A systematic analysis of the state of the art in the methods for enhancing processes of thermochemical treatment of oil is carried out. A new method and a new system for controlling the process of dynamic settling of oil emulsion (OE) is developed, which allows increasing the efficiency of managing the process of dynamic settling by more accurately measuring the degree of phase separation, while avoiding the process of “flooding”. The mechanism of formation of an electrical double layer around emulsified water droplets (EWD) and the interaction energy of these droplets as a distance function is shown. An adequate mathematical model of hindered settling of EWD is proposed. It is shown that OE and intermediate emulsion layer (IEL) can be broken down by using microwave radiation. By virtue of this, the authors develop a new method, algorithm and system for automatic measurement of the water cushion level and the thickness of the İEL in settlers based on measuring the optical density of oil. Скачать в формате PDF
36 American Scientific Journal № ( 40) / 2020

УДК 62.1/9


A.H. Rzayev 1
D. S c. in Engineering, Professor
R.Sh. Asadova 1
Сand. Sc., Associate Professor
V.M. Haqverdiyev 2
Deputy Chief of Office of Science and Education
of National A cademy of Sciences of Azerbaijan 1Institute of Control Systems, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Azerbaijan 2 Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Corresponding author: R. Sh. Asad ova, Сand. Sc.,
Associate Profess or, Institute of Control Systems of ANAS,
Baku , Azerbaijan


Ab .H. Rzayev 1
R.Sh . Asadova 1
V.M.Haqverdiyev 2 1Институт Систе м Управления НАНА 2Национальна я Академия Наук Азербайджана 2Национальная Академия Наук Азербайджана
DOI: 10.31618/asj.2707 -9864.2020.2.40.22
Abstarct . A systematic analysis of the state of the art in the methods for enhancing processes of
thermochemical treatment of oil is carried out. A new method and a new system for contr ollin g the process of
dynamic settling of oil emulsion (OE) is developed, which allows increas ing the efficiency of managing the process
of dynamic settling by more accu rately measuring the degree of phase separation, while avoiding the process of
“floodin g”. T he mechanism of formation of an electrical double layer around emulsified water droplets (EWD)
and the interaction energy of these droplets as a distance function i s shown. An adequate mathematical model of
hindered settling of EWD is proposed. It is shown that OE and intermediate emulsion layer (IEL) can be broken
down by using microwave radi ation. By virtue of this, the authors develop a new method, algorithm and s ystem
for automatic measurement of the water cushion level and the thickness of the İEL in s ettlers based on measuring
the optical density of oil.
Аннотация. Проведен системный анализ современного состояния методов интенсификации
процессов термохимической подгото вки нефти. Разработ ан новый способ и система управления
процессом динамического отстоя нефтяной эму льсии (НЭ), позволяющий повысить эффективность
управления процессом динамического отстоя путем более точного измерения уровня раздела фаз, не
допуская проц есса «захлебывания». Показан механизм образования двойного электрического слоя вок руг
эмульгированны х водяных капель (ЭВК) и энергии взаимодействия этих капель как функции расстояний.
Предложена адекватная математическая модель стесненного отстоя ЭВК. Пок азано, что с использ ованием
микроволнового излучения, можно разрушить НЭ и промежут очного эмульсион ного слоя (ПЭС ). На
основании чего разработан новый способ, алгоритм и система автоматического измерения уровня водяной
подушки и толщины ПЭС в отстойных аппаратах, основанн ый на измерении оптической плотности нефти.
Keywords: Oil emulsion, Settler, Water cushion , Intermediate emulsion layer, Dynamic settlin g.
Ключевые слова: Нефтяная эмульсия, отстойный аппарат, водяная подушка, промежуточный
эмульсионный слой, динамический отстой

1. Introduction
Treatment of oil in oilfields occupies an
intermediate position among the main processes
associated with the extraction, gathering and
transportation of commercial oil to the consumer
(refineries or for export). The efficiency and reliability
of the main pipeline transport and the price of
commerc ial oil depend on how the oil is treated in the
extraction area. In particular, the content of water and
aqueous solutions of mineral salts in oil results in
increased transportation costs , causes the formation of
stable oil emulsions (OE), creates difficu lties in oil
refining due to accelerated development of equipment
corrosion and catalyst poisoning in the oil cracking
It has been established practically that oil
demulsificatio n without the use of heat and surfactants
(demulsifiers) is not part icu larly effective. T herefore,

American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 37

currently, about 80% of all oil extracted with water is
treated at thermochemical plants. The difficulty of oil
treatment is due to the fact that reservation shells that
are adsorption layers of polar oil components, which
consi st of asphaltenes, naphthenates, microcrystals of
refractory paraffins, solid particles of mineral and
carbonaceous suspensions, metal porphyrin complexes
that give OE high stability, f orm on the surface of
emulsified water droplets (EWD) [1 - 4]. And he at and
chemical agent s (demulsifiers) are used in the
thermochemical treatment plant (TCTP) to break the
reservation shells (RS).
The enhancement of the oil treatment process
(dehydration and desalting) requires a complete
breakdown of these RS before the settlers that work i n
a dynamic mode, leading to the coalescence and settling
of EWD [4]. However, in the field environment, a
complete breakdown of RS of EWD is impossible by
means of th ermochemical treatment of OE alone. As a
result, an intermediate emu lsion layer (IEL) for ms in
the settler of TCTP, which consists of concentrated
EWD (water content of up to 70%) with a high content
of heavy surfactants (mainly asphaltenes) of oil. In thi s
case, the IEL concentrates on the oil -water interface
(hanging bea rd) [5-9], excessive increase of which can
lead to the "flooding" of the settler.
2. Problem statement
Our studies have revealed that the enhancement of
TCTP processes is closely linked to t he effective
management of IEL, which leads to an improvement in
the qu ality of the proce ss of dynamic settling of EWD
in the settler, since, as noted in our previous studies [5 -
9], IEL is a hydraulic filter that contributes to the
effectiveness of collisi ons, coalescence and settling of
Therefore, investigating the s pec ific
characteristi cs of IEL, identifying control actions that
lead to an increase in the effectiveness of IEL and
enhancing TCTP processes as a whole is a relevant
problem, to which thi s paper is devoted.
3. Solution
A system analysis of TCTP processes has
identified the follo wing IEL parameters:
– thickness of the layer;
– formation of an electric double layer around
EWD of OE;
– collision frequency of the droplets;
– hindered settling of EWD.
4. Thickness of IEL
The value of this parameter is characterized by t he
content of asph altenes in oil (optical oil density) and
aggregate stability of OE. Due to the importance of this
parameter, we propose in this paper a new method and
a new system for automatic measurement of the level
of water cushion (WC) and the thick ness of IEL in the
settler that operates in a dynamic mode (Fig.1).
The essence of the proposed method is illustrated
by Fig.1. Fig.1, a shows the histogram of the change in
the concent ration of asphaltenes along the height of the
settler , where: hWC is th e level of WC; ߊైౄో౤ ĉĖČ ߊైౄో౓ are
the thickness of the concentrated and the transition IEL,
respectively; hO is the height of the oil layer; Ka is the
concentration of asphaltenes, h is the height of the
settler . Fig.1, b shows the diagram of automatic
meas urement of the degree of phase separation, which
includes: 1 – OE supply line into the settler; 2 – settler
(can be any shape); 3 – settled water drainage line; 4 –
WC ; 5 – IEL; 6 – oil layer; 7 – dehydrated oil discharge
line; 8 – infra -red radiator (IRR) – J0;
Ѐ஻ɧЀ஼ɧЀ஽ɧЀாɧЀிɧЀீ– IRR sensors;
Ѐ஻ቷɧЀ஼ቷɧЀ஽ቷɧЀாቷɧЀிቷɧЀீቷ– receivers – Ji – IRR; 9 – signal
converter J0; 10 – sig nal converter Ji; 11 – registration
and indication blo ck (RIB).
The sys tem operates as fo llows.
Radiation from source 8 through sensors
81,82….8 6 installed at equal intervals along the height
of the settler goes through the layer of oil emulsion. Part
of t he radiation energy is absorbed, and the remaining
part is fed to the i nputs of sensors Ѐ஻ቷɧЀ஼ቷɫɫ Ѐீቷ of the
radiation receiver. The signals fro m the output of the
radiation sensors are received in block 10, where they
are converted into corre sponding signals, based on
which the actual concentration of asphaltene s in
different pha ses is calculated in RIB – 11, according to
the following algorithm:
ޫౢි 0ɧ434 ߎౢ޳la
ެౢි ߎ߉ ޲0
К౥ౚ ි 1ɧ36М
where Di is the optical density of fluid between the
i-the sensor and the i1 receiver; J0 and Ji are the intensity
of incident light (through the sensors
Ѐ஻ɧЀ஼ɧЀ஽ɧЀாɧЀிɧЀீ) and the intensity of the light
transmitted through the medium to the receivers
(Ѐ஻ቷɧЀ஼ቷɧЀ஽ቷɧЀாቷɧЀிቷɧЀீቷ), respectively; li is the distance
between the pair of sensors i and r eceivers i'; Кla is the
coefficient of light absorbtion of asphaltenes; М is the
molecular weight of asphaltenes.
Then the histogram is built (Fig.1, a), which is
used to determine the degree of phase sep aration (WC -
IEL an d IEL -oil).
The technical effect o f the proposed method and
system is to increase the efficiency of managing the
settling process, which consists in the high accuracy of
measuring the degree of phase separation, allowing one
to reliably c ontrol the settlin g process and completely
avoid the "flooding" process.
5. Formation of EDL around EWD
The stability of OE also largely depends on the
electrical charge on the EWD surfac e. This is due to the
fact that when two different phases (oil, water) come in
contact, a nd especially in case of their relative
movement on the interface, the transition of electric
charges from the phase with a higher value of electric
potential to the p hase with a smaller value of electric
potential occurs. This transition results in the fo rmation
of a charge in one phase and an equal but opposite
charge in another.

38 American Scientific Journal № ( 40) / 2020

Fig. 1. The method and the system for automatic measurement of the leve l of water cushion and the thickness of
IEL: a) the histogra m of the cha nge in the conc entration of asphaltenes along the height of the settler ;
b) optical measurement system of the above parameters

These opposite charges, due to mutual attraction,
rema in on the interface, forming an electric double
layer. It is clear from Fig. 2. that some counter -ions do
not have a stable connection with the surface and tend
to move away from it, forming a diffuse ionic
atmosphere around the particle. In addition to th e
attraction of ions of opposite polarity, the surface
charg e repels io ns of the same pol arity. The
manifestation of these opposing forces causes the
distribution of positive and negative ions, as the
diagram shows in Fig. 2, a. For EWD, according to
Koehn ’s rul e (which states that of two phases in
contact, the one with the g reater dielectric constant
becomes positively charged, i.e. for this reason,
substances in contact with water are negatively
charged), the surface charge is negative and exchange
cation s (asphaltenes) act as counterions.
The distribution of ions in the EDL makes the
potenti al change from the maximum on the surface of
EWD to zero in the bulk of the oil solution (see Fig. 2,

ВП ߊ̤̲̦౤ ߊ̤̲̦̤ h
н h
WC ߊైౄో౤ ߊైౄో౓ h


American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 39

Fig. 2. Electrical double layer on the surface of EWD:
a – model of the diffuse part of the electrical double layer; b – diagra m illustrating ζ-pot ential:
1 – fluid potential; 2 – Nernst potential; 3 – potential of the solid; 4 – solid; 5 – shear plane;
6 – adsorption part of ED; 7 – diffuse part of EDL; 8 – ζ-potential; 9 – bulk solution;
10 – distance from the solid; c – diagram of mutual repulsion of two EWD with identical surface charges:
W – dispersed phase (water droplet); O – dispersed phase (oil)

The cationic layer closest to the EWD surface,
known as t he “Stern layer”, is bound to the particle and
travels with it, while the ions in the diffu se part of the
EDL have independent mobility.
As is clear from Fig. 2, c, when two EWDs with
identical surface charges approach each other, a
repulsive force emerges , therefore, dispersed EWDs
with EDL lead to the stability of OE.
Alon gside with the electr ic repulsion force (޽౞౥)
between the EDL of the same polarity, the long -range
Van der Waals -London dispersion force (޽ృ) also
exists between EWD. The stabil ity of OE, in addition
to the above factors, also depends on the pol arity and
magnitude o f the interaction, which is the s um of these
forces: ޽ි ޽౞౥+޽ృɪ
To determine the force of attraction ޽ృ for a pair
of identical spheres, Hamaker obtain ed the expression
in the following form [10]:
޽ృි ీ
6 [ 2౫2
ేൔ2 ] ɧ (1)
where ߔ is the radius of the sphere; ް౜ is the
distance between the centers of the spheres; А is the
Hamaker -London constant.
Theoretical calculations of A show that i ts values
for liquids range from 1.5•10 -13 erg for oil to 0.5•10 -12
erg for water. However, in order to use formula (1) for
semi -dispersed colloidal systems, which OE is, it is
necessary t o take into account the arithmetic mean
value of the size (volume) o f the pair of EWD. Fo r this
purpose, the following formula for the distribution of
emulsified water by size proposed by us [11] can be
߈(ߔ)ි 18 ޿ް2ࡪ౨2
ߔ4޼2߉2(࡯౰−࡯౨)2޴2дexp (− 3ްࡪ౰
޼߉ (࡯౰−࡯౨)ߔ2޴
where ޴ is the distance between particles; ޿ is
volume fraction of water in OE; Н is the height of the
level of OE; Т is the time constant; ߉ is the gravity
acceleration; ߔ is the radius of EWD. The repulsive
forces (energies) of EWD surrou nded by EDL can be
dete rmined by the Derjaguin -Landau formula [ϹϹ ]:
޾౞౥ි ࡮ࡣ ࡣ஺߆ࡶ஺஼ߎߐ[Ϲ+߇௅ಪేಲ]
where ް஺ is the distance between spherical
surfaces; ࡻ is the d istribution of ions in a diffusion
electrical double layer (the re ciprocal of the ion clo ud
radius); ࡶ஺ is the particle surface potential; ߆ is the
particle diameter; ࡣ is the relative dielectric permittivity
of the outer phase (water at 25 0C; ࡣි ϿЁ); ࡣ஺ is the
absolute dielectric permittivity ࡣ஺ි ЀɧЀϽϼϺ д
Ϲϸ ௅஻஼ ީ޻ ʆ޾౦.
The superimposition of electrostatic and
dispersive interactions is shown in Fig. 3. The values of
electrostatic repulsion energ y are indicated on the
upward ordinate a xis, and the values of attraction
energy on the downward ordinate axis. The abscissa
axis shows the distances between the particles [12 -14].
Fig. 3, b shows the secondary minima (potential wells)
of the EWD interacti on for various values of the surface
pot entials of EDL. The curve indicated by the dotted
line is the disp ersion energy of attrac tion .
In the point ߆஻, if the forces of attraction and
repulsion between particles decrease the mutual surface
potential, then the energy barrier (EB) decreases an d
the system will undergo slow coagulation. The
transition from hi gh stability through sl ow coagulation
to fast one (i.e., to the disappearance of EB) is
continuous without a sharp coagulation point. In this
point, the particles can join together, forming large
agglomerates. However, before they can get close
enough to e ach other, they must ov ercome the energy
barrier (EDL). As the curves show, with the ionic
strength ޲ි Ϲϸ ௅஽ĕėĔ дĔ௅஻ and the Hamaker constant
̕ි ϽдϹϸ ௅஻஽čĚď [14], the value of the surfa ce
potential ࡴ஺ 20mV is already sufficient to prevent
complete coagulation. According to the research
results, when the distance between the droplets is less
than 50 nm, the rapid thinning and rupture of the
interfacial film and the fusion (coalescence ) of the
droplets begin.

40 American Scientific Journal № ( 40) / 2020
In OE, unlike suspensions, during the in teraction
of EWD, two f actors should be considered, namely: the
possibility of distortion of the droplets during their
interac tion and the presence of a diffuse layer inside the
droplets the mselves. If the droplets stabilize due to the
repulsion of double layers, then a close ap proach (due
to turbulence and OE flow temperature) leads to the
flattening of the surfaces; the potenti al EB
counteracting the contact of the droplets (wedging
pressur e) will be greater than the estimated EB of
undeformed spheres. At the same time, the eff ective
radius of curvature increases. The effect of the inner
diffusion layer consists in the neutraliz ation of a portion
of the surface charge by inner counter -ions, leading to
a decrease in the surface potential. Therefore, for thi s
reason, the effect of EDL in a water -in-oil emulsion
will be relatively weaker than that in an oil -in-water

Fig . 3. The interaction energy as a distance function at:
a – A = 5 ∙10 -13 erg and J = 10 -3 mol∙l -1 and different surface potential: 1 – ψ0= 20mV; 2 – 50 mV;
b – А = 5∙10 -13 erg (to visualize secondary minima): 1 – ψ0 = 20 mV; 2 – 50 mV; 3 – 200 mV

As can be seen from Fig. 3, c, EWD interactions
occur at nanoscale distanc es. Besides the EDL theory,
there is also the solvation theory that explains the
relation ship between the high aggregate stability of OE
and the forma tion of a sufficiently powerful layer of DL
molecules on the EWD surface, which prevents particle
fusion d uring collision; and the theory of the structural -
mechanical b arrier, according to which the stability of
OE is determined by the formation of adsorpt ion layers
with high structural viscosity on the EWD surface.
6. Hindered settling of EWD
The settling of EW D in a concentrated
(intermediate layer) occurs in constrained conditions,
where, in addi tion to the viscous friction of the medium
(oil), numerous environmental droplets significantly
affect water droplets. At the same time, the settling
process does not comply with the Stokes formula for
determining the settling ve locity of a single solid
particle. To compare the mathematical description of
the process of hindered settling, various formulas were
proposed, in particular, Tema’s, Maude -Wit mer’s and
Happel’s formulas [13].
In [13], the calculations using the formulas of
these authors at W>0.05 showed conservative values of
the settling rate as compared to the experimental data.
In view of the above, based on the equation in [13], we
have ob tained the equatio n that adequately describes
the velocity of hindered settling of droplets from a
concentr ated layer:
ࡺ౤ි 1ɧ5ࡺ౜т(1−޿)5ʆ2дಙඛ௅(3ಙඛ௅ಙൔ)(1௄ొ)2௄2(ಙඛ௅ಙൔ)(1௄ొ)3
(3ಙඛ௄2ಙൔ)(1௄ొ)3 (2)
where ޳ ි อீɧ஼
ூౖ ɧ ವ ࡺ౜ි ஼
ಙൔ is the Stokes
equat ion for the settling rate of a single solid particle,
which is also applicable to calculating the settling rate
of a set of particles if ޿ ≤ ϸɧϸϽ ĉĖČ ߔ< หࡰʆ(߉х࡯)
In deriving equations (2), the following
assumptions were made:
a) the flow around pa rticles is viscous, proceeding
from the condition of smallness of the number ޺౞ි
ڭ Ϲ, and it is described in the first
approximation by the Stokes linear law (ޮிි
Ͼ ࡮ࡪಣߔࡺ౜͛ ɧࡺ౜͛ි ࡺ−ࡺ͘)
b) the droplets are strictl y spherical in shape. In the
case of their deformability, the form factor should be
introduced, and in the case of their polydispersity, they
should be considered fractionally;

American Scientific Journal № ( 40 ) / 2020 41

c) the average dista nce between particles with an
ordered arrangement is determ ined from the formula
ߎි Ϻߔдอீɧ஼
ூౖ ವ ;
d) the movement of the droplets is not affected by
the forces that cause their transport due to turbulent and
upward migrations, as well as electrostati c,
thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and other non -
hydrodyna mic forc es, with the exception of gravity
which causes the particles to settle;
e) on the surface of the droplet, the nonslip
condition is satisfied, i.e. the velocity of the fluid
should be equal to the average velocity of the droplets;
f) at the distance ࡟ע ߔ+ߎ౤ʆϺ, the determin ation
of velocity in a liquid medium obeys the condition
ࡺ౫ൔි ࡺ౤( 1
1−޿)౧߅ߑߕ ࡦ౜ ɧࡺಕൔි −ࡺ౤( 1
1−޿)౧ߕߋߐ ࡦ౜ ɧߎ౤ි ߎ−2ߔ
ࡺ౫ൔɧࡺಕൔare the normal and ta ngential components
of velocity.
7. Methods of enhancing the process of OE
Methods based on microwave radiation have been
widely used at oil refineries in recent years for the
breaking of heavy oil fractions, demulsification of OE,
viscosity reduction, asphaltene content an d enrichment
of the vacuum residue [14 -17]. The advantage of these
methods, compared to conventional thermal
breakdown, is that two phenomena occur
simultaneously duri ng microwave radiation. The first
phenomenon is due to an increase in temperature that
leads to a decrease in visco sity and coagulation, as a
result of which EWD are separated from oil without the
use of a chemical agent. The second phenomenon is
coagulati on.
High temperature and low viscosity makes the
coagulat ion process easier.
Besides, d uring microwave radiation, EWD rotate
and the zeta (࡬) potential decreases (see Fig. 2), which
leads to the enhancement of the process of dynamic

Fig. 4. Depende nce of the velocity of hindered settling on the volume f raction of droplets settling.

To increase the efficiency of the dynamic settling
of OE in the settler of TCTP, the system developed for
controlling and managing the processes of
thermochemic al oil tre atment can be used along with
microwave radiation. The system allows creating
artificial oscillatory motion (compression and
expansion) of IEL in the settler [18] and therefore
increasing the efficiency of the dynamic settling of OE.
8. Conclusions
A new met hod, an algorithm and a system for
automatic measureme nt of the water cushion level and
the thickness of the intermediate emulsion layer in
settlers based on measuring the optical density of oil are
proposed. It is shown that the main obstacle to
enhancing the process of coalescence and dynamic
settling of oi l emulsion is the electrical double layer on
the surfaces of emulsified water droplets (EWD). The
characteristics of the EWD interaction and the
estimates of the forces of attraction and repul sion of
these droplets are given. A formula for the distribution
of emulsified water by size is als o proposed.




0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 W
1 - Experimental weighted average curve;
2 - Happel’s e quation ; 3 - Equation (2) ;
4 - Ten’s equation ಩಩͚͛ි(Ϲ−޿)ಶ಺ ;
5 - ಩಩͚͛ි(Ϲ−޿)(Ϲ+Ϲɧϻ޿஻ʆ஽) ;
಩಩ ි (஼௅஽ౖ)಴

42 American Scientific Journal № ( 40) / 2020
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Victor Evseyevich Evzovich,
PhD in Technical Sciences,
Corresponding Mem ber of Public Academy of Quality Problems RF,
Mosc ow
Artur Samvelovich Barsegyian
Direct or of ООО “SP -Service”
(a service company for large -size tires),
Vladimir Efimovich Shekhter
Chief Technologist of Automobile Tire Production,
ООО “SP -Service ”.

Abstract . Giant OTR tires (GOTR) are not made i n Russia. The annual import of only 3 3.00R51 tires, which
are the most common in Russia, costs the country more than 10 billion rubles. The article considers a modular
method of GOTR tire production in tw o stages. The f irst stage – a GOTR manufacturing pla nt produces "modules"
i.e. incomplete tire blanks without tread, not fully vulcanized in a "smooth" (“slick”) mold without its working
surface engraving. The second stage – a Russian tire repair/retreadin g factory, loca ted closely to GOTR tires
consumers a ccomplishes assembly and vulcanizatio n of modular tires in a serial segmented mold or by a modified
moldless method used by tire repair/retreading plants. With minimum capital expenditures, the proposed m ethod
will rais e tire uniformity, efficiency and rep airability, will reduce the cost of t ires at mining enterprises and their
import dependence; improve environmental safety of production; it will contribute to the full utilization of existing