules, providing high bond
sytrength with rubber compound [ 2, p.45 ].
With the conventional technology of retreading
tires after their buffing, during a long pe riod of related
repair of local damage, active radicals are oxidized and
almost lose their reactivity even before the protective
rubberizing of the prepared surfac e (a pplicati on of
cement and a cushion rubber compound). The module
does not require local re pairs. Rubberizing the newly
buffed module directly after its machining will allow
maintaining its surface activity and, accordingly,
achieving maximum bond streng th ( adhesion ).
When retreading tires on their prepared buffed
surface, cement is applied by a irless spraying, and a
calendered strip of cushion rubber compound is applied
on a building machine. In this case, it is possible to have
air trapped in the recess es o f the bu ffed surface under
the applied layer of the compound, and during
vulcanization - the formation of air blisters at the
junction of the module surface and applied compound
and in its bulk, which can become the foci of tire failure
during its oper atio n. To pr event the appearance of those
defects, special measures are used to remove air
inclusions. For example, the use of special needle
rollers during stitching of the cushion rubber on the
stitcher, drainage with air -draining fabric threads
applied when assembl ing the tire before applying the
cushion rubber compound. However, these measures
do not completely eliminat e the appearance of those
defects. A more effective measure is tire curing under a
high pressing pressure, which provides an outlet
(dif fusi on) of a ir from the rubber compound, which is
still in a visco -fluid state.
The first and mandatory condition for obtaining a
high bond strength between the “module” and rubber
compound applied onto it, is their full tight contact that
is reached by ru bber flowing into the tiniest recesses of
the developed microrelief of the buffed surface. Ru bber
compound flow increases with the rise of its
temperature and contact pressure.
Figure 3а shows examples of the rubber
compound bond strength with the buffed v ulan izate
depending on the contact pressure at temperatures
19 0С, 85 0С and 143 0С. In all case s as the pressure
grows, respectively, up to 10 -12 MPa, 5 -6 MPa и 1,0 -
1,2 MPa, an approximately the same maximum level of
bond strength is achieved. Any further in crea se in
contact pressure is not accompanied with the bond
strength growth (horisontal branc hes of the graphs), i.e.
it does not result in any increase of the achieved
maximum contact surface. The value of the contact
pressure required to obtain its maxim um d ensity
(maximum bond strength) is inversely proportional to
the temperature of the compou nd within the specified
limits (Figure 3б).
In the practice of worn tires retreading at the
curing temperature of 143 C adopted for GOTR, the
working pressure of pres sing is set at the level of 1.8 -
2.0 MPa, which is significantly (1.5 - 2 times) higher
than the minimum (optimal) value 1.0 -1.2 MPa
specified for this temperature. This margin is associated
with the losses for the carcass stretching in the mold to
form the tread pattern of the tires being retreaded,
which have a large range of overall dimensio ns [ 2, p.
187, 188 ]. Considering the stability of the “module”
sizes (unlike those of the retreaded tires), for the
vulcanization of modular tires, the specified n orms of
the pressing pressure reserve can be reduced to 20 -30%.
This significantly simplifies and reduces the cost of
equipment and the production process of modular
large -size tires. Along with it, autoclaves used for
moldless tire curing allow using the work ing pressure
not more than 0.6 МПа , i. е. twice as low as the
specified minimum required p ressure for high -quality
curing of retreaded tires at a temperature of 143 0С in
the free state (even without any loss for the carcass

48 American Scientific Journal № ( 40) / 2020
Figur e 3. Dynamic bond strength (endurance at repeated shear) of rubber and rubber compound after
co-vulcanization depending on temperature and pressure and their contact pressure before curimg:
а) bond strength dependence on contact pressue at the temperature of 143 0С(1), 85 0С(2),19 0С(3);
б) changing of minimal contact pressure value, that provides max imum bond strength depending on contact
в) bond strength dependence on pressing pressure during co -vulcanization of rubber compound and rubber
plie d-up pr eviously at 85 0С and contact pressure of 5 MPa.

Those examples of the bond s trength depe ndence
of rubber and rubber compound on the pressure and
temperature of their contact show that in the systems
under consideration, full contact of plied -up ma terials
can be made before vulcanization during plying -up
(during building of the art icle). In th is case, during
vulcanization, the pressing pressure can be
significantly reduced compared to the optimal one. For
example, if before curing, the contact press ure of a
rubber compound, with a temperature of 85 C with the
buffed surface of the " module", was 5 MPa, providing
the maximum density of their contact, then during
vulcanization of the modular tire at 143 C, the pressing
pressure necessary to obtain the m aximum b ond
strength is reduced by half – from 1.0 MPa to 0.5 MPa
(Figure 3в). This pressure in t he autoclave is sufficient
to exclude pore formation at the specified vulcanization
temperature, to obtain a monolithic pore -free
vulcanizate of the new cover rubber a nd its junction
with the"module". However, in practice, when building
a tire, it is diffi cult to obtain the specified high contact
pressure. A well -known "combined curing method" is
used for retreaded GOTR [ 7, 8, 2, p. 477] with the tire
pre -cure b y the mo lding method with high pressing
pressure and then with its after -cure i n an autoclave
wit h low pressure. However, it requires expensive
individual vulcanizers (although in smaller quantities),
which does not allow the full use of the hot moldless
vulcaniza tion and is unacceptable for the manufacture
of prototype modular tires .
The full contact of the rubber compound with the
carcass during tire building is provided by an advanced
method of the carcass rubberizing before tread
application – the “ СТС ” method (“Cushion to casing”)
of the AZ -VMI GROUP (Holland) [ 2, p. 387 ]. A thin
layer of an adhes ive rubber compound (cushion, belt)
is applied by direct extruding on the prepared tire crown
surface with a temperature of 80 -95 0С. At the same
time, due to t he "rota ting stock of the compound" in
front of the profiling edge of the formi ng extruder head,
the rubber compound is literally "smeared" into the
relief of the rough surface, a full, tight contact of the
compound with the retreaded tire is achieved, the
compoun d flows into the smallest recesses of the buffed
surface without any ai r trapping observe d with the
Pressure, kgf/cm 2 Pressure, kgf/cm 2
Curing p ressure, kgf/cm 2
Temperature, C

Endurance at repeated
shift, min


American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 49

conventional technology of retreaded tire building.
High bond strength is ensured .
This method has not found application in the
restoration of GOTR tires du e to the large number of
their major external related injuries. There i s no such
obstacle in the modular production method . VMI has
created a Base Constructor machine for "rubberizing"
the carcasses of OTR and GOTR, which can be
successfully used a t the se cond stage of the module
assembly (Figure 4).
The СТС method will subs tantially raise th e
productivity and quality of building. The maximum
density of the rubber compound contact with the
module surface and, accordingly, the achieved
maximum bond strength between them, will allow
elimination of the unsafe operation of cement

Figure 4. A prototype model of a bu ilding machine «Base Consructor ” for rubberizing the carcasses of OTR and
GOTR tires, developed by VMI Group ( Holland ).

Compared to retreading repair, in addition to the
above listed quality -determining benefits of the
modular tire production, there is a good margin of th e
carcass performance and high compatibility of the
jointed materials:
– as a rule, the c arcass of tires to be retreaded is
weakened (fatigued) in the course of of the pre -repair
tire operation, with multiple mechanical injuries, has a
limited working capa city; a module has no such
– with the co -vulcanization of rubber compound
and retreadable tire carcass of different manufacturers,
with a different formulation of cover rubbers having
undergone ageing in the process of pre -repair
operation, it is impossible to provide compatibility of
jointed materials and bond strength between them
similar to those in the manufacture of a modular tire
wit h the use of rubber compounds that have been used
in the manufacture of the module.
The guarantee of exp erimental modular tire
quality will be non -destructive control of each module
and finishe d tire by a mod ern method – vacuum
shearography, for example, on a unique machine in the
Povo lzs kaya Ture Company (PTC) (Figure 5), where a
laser beam scans the inner surface of the tire at
atmospheric pressure and in vacuum. By overlapping
the obtained ho lograms the sma llest (to 5 mm) hidden
internal defects are detected (ply sep arations, blisters,
porosity, foreign matter, corrosion spots on steel cord,
its displaceme nt and other non -uniformity), which
cannot be identified by other known methods of non -
destrutive contro l of tires [ 2, p.156,161] .
As a result, the product quality of the TRP is
significantly improved. One can with confidence
assume that the mileage of a m odular tire is not less
than the achieved level of retreaded tire mileage: 80%
of the ope rating time of a new reference tire under the
same conditio ns [ 1]. Along with it, we can expect the
mileage of the modular tire equal to the pre -repair
mileage of the standard [3, 4].
Experimental verification of this forecast is the
main goal of this work .

50 American Scientific Journal № ( 40) / 2020
Figure 5. OTR and GOTR vacuum shearography machine with a seat diameter of up to 63" manufactured by
"Steinbichler" (Germany), model "Intact 4300 -3, in the P ovolzs kaya Tire Company

The prime cost of a modular tire will be
556 thousand rubles. (Table 2 , item 5), i ncluding the
cost of the 33.00R51 module - 400 thousand rubles. [ 1,
6]. It is acceptable to adopt the selling price of a
modular tire in the amount of 50% of the cost of the
standard tire (660 thousand rubles), i.e. at the current
price level o f their retr eading repair. At the same time,
the profitabil ity of the TRP will be 18.6%. (Table 2).
Rhythmic receipt by the TRP of the main raw
materials (modules and rubber compounds for the
production of modular tires) will eliminate its current
dependen ce on the in efficient collection of repairable,
withdrawn f rom service, worn tires, will ensure its
capacity utilization and the ability to fully meet the
needs of an average -power mining and processing
complex in modular 33.00R51 tires (750 pcs/y.) to
rep lace the ref erence tires used by it (600 PCs/y).
The profi t of the TRP will achieve 78
mil.rub./year, (Table 2). The possibility of a significant
increase in the capa city of the TRP - "Ecopromservice",
located in Kuzbass, is being stipulated to supply all
mining ente rprises of the Kuznetsk Basin with the
necessary modular tires in the amount of more than 4.8
thousand pcs./y. In this case the profit of the TRP will
achi eve 0,5 bln. rub. /y. and the number of jobs will
increase significantly.
3. Technical an d economic ef ficiency of
modular tires for their consumers.
With the switch -over to using modular large -size
tires, a mining company will be free from import
dependenc e in providing it s GOTR needs, and will
reduce its expenses on tires. Instead of expensiv e
imported ti res, it will receive similar modular tires of a
domestic TRP, which are not inferior to imported tires,
at a significantly lower price. It will reduce los ses
associated wi th long -distance transportation of tires
from abroad and customs expense s (Tables 2, 3).
The manufacture of high -quality tires by the TRP
downstream the consumers of GOTR, for instance,
“Ecopromservice” located practically in the territor y of
the Mining a nd Processing Complex (MPC) in the
Kemerovskiy Region, will allow meetin g the
consume r’s needs in terms of prompt tire supply of
required models, as there is a possibility of small -series
tire production at comparatively low labor input fo r
equipment chang eover. The feedback with GOTR
manufacturers will improve in the issues o f improving
their quality, consideration of consumer claims and
information about the mileage of tires of different
models in specific operating conditions.
Table 2 shows the results o f calculating the
projected efficiency of modular tires on the example o f
an average power MPC in the Krasnoyarsk area with an
annual consumption of reference tires 33.00R51 – 600
pcs/y. As noted above, the calculation cautiously
assumes t hat the price of a modular tire is 50% of the
reference price, and its mileage is 80% of the reference
mileage, i.e. at the level of mileages and prices of
currently retreaded GOTR tires. The cost of 1 km of the
33.00 R51 modular tire mileage compared to t he
standard will decrease by 3,992 rubles/km, and for its
entire mileage – by 396 thousan d rubles/pc. The
savings on the annual MPC consumption of 750 pcs./y.
of modular tires 33. 00R51 will amount to 297 million
rubles/y. (37.5% of today's MPC’s expenses for tires,
Table 2). With the consumption of those tires
throughout the country, being 77 00 pcs/y. [ 1] the
savings will be ~ 3.8 bln.rubles/y .
Moreover, in assessing the efficiency of modular
tire production it is necessary to take into account the
increa se in repairabili ty compared to serial tires due to
their uniformity and, consequently, a n additional
reduction in the cost of 1 km of tire mileage.

American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 51

Table 2.
Calculation of the efficiency of the modular production method of GOTR 33. 00R51 tire exemplified
by the average power MPC in the Krasno yarskiy Krai with an annual consumption of referenc e tires
33 . 00R51 - 600 pcs/y.
number Indices Tire 33.00R51
1. Price of a new tire, thousand rubles.:
1.1. reference (premium brand ) 1320 1
1.2. ОАО “Belshi na” 825 1
2. Price of a BelShina module, thousand rubles (% of item 1.2). 400 2.2, 3.1 (48,5%)
TRP expenses on production of a modular tire:
BelShina rubber compounds for manufacture of a modular tire at TRP:
3.1.1 mass , kg /pc. (Table 1) 879,7 3.2
3.1.2 cost, thou.rub./pc. (% of item 4). 139 3.2 (88,9%)
3.2 Other (“own”) technolo gical expe nditure s of TRP for production of a
modular tire, thou. rub./pc. (% of item 4).

139:8=17,4 4 (11.1%)
4. Prime cost of manufacturing a modular tire at TRP , /item 3.1.2 + item
3.2/, thou.rub.

5. Prime cost of a modular tire /item 2+ item 4/, тыс . руб . (% от item 1.2). 556,4 (67,4%)
6. Mileage of a reference tire, thou.km. 124 2.1
7.1. Mileage of a modular tire, thou.km. (% of item 6, see above in t he text
of the article). 99,2 (80%)
7.2. Same as above, fraction of item 6. 0,8 5
8 Price of a mo dular tire, thou.rub. (% of item 1.1, see above in the text
of the article). 660 (50%)
9. Profitability of TRP on each modular tire /item 8 – item 5/,
thou .rub./pc. (% of item 5)
660 -556,4 = 103,6
10. Benefit of MPC on every reference tire repla ced by modular tires /item
1.1 – (item 8: item 7.2) /,
1320 – 660:0,8=

thous.rub./pc. (% of item 1.1) 495(37,5%)
11. Cost of 1km of a modular tire mil eage, rub./km /item 1,1: item 6/ 1320:124=10,645
12. Cost of 1km of a modular tire milea ge, rub./km /item 8: item 7.1/ 660:99,2=6,653
13. Cost reduction for 1km of each modular tire mileage compared to the
tire reference /item 11 - item 12/, руб ./км . (% o f item 11)
10,645 - 6,653 =
3,992 (37,5%)
14.1 Annual consumption of reference tires 33 .00.R.51 by MPC , pcs./year 600 2.1
14.2 Cost of MPC’s annual consumption of reference tires 33.00R51,
/item1.1 х item 14.1/, mil.rub. 1320х600=792
15.1 MPC’s annu al consumption of modular tires replacing annual
consumtion of reference tires /item 14.1 : item 7.2/, pcs./year

15.2 Cost of MPC’s annual consumption of modular tires,
/item 15.1 х item 8 /, mil.rub. 750х660=495
Annual saving of MPC’s expenditures on tires, mil.rub. (% of item
Calculation versions:

1. /item 13 х item 7.1. х item 15.1/ 3,992 х99,2 х750=297
2. /item 10 х item 14.1/ 495 х600 = 297 (37,5%)
3. /item 14.2 - item 15.2/. 792 -495 = 297 (37,5%)
Profit of TRP on the production of modular tires that replace the annual
consumption of referen ce tires by MPC /item 9 х item 15.1/,
mil.rub./year (% of item 5 х item 15.1)
103.6 х750=77.775
Note (references):
1. S.V. Khalepo: Commercial offer No. R О-NVF/251 dated 18.06.2019. Novokuznetsk.
2. А.S. Barsegyan:
2.1. The use of reference GOT R Bridgeston e premium brand in Russia by major users of subsurface resources
20.02.18, 26.06.19, 17.07.19 .
2.2 . “Information memorandum on the results of the meeting w ith JSC BelShina specialists” 11.05.2018 г.
3. I.V. Kotliarov:

52 American Scientific Journal № ( 40) / 2020
3.1. Expert assessment of the cost of manufacturing "modules" for the two -stage production of OTR and
GOTR in JSC BelShina. Bobruis k, 15 March 2017”.
3.2. “ The share of tread, ½ of undertread a nd ½ of sidewalls in the cost of All -Steel tires 33. 00R51”, April
2016 г.
4. Formula (1) in the tex t of the article.
5. 0.8 – the ratio of the estimated mileage of modular tires to the mileage of the reference (see above in the
text of the article).

The use of modular tires supplied by domestic tire
repair facilities, instead of imported GOT R, will re duce
the costs associated with long -distance transportation
of tires from abroad and cus toms costs. As a result, the
cost of delivering tires to Russian cons umers is
significantly reduced.
Table 3 presents the described -above low -cost
option for the produc tion of experimental modular
tires: the manufacture of experimental modules 33.
00R51 in JSC BelShina (Bobruisk, Belarus) and the
manufacture of modular tire s from them at the Tire
Repair Plant "Ecopromservice" (Belovo, Kemerovo
Region), maximall y close to the GOTR consumers –
Kuzbass mining plants. (Kuzbass consumes the lion's
share of GOTR volumes delivered to Russia, about
50% of all deliveries [ 1]).
The c alculation is made using an example of a
conventional, average power Mining and Processin g
Complex (MPC) in Novokuznetsk with the
consumption of reference 33. 00R51 tires - 600 pcs. per
year. As can be seen from the table, in the given
example, when this M PC switches to operating
modular tires produced by the Tire Repair Plant
"Ecopromservice" (Belovo, Kemerovo Region) instead
of the standard ones, the cost of tire delivery including
the m odule delivery from Bobruisk to Belovo, will be
reduced by half, i.e. by 17550 thousand rubles/year
Table 3.
Cost of delivery 1 of standard and modular tires 33 .00R51 to the Russian consumer in Kuzbas
as exemplified by the average power MPC in Novok uznetsk
Tires in use Reference Bridgestone tires
Modular tires repla cing reference tires,
manufactured by “Ecopromservice” from the
modules of JSC “BelShina”
cost of
one tire,
by MPC,
Total cost of
tire delivry
per year,
Cost of
delivery per
unit of
produ ction,
rub ./pc.
by MPC,
Total cost of
delivery of
modular ti res
and m odules
per year
Cost of
reference tires
delivery to the
mining plant
from Japan and
modular tires
from Belovo
68000 3 600 40800 6000 3 750 4 4500
Cost of
delivery to
Belovo from
Babr uysk
(Bel arus)
25000 3 750 4 18750
Total ,
40800 . 100 23250
Note :
1. The cost of delivery includes transport expenses, handling and dut ies
2. A medium -power MPC with annual consumption of 600 reference GOTR 33.00R51 tires
3. А.S. Barse gyan: expenses on delivery of modules and tires
4. The number of modular tires replacing reference tires, consumed annually by MPC (Table 2, item 15.1).

4. Summary
4.1. The two -stage method of producing modular
tires will improve the uniformity and perfo rmance of
tires, reduce the import dependence of mining
enterprises in providing GOTR, and improve
environmental safety.
Creating your own GOTR plant in Russ ia requires
a lot of financial costs, time, and is not realistic today .
The proposed pro duction me thod requires minimal

American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 53

capital investment – the existing capacities, personnel
and standard equipment of a TRP and a TP are used
(with the exception of "smoot h" (slick) mo lds).
The production of modular tires by domestic tire
repair facilities fr om relativ ely cheap semi -finished
products - "modules", along with the acceleration of
import substitution, will contribute to the creation of
additional jobs, utiliza tion and expa nsion of existing
capacities of TRPs, and a gradual transition to a full
cyc le of GOTR production in Russia.
High efficiency is predicted for modular tire
producers and consumers.
4.2. The calculations and forecasts of the expected
effect giv en in the art icle are subject to experimental
verification based on the results of compar ative test s of
modular, serial, and reference tires.
Experimental modular tires will be manufactured
in the least expensive way described: 33.00R51
modules will be ma nufactured in JSC “BelShina”,
whose relatively inexpensive GOTRs have limited
demand in R ussia. Exp erimental modular tires will be
manufactured in Russia by the molding and/or moldless
hot method at a tire repair plant that has mastered
retreading of a wor n-out GOTR tr ead and is maximally
close to their consumer.
Comparative laboratory and be nch tests of the
prototypes of modules and modular tires will be
conducted under the procedures evaluating the quality
of serial tires (their uniformity, performance,
compliance wi th the requirements of current standards
for GOTR). It is planned to perform holograph ic
control of uniformity and internal defects of all
experimental modules and modular, serial and
reference tires on the GOTR shearograph available in
the Po volzhskaya Ti re Company.
In-service tests will be conducted under the
operating conditio ns of mini ng enterprises serviced by
the above mentioned TRPs, and using similar tires of
convenitional production of leading world companies,
as well as batches of se rial tires pr oduced by the tire
plant -manufacturer of experimental modules.
Based on the results o f the practice of
manufacturing and testing experimental modular tires,
the actual level of their technical and economic
efficiency for producers and consume rs, environme ntal
safety (reduction of environmental pollution) will be
assessed , the mo st efficie nt method of modular tire
manufacture will be chosen.
4.3. The expenditures o n manufacturing and
testing of modular tires 33. 00R51 will amount to 10
million rubles, including the production and laboratory
indoor tests of their prototypes – 3 mil lion ruble s. It is
possible to conduct preliminary tests of modular tires
24. 00R35, fo r which the specified expenditures will be
4 and 1.5 million rubles, respectivel y.
In all cases, the cost of manufacturing "smooth"
(“slick”) molds for modules curing i s included : for 33.
00R51 it is 1800 thousand rubles, for 24. 00R35 – 760
thousand rubl es.[ 1]

5. References (Sources).
1. Barsegyan А.S.: Information about the supply
and use of large -sized tires in Russia, 26.06, 01.07,
17.07 2019 г.; the results of the mee ting with specialists
of JSC «BelShina» 11.05.2018 г.
2. Evzovich V.E. Retreading of worn -out
pneumatic tires. М: Avtopolis -plus , 2005. – 627p.
3. Evzovich V.E., Rossin V.D . Method of
manufacturing pneumatic tyres. Patent of RF for
invention 2552412, 2015
4. Evzo vich V.E., Barsegyan А.S., Rossin V.D.
Application for a patent METHOD OF
WO 2016/122344 CT /RU 2015/000051. International
Patent Office WI PO 04.08.2016.
5. Ososhnik I. А., Karmanova О.V., Shutilin
Yu.F. Technology of Pneumatic Tir es. Vorone zh:
VGT А, 2004. – 508 p.
6. Kotliarov I.N.: Expe rt assessment of the cost
of manufacturing a "module" in BelShina for two -stage
production of OTR and GOTR. 15 M arch, 2017.
7. Evzovich V.E. , Kamenskiy B.Z., Pervova I.S.,
Levitan L. L., Poluyanova А. I. Method for retreading
worn -out pneumatic tire tread. А.с. USSR 373162
cl.B29h. 5/04, 17/36/ 1972.
8. Skorniakov E.S., Zavyalov Yu.P., Zakharov
Yu.U., Kukushkina Т.Е., Mus ifullin. О.V., Evzovich
V.E. Kauchuk I rezina, 1987, No.10, p.29 -31.

The authors invite i nterested persons,
enterprises and organizations, including mining
companies, to participate in this project .