Американский Научный Журнал ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGICAL-ECONOMIC RESEARCHES OF OPTIMAL PARAMETERS OF SO-LAR ENERGETIC INSTALLATIONS

Abstract. Problems of energy resources economy in everyday life, production processes of industrial and agricultural production are considered. The effective means of fuel resources saving and environmental protection with the use of solar heat supply systems are given. The article describes the increasing of technical and economic research importance to determine the optimal parameters and structure of solar heat pump installations, the type of technical scheme and the profile of the equipment at the stages of a project work. There was set out the different methods of efficiency assessment in energetic, thermodynamic analysis and its disadvantages. Exergoeconmic method is offered instead of it, its peculiarities in common case of exergoeconomic optimization using exergic coefficient of efficiency are considered. Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 47

ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLO GICAL -ECO NOMIC RESEARCHES OF OPTIMAL PARAMETERS O F
SO -LAR ENERGETIC INS TALLATIONS

Amerkhanov Robert Alexandrovich
Doctor of Engineering, professor,
chair of electric technology, heat technology and renewable sources of energy
FSBEI HE «Kuban State Agrarian Univers ity named after I.T.Trubilin»,
Krasnodar, Russia
Kirichenko Anna Sergeevna
candidate of Engineering,
docent, chair of electric technology, heat technology and renewable sources of energy
FSBEI HE «Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T.Trubilin»,
Krasnodar, Russia
Armaganyan Edgar Garr ievich
postgraduate,
chair of electric technology, heat technology and renewable sources of energy
FSBEI HE «Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T.Trubilin»,
Krasnodar, Russia

Abstract. Problems of energy resources economy in everyday life, pro duction processes of industrial and
agricultural production are considered. The effective means of f uel resources saving and environmental protection
with the use of solar heat supply systems are given. The article describes the increasing of technical and economic
research importance to determine the optimal parameters and structure of solar heat pump i nstallations, the type
of technical scheme and the profile of the equipment at the stages of a project work. There was set out the dif -
ferent methods of eff iciency assessment in energetic, thermodynamic analysis and its disadvantages.
Exergoeconmic method is offered instead of it, its peculiarities in common case of exergoeconomic optimization
using exergic coefficient of efficiency are considered.
Keywords : energy resources, economy, solar heat supply systems, heat pumps, exergy, exergy analysis,
optimizat ion, renewable energy, power plant, energy flux density, solar radiation, energy efficiency, conversion
factor

Introduction
Energy -saving technologies all ow us to use energy
with maximum efficiency. One of the effective means
of saving fuel resources and environmental protection
is the widespread use of solar heat supply systems,
which with the least losses make it possible to solve the
complex acute proble ms of energy supply, energy
conservation and environmental protection, the use of
heat pumps in such systems allows the full use of
renewable energy sources and low -potential heat
emissions from enterprises [4].
However, almost in all developed countries,
renewable energy development programs are being
formed and implemented [5,6 ], and interest in this
problem is closely linked to the environment, the
realization of the fact that the rapid exponential growth
of negative anthropogenic impact on the environme nt
leads to a significant deterioration of human living
conditions. Maintai ning this environment in a normal
condition becomes one of the priority goals of society.
Under these conditions, the previous narrow economic
assessment of various areas of technol ogy
development, technology management are clearly
insufficient, because th ey do not take into account
social and environmental aspects.
Many technical and other constraints must be
considered when designing and optimizing modern
solar heat pump systems. T his indicates a greater
complexity of internal and external connections in heat
pump systems and a tendency to their further
complication. [7].
There are different methods for evaluating the
efficiency of thermal power technologies based on
different coeff icients, indicators, etc., which do not
always have a clear physical meanin g and are not
applicable for comparing the performance of different
types of technologies.
Methods of thermodynamic analysis have been
used to assess the efficiency in the energy se ctor for a
long time. One of the drawbacks of the efficiency
indicators of this method is that the thermodynamic
losses, which are the greatest, are taken into account
together with the losses of mechanical, hydro - and
aerodynamic, chemical losses through thermal
insulation, with energy costs for their own needs,
etc.This leads to a progressive error and, as a
consequence, low objectivity of the results [8].
In contrast to the previously used methods of
thermodynamic analysis, the proposed exergy -
economica l method takes into account not only the
quantity but also the quality of e nergy flows, which
puts this method in the first place in its objectivity [9].
The practical side of the question
A feature of the exergy method is universality, this
is due to the fact that the use of exergy allows us to
estimate the stocks and flows of e nergy of all kinds,
included in the balance of any energy system, by the
single criterion of efficiency. This method is also
characterized by simplicity and clarity of methods of
analysis and calculation. Exergy economic method
shows the relationship betwe en exergy and technical
and economic characteristics of the system. The use of
exergy taking into account its relationship with the

48 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
economy, makes it relatively simple and unambiguo us
to solve another important issue – the choice of
efficiency criteria in the evaluation and optimization of
systems using renewable energy sources.
The calculation in the exergy -economic method is
divided into two components: exergy (determination of
exe rgy flows) and economic (cost assessment of these
flows).
Theoretical Analy sis
The exergy of a substance in a closed volume with
thermodynamic parameters U, S, T, p and V is
determined by the ratio [10]
eV= (U-U0)−Т0(S-S0)+р0(V-V0), (1)
where eV – specific ( per unit of mass) exergy of
substance; U0, S0, T0, p0, V0 – external energy,
entropy, temperature, pressure and volume of substance
at full balance of the analyzed system with
environment. Formula (1) expresses exergy of
substance in a closed volume in a process completing
with leveling of appropriate parameters of the system
and environment. When calculating the exergy of the
working body (exergy carrier) in a closed system in two
different conditions, the equation (1) is reduced to th e
form
ΔeV= ΔU−Т0ΔS+р0ΔV , (2)
where ΔU, ΔS, ΔV, - change of parameters of
substa nce at transfer from one condition into another.
The need to determine the exergy in a closed
volume occurs most often in the calculation of periodic
processes and i nstallations of periodic action, in which
the working fluid does not go beyond this system .
However, in practice, the majority of chemical and
technological processes are continuous, stationary and
accompanied by movements of material and energy
flows. The refore, such problems are associated with the
determination of the exergy of the substance in the
flow. Its thermo -mechanical component is given by
eТ= q−Т0(S−S0) , (3)
where q – specific heat flow transmitting by
substance; S – entropy of substan ce in flow.
For ideal gases, thermomechanical exergy is
defined by
eТ= Ср(Т-Т0)−Т0[Ср⋅ln(Т
Т0)]−R⋅ln(р
р0), (4)
where Ср – specific substance heat capacity, р and
Т – pressure and temperature of substance in flow; R –
gas constant.
The functioning of heat power system to some
extent depends on energy exchange with the
environment. When energy is transferred fro m one
body to another and to the energy medium in the form
of heat flow (thermal conductivity), a certain amount of
exergy is transferred with it [10].
If the heat receiver is an environment with
temperature T0, the specific exergy of the heat flow
having temperature T is
eТ= q(1-Т0Т) , (5)
Тв= 1−(Т0Т) , (6)
Value Тhigh is called exergic temperature
At T < T0 th e flow directions are opposite: thermal
flow - moves from the environment (negative), exergy
flow - always to the environment (positive).
In many thermal power systems, especially in
high -temperature systems, the exchange of energy in
the form of radiation with other objects and the
environment plays an important role. The exergy of
radiation is given by
eε= εk[3⋅(3Т4+Т04−4Т0Т3)] , (7)
where e ε-specific exergy per unit area of emitting
surface; ε and T - the degree of blackness and
temperatur e; T0 -environmental temperature; k -
Boltzmann constant.
In general case of exergy economic optimization,
when changing the parameters, structure and single -
element composition of the power plant need to take
into account the technical and economic charac teristics
of the system.
Exergy balance in the form of equation allows to
find quantitative performance indicators of the
analyzed energy chemical -tech nological system (CTS).
Among these indicators, the most common exergy
efficiency ηе, determined by the r atio of
ηе= ∑ЕП.Э. ∑ЕЗ= ∑ЕЗ−∑ΔЕО.С.П
∑ЕЗ , (8)
where ΣЕ exergy flows – resultant of exergy flows
reflecting the useful effect from functioning the system,
ΣЕ costs – full expenses of exergies to achievement of
desired effect.
For an ideal , completely reversible process in
which there are no losses, ηе = 1; if the summed exergy
is completely lost in the process, then ηе = 0. In real
processes, the inequality is always observed: 0< ηе <1,
the higher is the numerical value of ηе, the more
the rmodynamically perfect system is. It also follows
from the formula (8) that the difference between exergy
causing a useful effect and exergy costs is always equal
to the total loss of exergy from the irreversibility of
processes occurring in the system.
Th us, the exergy efficiency is general in nature.
The specific expression for ηе depends on the purpose
and characteristics of the analyzed process and the
types of interaction o f flows. For example, using the
concept of "transit" exergy EPR (quantity is not
changed in the system), equation of ηе takes the form
ηе= ∑(Еi″−ЕiТР)+∑(Ех,j″−Ех,jТР)+∑Ех,l″l j i
∑(Еi′−ЕiТР)+∑(Ех,j′−Ех,jТР)+∑Ех,f′f j i , (9)
where lower indices mean: i – all types of exergy,
except chemical; х – chemical exergy; j – components
of substance, simultaneously present in input and
output flows; l – new substances forming in the system;
f – substances completely turning into other s ubstances.
Solar heat supply using heat pumps
Let’s consider the scheme of solar heat supply
(Fig.1). Solar energy falls to the surface of collector
where it turns into useful heat transmitting by first
circular circuit in a tank -accumulator for mitering of
daily fluctuations of a heat carrier temperature, from
where the heat is taken to the second circuit of the
coolant directly supplying the heat consumer. This
division into two independent circuits allows to smooth
short -term temperature and solar radi ation intensity
differences effectively as well as to use a smaller

American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 49

(relative to the volume in the combined circuit) volume
of a higher quality coolant in the circuit taking heat
from the solar collector, such as Ecosol (which is
important due to its high cost), and in the circuit feeding
the consumer - runn ing water.
This system is easy to operate, but has one
significant disadvantage, limiting the possibility of its
widespread use. In the case of a few cloudy days, when
the arrival of solar radiation on t he radiation -perceiving
surface is small, there may b e a significant decrease in
water temperature in the storage tank.
The energy in such a system is transferred from
the solar collector, in which it is concentrated and has a
maximum temperature potential to the consumer
gradually losing density.
The increa sing thermotransformer is used to avoid
reducing the water temperature at a consumer, the
schematic diagram of solar heating supply with
increasing thermal transformers is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 1.System of solar heat supply:1 – solar collector, 2 – tan k-accumulator, 3 – consumer, 4,5 –circulation
circuits, 6 -9 – heat exchangers, 10,11 – circulation pumps

Fig. 2. System of solar heat supply with increasing thermotransformer: 1 – solar collector, 2 – tank -
accumulator, 3 – consumer, 4 -6 –circulation cir cuits, 7 -10 – heat exchangers, 11 – increasing
thermotransformer, 12 -14 – circulation pumps

In such a system, the heat received by the surface
of the solar collector is transferred to the coolant
circulating in the first circuit, which gives heat to the
storage tank, from where it is taken by the second
circuit. From the s econd circuit, the heat enters the
raising thermal transformer, which uses electricity to
increase the temperature of the third circuit coolant due
to the heat received from the second c ircuit coolant.
This system allows the use of energy obtained
even fro m scattered solar radiation. However, it is
necessary that the inflow of thermal energy or its supply
covers the needs of the consumer, otherwise the coolant
may be supercooled in the fi rst circuit, which will lead
to the failure of the entire solar heatin g system.
The energy in such a system is transferred from
the solar collector to the increasing thermal
transformer, which increases its thermal potential, and
from the thermal transform er - to the consumer.
In the long -term forecast for cloudy days, toget her
with the solar collector, a heat pump can serve as a
source of heat energy.
Heat pump "air -water" uses low -potential heat of
the environmental air and electricity to convert it into
heat energy of greater density, that is, increasing the
temperature of the coolant in the first circulation circuit.
Scheme of the thermal pump heat supply system
is shown on Fig. 3.

50 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
Fig. 3. System of heat pumping heat supply:1 – air heat pump, 2 – tank-accumulator, 3 – consumer, 4,5 –
circulation circuits, 6 -8 – heat exchangers, 9,10 – circulation pumps

In this scheme, the heat of the environmental air is
taken away by the heat pump evaporator, converted into
a heat pump using electricity, transferre d to the primary
coolant by the heat pump condenser. The heat from the
first circuit is transferred to the storage tank, similar to
the solar heating system, but in the heat pump system,
the storage tank is used only as a heat storage device,
and the syste m can operate freely wit hout it,
compensating temperature changes in the
environmental air by increasing electricity
consumption.
The thermal pump heat supply system can be used
with increasing thermal transformer (Fig.4), which is
used in cases where envi ronmental temperature is so
low that the evaporator of the heat pump during
intensive operation forms an ice crust and reducing heat
consumption can prevent it.
If renewable resources are used as sources, a stable
and permanent source of energy supply may be
required. An electric water heater is used as a backup
power source in the solar heat pump system, the scheme
of backup heat supply is shown in Fig. 5.
It is rational to use the combined system of solar -
heat pump thermal supply with a backup source
(ele ctric water heat er) and increasing thermal
transformer for the most effective use of the solar
energy potential (Fig. 6)

Fig. 4. System of heat pump heat supply with the increasing thermotransformer:1 – heat pump, 2 – tank -
accumulator, 3 – cons umer, 4 -6 –circulation circuits, 7 -9 – heat exchangers, 10 – increasing
thermotransformer, 11 -13 – circulation pumps

Fig. 5. System of heat supply with the use of electrical water heater: 1 – electrical water heater, 2 – tank -
accumulator, 3 – consumer, 4 – circ ulation circuit, 5,6 – heat exchangers, 7 – circulation pump

American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 51

Fig. 6. System of solar -heat pump heat supply with a reserve source of electrical supply (electrical water heater)
and the increasing thermotransformer: 1 – solar collector, 2 – heat pump, 3 – electric water heater, 4 – tank -
accumulator, 5 – consumer, 6 -9 –circulation circuits, 10 -13 – heat exchangers, 14 – increasing
thermotransformer, 15 -18 – circulation pumps

Optimization of ener getic installation
Optimization of heat power plant is the
determination of the best of all possible variants of the
system with respect to the chosen criterion of its
efficiency. Complex system of optimization is aimed at
selection of such values of syst em parameters
(technological, constructive, etc.), which would
provide optimal or close to optimal values of efficiency
criterion [10].
In general formulation the optimization problem is
solved as follows, consider the energy system which
consists of n ele ments of different m parameters. The
system is homogeneous and linear. The optimization
problem consists in such a distribution of heating flows
C=(C1+C2+...+SP) that the total thermal energy costs
in the system will be minimal [10,11]
ΣZi=Z Σmin , (10)
Where — thermal electrical costs on i component
of the system.
At the same time, there are many possible
thermoelectric costs in the system
Z{Zіp(p)}, (11)
The set can be divided into k subsets. At each
intermediate stage p, you must select a flow for w hich:
Zіp(p)∈Z{Zіp(p)}. (12)
It is necessary to find a way of flow compatibility
to fulfill the conditions of optimization
С̄= (С0(0),С1(1),...,Ср(р),С[n−(p−1)] (k) , (13)
for which
Zіp(p)= Zmin(p), 14)
where — minimal thermal energetic costs for the
stage p.
Consider the schematic dia grams of the exergy
flow systems: solar heating (Fig.8), solar heat supply
using a step -up thermal transformer (Fig.9), heat pump
(Fig.10), heat pump heat supply with increasing
thermal transformer (Fig.11), heat supply f rom the
electric water heater (Fig. 12).
In this distribution scheme the exergy coming
from the sun is partially reflected and partially absorbed
by the radiant surface of the solar collector, the exergy
obtained by the radiant surface of the solar collecto r is
transferred to the heat exchan ger, where it is partially
dissipated as a result of the thermal imperfection of the
of heat exchangers design of the solar collector, the
remaining part enters through the heat exchanger of the
storage tank into the cool ant. In the storage tank, a part
of exergy is lost as a result of heat loss to the
environment, and this part is dissipated due to
imperfections in the design of heat exchangers, the
remaining part is transferred to the heat exchangers of
the consumer, whe re it is also partially dissipated. As a
result, the consumer receives only a part of the energy
that came to the surface of the solar collector.
Unlike the previous scheme of heat supply, when
using a thermal transformer, the consumer receives a
greater a mount of exergy, since exergy of so lar
radiation combined with electrical exergy spent on
exceeding the temperature potential of the coolant.
In this distribution scheme, the exergy coming
from the ambient air and from the power supply is
partially dissipa ted as a result of the imperfection of the
heat pump installation, the rest is transferred to the heat
exchanger, where it is partially dissipated as a result of
the thermal imperfection of the solar collector heat
exchangers design, the remaining part ent ers through
the heat exchanger of t he storage tank to the heat
carrier. In the battery tank, a part of the exergy is lost
as a result of heat loss to the environment, and the part
is dissipated due to imperfections in the design of the
heat exchangers, the remaining part is transferred to t he
heat exchangers of the consumer, where it is also
partially dissipated.
When using a thermal transformer, the consumer
receives a greater amount of exergy but also spends
more resources on it.
Analyzing the presented schemes it is necessary to
note the possibilities of each of them from energy,

52 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
economic and environmental points of view. A feature
of each scheme is the presence of different flows and
losses of exergy in them, where each option de pending
on the conditions can be used, both independently a nd
in combination with the others.

Fig. 8. Principal scheme of solar heat supply exergy system currents:1 – solar collector, 2 – heat exchanger of
solar collector, 3,5 – heat exchangers -tank -acc umulator, 4 – tank -accumulator, 6 – heat exchanger of a con sumer,
EПЭР – exergy obtained from Sun, E К – exergy of a heat carrier of a solar collector, E БА 1, E БА 2 – exergy
inputting and outputting from the tank -accumulator, E П – exergy transmitting to a con sumer, E Т1 – exergy
transmitting to a heat exchanger from s olar collector, E Т2 – exergy transmitting by a heat exchanger of a tank -
accumulator , E Т4 – exergy transmitting to a heat exchanger of a consumer, E Т5 – exergy transmitting from a
heat exchanger to a tank -accumulator, ПК – losses of exergy in a solar colle ctor, ПБА – losses of exergy in a
tank -accumulator, ПТ 1 - ПТ 4 – losses of exergy in a heat exchanger
Fig. 9. Principal scheme of currents of exergy of the system of solar heat supply with the increasing
thermotransformer: 1 – solar collector; 2 – heat ex changer of a solar collector, a 3.5 – exchangers of a storage
tank, 6 – storage tank, 7 – heating therm al transformer, ESRL – exergy received from the sun, EC – exergy of the
heat carrier of the solar collector, ЕTA1, ЕTA2 – exergy flowing in and out of th e storage tank, EC is exergy
transmitted to the consumer, Еheat exchanger 1 – exergy supplied to the he at exchanger from the solar collector,
Еheat exchanger 2 – exergy transferred by heat exchanger solar collector, Еheat exchanger 3 – exergy transferred
from heat exchanger of storage tank to the solar collector, Еheat exchanger 4 – exergy supplied to heat exchanger
of the consumer, Еheat exchanger 5 – exergy transferred from the heat exchanger of the consumer to the tank -
battery, LC –loss of exergy in the solar collector, LTA – exergy losses in tank - accumulator, Lheat exchanger 1 –
Lheat exchanger 4 exerg y losses in heat exchanger
Fig. 10. Principal scheme of currents of exergy system of heat pump heat supply: 1 – heat pump, 2 – heat exchanger
of heat p ump, 3,5 – heat exchangers of a storage tank, 4 – storage tank, 6 – heat exchanger of a consumer, N ТН
– exergy obtained by heat pump from power supply, Ehigh – air exergy, Еheat exchanger – exergy of heat
exchanger of heat pump, ETA1, ET А2 – input and outp ut exergies from a storage tank, EC – exergy transmitted
to a consumer, Еheat exchanger 1 – exergy tran smitted to heat exchanger of heat pump, Еheat exchanger 2 –
exergy transmitted by heat exchanger of heat pump, Еheat exchanger 3 – exergy transmitted fro m heat exchanger
to solar collector, Еheat exchanger 4 – exergy transmitted to heat exchanger of a cons umer, Еheat exchanger 5 –
exergy transmitted from heat exchanger to storage tank, PC – exergy losses in heat pump, LTA – exergy losses in
tank -accumulato r, Lheat exchanger1 - Lheat exchanger4 – exergy losses in heat exchanger

American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 53

Fig. 11. Principal scheme of currents of exergy system of heat pump heat supply with increasing
thermotransformer: 1 – heat pump, 2 – heat exchanger of heat pump, 3,5 – heat exhcnag ers of storage tank, 4 –
storage tank, 6 – increasing thermal transformer, 7 – heat exchanger, Nhp – exe rgy obtained by heat pump from
power supply, Eair – air exergy, EHP – exergy of coolant of heat pump, ETA1, ET А2 – input and output exergies
from storage tank, EC – exergy transmitted to a consumer, Еheat exchanger 1 – exergy transmitted to coolant
from so lar collector, Еheat exchanger 2 – exergy transmitted by coolant of solar collector, Еheat exchanger 3 –
exergy transmitted from coolant of storage tank to solar collector, Еheat exchanger 4 – exergy transmitted to a
coolant of a consumer, Еheat exchanger 5 – exergy transmitted from a coolant to storage tank, LC – exergy losses
in heat pump, LT А – exergy losses in storage tank, Lheat exchanger 1 - Lheat ex changer 4 – exergy losses in heat
exchanger

Fig.12. Principal scheme of currents of exergy system of heat supply with electrical water heater: 1 – electrical
water heater, 2 – storage tank, 3,4 – heat exchangers of storage tank and heatechanger of a cons umer, NE –exergy
obtained from power supply, ETA1, ET А2 – input and output from accumulator tank, EL – exergy transmitted to
a consumer, Еheat exchanger 1 – exergy transmitted by heat exchanger of a consumer, Еheat exchanger 2 – exergy
transmitted by heat e xchanger of a consumer, EL – exergy losses in electrical water heater, TAL – exergy losses
in tank accu mulator, Lheat exchanger 1, Lheat exchanger 2 – exergy losses in heat exchanger

Optimization of the heat power plant operation on
the basis of exergy a nalysis is carried out with the help
of target functions [12]. Usually the given monetary
costs per unit of exergy of the product or the amount of
specific exergy costs are used. In practice, the second
of these functions is widely used. In general, the ra te
used to find the optimization of the heat power plant
parameters has the following form
min{m}CПР = min{m}{(∑Ce,iEi+EK)
∑EПР,j } (15)
where Се ,i and Сproduce – exergy unit cost of raw
and commodities; Ei and Eproduce,j – their exergy; C
– capital investment costs; {m} – aggregate of
parameters which optimize the system operation.
Formula (15) states dependently on heat power plant
structure and conditions of its functioning.
To find the optimal variant, the Bellman – Calab
algor ithm is used which is based on the analysis of
adjacency matrices [11].
Exergy evaluation is carried out at the level of
system components using the following criteria for the
K-component:
ED.K. – absolute exergy destruction
ED.K.= EF.K−EP.K−EL.K , (16)
εK — exergy efficacy
εK= EP.KEF.K= 1−ED.K.−EL.K EF.K ; (17)
yK — relative exergy destruction
yDK = ED.K EF.tot . (18)
Criterion of exergcal and economic analysis
exergy heat cost
СF.K= CF.KEF.K , (19)
exergy product cost
СP.K= CP.KEP.K , (20)
cost connected with exergy destruction
СD.K= CF.K⋅ED.K , (21)
cost connected with exergy losses
СL.K= CF.K⋅EL.K . (22)
capital investment costs ZKCl,
operation and service costs ZOM .
sum of two last components
ZK= ZKCl+ZKOM ; (23)
relative cost difference
rk= CP.K−CF.K CF.K = 1−εkεk + zk CF.KEP.K, (24)
exergic and economic factor
Zіp(p)∈Z{Zіp(p)}. . (25)
The value depend s on the relative position of the
system component and its relationship to previous and
subsequent components.
When the appropriate cost functions are set, the
optimal energy efficiency cost for the k component is
approximately determined as

54 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
εKОПТ = 1
1+Fk , (26)
at
Fk= ((β+yk)Bknk
τcF.KEP,k1−mk)
1nk+1 , (27)
where β — factor of capital restoration; —
coefficient taking into account the fixed part of
operational and service costs, which depends on capital
investments a ssociated with K component; and —
constants which are used to determine functions and —
average yearl y time of system operation at nominal
efficiency.
Exergy economic analysis and evaluation indicate
and compare the real sources of value in the system,
det ermine the optimal value at which each product
flow.
The energy conversion system operation cost is
logically determined, m.u./ kW,
Z= ZCl= Zfuel +ZOM , (28)
The economic model of this exergy -transforming
system represents the general solution of the equations
system:
Capital (investment) cost of the system, m.u. / kW,
ZCl= aā1
tА , (29)
for every element of the system:
ZСl= aКхКn(1−b)y
Nk , (30)
Costs for initial energy for system functioning,
m.u./ kW,
Zfuel = wcF , (31 )
Operation and service cost, m.u. / kW,
ZOM = b1
tA+d , (32)
Depreciation deductions, m.u./kW,
a= qn(1−q)
qn−1 (1+ i+r
100
CP
2) , (33)
Coefficient of discounting
q−1= (1+i+t+v
100 )−1, (34)
Symbols taken in formulas 16 -34:
CF , — heat cost, (m.u. /kW); α — investment cost
(/kW); d – opertiona and service costs which depend on
used technics (m.u./kW); b — service costs which
depend on fixed pow er (m.u./kW); i — bank interest of
investment costs to system development (%/year; r —
inflation coefficient (%/year); n — lifetime of the
object (year) ; СР — time of the object’s development
(year) ; — annual taxes (% / year); v — annual
insurance (% / y ear); х — description of k element, а
— equipment costs; n and y — function rates; N —
operation period.
Conclusion
In the general case, exergoeconomic optimization
criterion has the form
ZΣ= ∑ CnEn n +Kn ∑ EK K , (35)
where Cn, — cost and annual exergy consumption
from external sources; Kn — annual capital and
connected w ith it costs in n elements of the system; EK
— annual exergy costs for obtaining K product.
ZОПТ = extr {Z(xj)},xj∈Rn, (36)
where Rn — n actual vectorial space.
The purpose of the complex optimization system
is to select the values of such syste m parameters
(technological, constructive, etc.), which would
provide optimal or close to optimal values of the
efficiency criterion
Exergoeconomic approach also all ows to solve the
problem relating to the thermal transformers, namely
environmental problem . In terms of exergy,
environmental impact is the work done by the system
in the environment.
All the exergy that is introduced into already
constructed system is ca lled fuel exergy (not related to
the development of equipment).
E= ∫ Eexp (−λτ)dτ≈ E[1−exp (−λτe)] τ
0 =
E(τe)= E(τe)τλτe[1−exp (τeτλ)] , (37)
where τλ - normal time of discounting reversed to
degree of discounting λ ; τe - full lifetime of the system.
In thermal economics, t he value λ can vary both in
the direc tion of decrease and increase.
In thermoecology, the change in magnitude
depends on two factors:
λ - decreases with the use of traditional non -
renewable energy sources, as natural resources,
regardless of the place of their extraction, are generally
exhaus tible;
λ - increases with the use of non -traditional energy
sources.

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АНАЛИЗ ТЕХНИКО -ЭКОНО МИЧЕСКИХ ИССЛ ЕДОВАНИЙ ОПТИМАЛЬНЫХ ПАРАМЕТРОВ
СОЛНЕЧНЫХ ЭНЕРГЕТИЧЕ СКИХ УСТАНОВОК

Амерханов Роберт Александрович
доктор технических наук, профессор, кафедра электротехники,
теплотехники и возобновляемых источников энергии
ФГБОУ ВО «Кубанский государственный аграрный у ниверситет
имени И.Т. Трубилина », Краснодар, Россия
Кириченко Анна Сергеевна
кандидат технических наук, доцент, кафедра электротехники,
теплотехники и возобновляемых источников энергии
ФГБОУ ВО «Кубанский государственный аграрный университет
имени И.Т. Трубилина», Краснодар, Россия
Ар маганян Эдгар Гарриевич
аспирант, кафедра электротехники,
теплотехники и возобновляемых источников энергии
ФГБОУ ВО «Кубанский государственный аграрный университет
имени И.Т. Трубилина», Краснодар, Россия

Аннотация . Рассм атриваются вопросы экономии энергетических ресурсов в быту, производственных
процессах промышленного и сельскохозяйственного производства. Приводятся эффективные средства
экономии топливных ресурсов и защиты окружающей среды с использованием солнечных сист ем