Американский Научный Журнал ANALYSIS OF EXISTING TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 3D-PRINTERS AND METHODS USED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS USING ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGIES.

3D-printing has significant advantages over other types of construction and opens up unprecedented opportunities. However, existing types of printers and construction methods have both advantages and disadvantages. This article discusses various technologies used in 3D-printing, their advantages and disadvantages. A brief description of the principle of operation and design features of 3D-printers is given. The main problems of the complexity of introducing 3D-printing to the construction market are identified. The directions of development and improvement of this technology are considered. Скачать в формате PDF
16 American Scientific Journal № ( 33) / 20 20
ANALYSIS OF EXISTING TYPES OF CONSTRUCTI ON 3D -PRINTERS AND METH ODS USED FOR
THE CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS USIN G ADDITIVE TECHNOLOG IES.

Zherebtsov Nikita V.
Design / Mechanical engineer
Russia, Moscow

Annotation. 3D -printing has significant advantages over other types of construction and opens up
unprecedented opportunities. However, existing types of printers an d construction methods have both advantages
and disadvantages. This article discusses various technologies used in 3D -printing, their advantages and
disadvantages. A brief descript ion of the principle of operation and design features of 3D -printers is give n. The
main problems of the complexity of introducing 3D -printing to the construction market are identified. The
directions of development and improvement of this technology are co nsidered.
Keywords : 3D -technologies, 3D -printing, 3D -construction, layer -by-layer extrusion, 3D -printer, 3D -printing
mix

Introduction
3D -printing in construction is a pool of
technologies based on the use of 3D printing in the
construction of houses, residential buildings or
administrative buildings and their construction
compo nents. Other names are used to refer to them:
construction 3D -printing, additive manufacturing for
construction, and so on. What is 3D -printing? In fact,
this is a layer -by-layer creation of material objects
based on a computer -designed digital 3D -model
(CAD). A feature of this type of production is the
possibility of using a variety of materials, but for
construction, of course, cement is especially import ant.
This is possible due to the properties of the mixture for
additive production – it includes gelli ng additives that
increase the density and thickness relative to regular
cement, so the mixture can be self -supporting.
Already on the basis of the above : we understand
that 3D -printing in construction opens up significant
prospects for a complete change in everyday
architecture and mossy representation of geometric
forms. However, the main advantage of 3D -printing,
which is impossible not to mention, lies in the
technological plane - and this is the possibility of
robotic construction of structures for a predetermined
project directly on the construction site. Hence the
economic benefit – no need to spend money on
production facilities and storehouse, tran sport and
installation.
But in addition to the financial component, an
important point is to reduce th e building time, which
will allow in the near future to completely solve the
global, acute problem of providing cheap and fast -built
housing to low -income people. In addition, rapid
building is irreplaceable when rebuilding territories
after earthquakes, f ires, floods, and other natural
disasters or devastating military actions.
But the speed of construction is not all. The
advantages of 3D -printing include less resource -
intensive construction (25 -30 % lower consumption of
building materials and human labor during building),
and less environmental damage to the planet and to man
as such, which in modern realities is increasingly
coming to the first place whe n making decisions. In the
case of using additive technologies in the building of
waste, pollution and noise becomes 45 -55 % less than
when using traditional methods of construction of
buildings.
It is clear that the prospects for 3D -printing are
very, ver y great. But in order for them to become truly
revolutionary, a comprehensive approach to capital
buil ding is required, including design and construction,
building thermal insulation, BIM model, construction
materials, 3D -printing, noise isolation, and so on.
Immediately after the invention of 3D -printing,
the main focus of companies using it was on saving
materials, but now it becomes obvious that there are
other benefits. And this is a breakthrough in the cosmic
increase in labor productivity (just think about the
numbers: an average of five (!) times) by solving the
issue of insufficient qualified labor by automating the
process. Isn't this the solution that the construction
industry is waiting for all over the world?
Advantages of 3D printing over other construction
methods
Let's combine the already listed advantages of
additive technologies over other m ethods of
construction of buildings and indicate the main ones:
• The cost of building individual buildings (for
specific projects, individual orders) will no longer be
inflated and will be equal to the cost of a typical
building.
• 3D -printing removes limitat ions from the
imagination of designers and architects who desi gn
buildings, as it provides opportunities that are not
available in the construction of our usual methods.
• Only 3D -building (and no other) can be used
to build houses on other planets, preparin g the ground
for future colonizers, removing even the planeta ry
limitation from humanity.
• The building process becomes cleaner,
reduces or completely disappears construction waste,
which corresponds to the vector adopted in most
progressive countries, on a conscious and humane
attitude to nature and ecology.
• The s peed of construction soars up to the skies.
Just numbers to illustrate this point: a building of 100
square meters can be printed in 48 hours. Two days –
and here is a ready house.
• Minimizing human intervention in the
construction process not only allows you to build in
places that are inaccessible to people, but also in normal

America n Scientific Journal № ( 33) / 20 20 17

areas eliminates the human factor and reduces the
probability of mistake.
• Due to the almost complete automation of the
cons truction process, no more than four people will be
requir ed for the construction of a single building – this
is more than enough for a single 3D -printer to work
around the clock.
• Despite the popular belief that the printer can
only print bare solid walls, communication channels
such as electrical wiring, variou s pipes, ventilation
holes for air circulation and other things will be printed
in the walls at once – you only need to make this at the
design stage in a computer 3D -model. As we can see,
3D -printing , as an additive technology used in
construction, has at least eight advantages over other
types of construction. However, existing construction
3D -printers certainly differ in their designs and
methods of building walls. We will analyze the
advantages and disadvantages of each type of printer
design and the fe atures of the printing methods
associated with them.
Types of existing printer designs and their features
• At the moment there are five types:
• Four -support construction 3D -printer,
• Two -support construc tion 3D -printer,
• Portal construction 3D -printer,
• Construction 3D -printer with hand
manipulator,
• Circular construction 3D -printer based on the
type of tower crane.
Four -support construction 3D -printer.
Principle of operation . A digital model of the
future construction is being developed, and the
construction mixture is applied in layers according to
the developed model. The print head is limited in
movement and moves only along three axes. There are
advanced printer models in which the head not only
prints the wall in several layers, but also makes it
smoother. For such printer models, additional drives
are being developed, including those that provide the
resulting complex unit with the ability to rotate around
the Z axis.
Ad vantages:
• Suitable for printing small structures of the
same type.
Disadvantages:
• To install such a structure, it is necessary to
align the site before installing the equipment to ensure
the correct architecture of the future building.
• The size of the printed building is limited by
the size of the 3D -printer.
• It is not possible to switch to multi -floor
construction due to the limited design.
Existing prototypes:
COBOD BOD2 -111
Working area 1900 х 2100 х 1500 mm
Print speed 12 m/min
Price: from $200.000


2. Two -support construction 3D -printer.
Principle of operation . Above, we have listed the
disadvantages and limitations of the four -support
design. To avoid them or level them out, a construction
3D -printer with two supports was developed. Of
course, this reduced the requirements fo r the
construction site, but at the same time, movable
counterweights were additionally installed on the farm
with the print head. Their task – to extinguish the
vibrations of the structure, but this innovation has
significantly
complicated the control pro gram for the entire
unit.
Advantages:
• Suitable for printing small structures of the
same type.
• Does not require pre -align of the construction
site.
Disadvantages:
• The size of the printed building is limited by
the size of the 3D -printer.
• It is not possib le to switch to multi -floor
construction due to the limited design.
• The design does not ensure accuracy and print
quality.

18 American Scientific Journal № ( 33) / 20 20
Existing prototypes:
«AMT -SPECAVIA» S-604
Working area 3500 х3600 х1000 mm
Print speed 12 m/min
Price: from $21.000
3. Portal construction 3D -printer
Principle of operations. The portal construction
moves along a pair of rails that are separate from each
other. To print the next layer, you need to move the
entire unit, which weighs a lot. The movement itself
invariably occurs with incessant accelerations and
decelerations. It also needs a aligned construction site
– but not for the unit itself, for th e rails that guide the
print. And the accuracy of laying the rai ls has to be
incredibly high – higher than with the installation of
construction cranes.

Construction 3D -printer «AMT -SPECAVIA» S -604

The best way is to just fill the stove under it. The
second way is to make sure that the guide rails ar e
parallel to each other without breaks.
Advantages:
• Suitable for printing small structures of the
same type.
Disadvantages:
• The size of the printed building is limited by
the size of the 3D -printer.
• To install such a structure, it is necessary to
align the site before installing the equipment to ensure
the correct architecture of the future building.
• It is not possible to switch to multi -floor
construction due to the limited design.
• The mobile element is too bulky and therefore
requires a lot of en ergy.
Existing prototypes:
Not exist.

Concept of construction 3D -printer Сontour Crafting Corporation

4. Construction 3D -pri nter with hand
manipulator.
Principle of operation. This is a design with a
grab -handle that can be replaced by an extruder. The
manipulator is programmed mechanically. The printer
is not limited by the size of the working camera –
simply because it does not have such a camera at all.
But this saves the print area, and the hardwar e itself
takes up much less space. The printer is designed so that
the extruder moves at different angles and along
different complex paths in three dimensions.
Advantages:
• High accuracy and print quality.
• Non -bulky mobile design.
• It is possible to switch to multi -floor
construction by transferring equipment to the next
floor.
• Many degrees of freedom of the manipulator
hand allows printing complex architectural forms.
Disadvantag es:
• The sizes of the printed building are limited by
the radius of the manipulator arm.
• Installation requires pre -aligning and
cementing of the site with subsequent anchoring of the
equipment.
Existing prototypes:
CyBe R 3Dp
Print radius 2750 mm, height 4500 mm
Print speed 12 m/min
Price: $200.000

America n Scientific Journal № ( 33) / 20 20 19

Construction 3D -printer CyBe R 3Dp

5. Circular construction 3 D-printer based on
the type of tower crane.
Principle of operation. Visually, it looks almost
like a typical tower crane, but, in fact, it is a telescopic
manipulator that moves around its axis. This device
does not have guides, it is long, difficult and heavily to
mount because of its own weight - it moves on the site
without them. Therefore, there are no limitations on
movement: if you create certain conditions, the printer
can create 192 square meters of living space from a
single installation point, in fact any height.
Advantages:
• High accuracy and print quality.
• Non -bulky mobile design.
• The print field is not limited to the size of the
working camera.
• It is possible to switch to mu lti-floor
construction by transferring equipment to the next
floor.
• Easy installation and mounting, no pre -
aligning required.
• Ability to print sloping complex architectural
forms.
Disadvantages:
It is necessary to transfer equipment while
printing buildin g that exceeds the maximum radius of
printer
Existing prototypes:
Apis Cor AC -03
Print radius 6500 mm, height 3300 mm
Print speed 10 -20 m/min
Price: $120.000

Construction 3D -printer Apis Cor AC -03

20 American Scientific Journal № ( 33) / 20 20
Methods of construction of a building structure
Constructions, created by sintering, Stone Spray Project

We have considered the types of printers, but it is
worth paying attention to the actual methods of
construction of the structure in building. There are three
ways, we will look at them in more detail:
1. Layer -by-layer extrusion of construction
mixture,
2. Technology of sintering material,
3. Creating formwo rk for walls by layer -by-layer
application of foam composition.
1. Layer -by -layer extrusion of construction
mixture.

Building, built by the method of layer -by-layer extrusion, Apis Cor

Principle of operation. With this method of
building constructi on, the extruder squeezes out a fast -
hardening cement mix with various addit ives. Each
following layer is applied on top of the previous one, so
that a vertical structure is formed. The cement layers at
the bottom are thus compacted, thereby increasing the ir
ability to withstand the next layers, and thus the entire
weight of the structure.
Disadvantages. The main problem when using
this method is the need for careful selection of the
mixture. We need high adhesive characteristics, to
ensure that the layers adhere to each other efficiently. It
is important to choose a mixture that meets the project
conditions for the time characteristics – how quickly it
solidifies.
Advantages . Probably, the most important
properties of the final building for the construction
sector are the solidity of the structure and high quality.
2. Technology of sintering material.
Principle of operation. It is necessary not to
solidify the mixture, but to melt it. In the working area
of the printer, concentrated laser or sunlight melts, most
often, ordinary sand or local rock ground to the state of
grains of sand . This is the main advantage of the
method: 95% sand, 5% binder.
Disadvantages. It is not possible to create multi -
layer products.

America n Scientific Journal № ( 33) / 20 20 21

3. Creating formwork for walls by layer -by -
layer application of foam composition.
Principle of operation. The formwork is mad e of
polyurethane foam or plastic, then the cavities are filled
with heavy cement. This method, in fact, is similar to
block construction, when a fixed formwork is also
created from polyurethane foam, later it is filled with
cement concrete. It should take about half a minute
after extrusion, then the material layer from the prin ter
nozzle grows in volume and increases up to 80 times
from the original one. Its density also changes: less than
30 kg / m3 with a compressive strength of no more than
160 kPa.
Disadvantages. Uncontrolled swelling, which
causes the formation of chaotic forms of both internal
and external surfaces of the formwork. This, in turn,
requires additional processing, which is possible if the
goal is to ensure the reliability of the concret e structure.
Conclusion
The above examples of various 3D -printing
technologies in construction indicate the interest of all
countries in the development of this method of
construction. At the same time, the solutions that are
currently offered on the mar ket of addit ive technologies
in construction, in fact, have similar disadvantages.
They are consequences of technical problems that have
not been solved. List them:
• Uneven final surface of structures due to the
rheological properties of the mixtures used.
• It is not po ssible to go beyond the size of the
device in the size of the building.
• The need for costly alignment of the
construction site before installing the unit.
• The long time it takes to install and install the
device on the site.
• Inability to build multi -floor structures.

However, we can conclude that the solutions
offered today are only the first stage for creating the
foundations of a new construction technology. And so
far, the main solution is to automate the construction
process. Main tasks tha t need to be worked on for
further development of 3D construction technology are:
• Improvement of equipment, both in terms of
kinematics and mechanics.
• Development of a work program for the
control equipment.
• Development and implementation of different
buil ding mixture s.
• Creating solutions for building design, which
will take into account the capabilities of the received
equipment, information in libraries.
In a number of countries, laboratories and research
centers are developing options for implementing 3D-
printing technology in practice. Meanwhile, the
analysis of 3D -printer designs and construction
techniques clearly shows that all additive processes
occurring in construction must be based on common
technological principles. This also applies to material s
and struct ures. That is, the era of typical construction
through 3D -printing has not yet come. There are no
libraries of ready -made technical solutions or accurate
statistics. In fact, all the buildings printed today are
individual, not typical.
Since each project is unique, it is worth
understanding that additive manufacturing can be cost -
saving and can be very costly. With today's variety of
additive manufacturing in construction, we have to
state that the construction project started with the use of
3D-printers is a pilot project, a kind of experimental
platform where knowledge is developed by obtaining
practical skills. This is not the same as mass -scale
typical construction, which is necessary, for which
there is a market demand. The main barriers to the
develop ment of construction 3D -printing are obvious.
The high cost of equipment due to the novelty of the
technology does not significantly reduce the cost of the
construction process. Also, the use of construction 3D -
printing is difficult due to the lack of legi slative and
regulatory framework.
Meanwhile, the incentives to develop 3D -printing
are also clearly visible. Unfortunately, labor
productivity in the construction industry remains very
low. It can be improved, including by automating
construct ion processe s, which one by one will remove
the notorious human factor. Statistics show that about
60 -70% of defects in the industry's production are
related to the human factor, mainly with mistakes.
For private businesses, such a technology would
be prom ising: it wo uld be possible to save money by
ensuring the safety of production. Fewer people on the
construction site means there is less chance that
something will go wrong, resulting in staff suffering.
And, finally, it is worth remembering the number of
difficult areas for development on the planet, where the
construction of buildings by traditional methods is
sometimes not just difficult, but impossible. In order for
the young, just -born additive construction to grow and
take root, it will require a lot of research and investment
from both large consumers and scientific organizations.
If current solutions in 3D -construction can only be
considered as a demonstration of capabilities, then with
proper support, 3D -construction printing can occupy a
very wide niche, beco ming a real breakthrough that will
solve many problems of capital civil and industrial
construction.

References :
1. Inozemtsev A.S., Korolev E.V., Zyong Thanh
Kui. Analysis of existing technological solutions 3D
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Vol. 7 (118). S. 863 -876. DOI: 10.22227 / 1997 -
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2. J'son & Partners Management Consultancy.
Current situation and prospects for the appli cation of
3D printing in construction (3DCP) in Russia and the

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http://json.tv/ict_telecom_analytics_view/tekuschaya -
situatsiya -i-perspektivy -primeneniya -3d-pechati -v-
stroitelstve -3dcp -v-rossii -i-mire -20190726054004
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S.V. The use of 3D printing in constru ction and the
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[Ele ctronic resource] - URL: https://cobod.com/
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printing technology. [Electronic resource] - URL:
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[Electronic resource] - URL: http://apis -cor.com
7. CyBe Construction Company . Specification.
[Electronic resource] - URL: https://cybe.eu
8. Company Contour Crafting Corporation.
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http://contourcrafting.com
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УДК 621 548 (81237)

ФОРМИРО ВАНИЕ ПОРЫВОВ И МИКР О ПОРЫВОВ ВЕТРА В НА ХЧЫВАНСКОЙ
АВТОНОМНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИК Е

Kaz ımov M.H.
Нахичеванское отделение НАН Азербайджана
AZ 7000, г. Нахичевань, проспект Г. Алиева 35

NAXÇIVAN MUXTAR RESP UBL İKASINDA KÜL ƏYİN ANİ Şİ DD ƏTİ V Ə MİKRO
ŞİDD ƏTL ƏRİNİN MEYDANA G ƏLM ƏSİ

Məhbub Kazımov

FORMATİON OF GUSTS A ND MİCRO GUSTS OF Wİ ND İN THE NAKHCHİVAN AUTONOMOUS
REPUBLİC

Mahbub Kazimov

Аннотация . В статье рассмотр ены процессы формирование и развитие порывов и микро порывов
ветра в Нахчыванской котловине. Показаны результаты научных исследований по формирование и
развитие порывов и микро порывов ветра на территории Нахчыванской АР. Рассмотрены особенности
порывов ве тров, в завис имости от географических условий региона. Анализировано динамика потер
скорости при зигзагообразном обтекании через горных ущелий и узких проходов и влияние этих потер на
характеристику порывов ветра.
Проведенные исследование полностью подтв ердили серьез ную опасность порывов и микро порывов
ветра на территории Нахчыванской АР. Полученные результаты подтвердили существование сильных
нисходящих порывов и микро порывов ветра в Нахчыванской котловине.
Məqal ədə Naxçıvan çök əkliyind ə kül əyin ani şidd əti v ə mikro şidd ətlərini n yaranması v ə inkişafı prosesl ərin ə
baxılmışdır. Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası ərazisind ə kül əyin ani şidd əti v ə mikro şidd ətlərinin əmələ gəlm ə
səbəbləri v ə inkişafları il ə bağlı aparılan elmi t ədqiqat işl ərinin n əticələri göst ərilmişdir. Bölg ənin coğrafi
şəraitind ən asılı olaraq kül əyin ani şidd ətinin xüsusiyy ətləri öyr ənilmişdir. Kül əyin ani şidd ətinin dağ d ərələri v ə
dar keçidl ərind ən keç ərkən sür ət itkisinin dinamikası v ə bu itkil ərin kül əyin ani şidd ətinin xüsusiyy ətlərin ə təsiri
təhlil edilmişdir.
Aparılan t ədqiqatlar Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası ərazisind ə kül əyin ani şidd əti v ə mikro şidd ətlərinin
təhlük əli olduğunu tamamil ə təsdiql ədi. Əld ə edilmiş n əticələr Naxçıvan çök əkliyind ə kül əyin ani şidd əti v ə mikro
şidd ətlərinin vövçud olduğunu t əsdiql əyir.
Abstarct . The article discusses the processes of formation and development of gusts and micro gusts of wind
in the Nakhchiv an basin. The results of scientific research on the formation and development of gusts and micro
gusts of wind in the territory of th e Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic are shown. The features of gusts of winds
are considered, depending on the geographical co nditions of the region. The dynamics of speed loss during a
zigzag flow through mountain gorges and narrow passages and the effect of these losses on the characteristics of
wind gusts are analyzed.
The studies fully confirmed the serious danger of gusts a nd micro gusts of wind in the territory of the
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. The obtained results confirmed the existence of strong downward gusts and
micro wind gusts in the Nakhchivan basin.