Американский Научный Журнал ENERGY SUPPLY OF AN ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDING UNDER USING THE SOLAR ENERGETIC INSTALLATION

Abstract. The analysis of the efficiency of the solar power plant for integrated power supply on the example of the building of mechanization and transport service (MTS) of the branch of PJSC “Kubanenergo” of the Sochi electric network in Sochi, provided partial replacement of energy received from existing networks of centralized heat and power supply. The calculation of parameters of heat and hot water supply system for a building MTS was made. There was estimated the economic feasibility of using agg hybrid solar power plant for integrated power supply of an administrative building in climatic conditions of Sochi. Скачать в формате PDF
40 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
параметры существующей системы
энергоснабжения здания. На основании этих
данных определяется количество и тип
применяемых ГКУ, а так же необходимый набор
приборов учета и контроля параметров ГКУ.

Список литературы:
1. Опыт использования НВИЭ в
рекреационном регионе г. Сочи/ П. В. Сади лов, В.
А. Леонов, К. А. Глазов и др. — В кн.:
Нетрадиционные и возобновляемые источники в
XXI веке: Материалы Международного
научнотехнического семинара. Сочи: РИО СГУТ и
КД, 2001.
2. Амерханов Р.А., Гарькавый К.А., Трубилин
А.И. Необходимость решения пр об лем экономии
энергетических ресурсов путем использования
современных энергосберегающих технологий /
Труды Кубанского госагроуниверситета, Выпуск
№ 3 (36). - Краснодар: КубГАУ, 2012. ISBN 5 -
94672 -211 -5. С. 281 -283.
3. Гончаров С. В., Чернявский А. А.
Пе рспективы использования солнечной энергии в
Российской Федерации. — Энергетическая
политика, 2001, Вып. 3 – С. 51 -59
4. ГОСТ Р ИСО/ТО 10217 -2010 Энергия
солнечная. Системы для подогрева воды.
Руководство по выбору материалов с учетом
внутренней коррозии в веден. 23 декабря 2010 г.,С.
6
5. РД 34.20.115 -90. Методические указания по
расчёту и проектированию систем солнечного
теплоснабжения. — М.: Минэнерго СССР, 1990.
Стр. 28
6. Гагарин В. Г. Об окупаемости затрат на
повышение теплозащиты ограждающих
констру кц ий зданий. — Новости теплосбережения,
2002, № 1. С. 3
7. Бутузов В. А. Анализ энергетических и
экономических показателей гелиоустановок
горячего водоснабжения. — Промышленная
энергетика. 2001. № 10. С. 54 -61

ENERGY SUPPLY OF AN ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDI NG UNDER USING THE SOL AR
ENERGETIC INSTALLATI ON

Amerkhanov Robert Alexandrovich
Doctor of Engineering, professor,
chair of electric technology, heat technology and renewable sources of energy
FSBEI HE «Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T.Trubili n»,
Krasnodar, Russia
Armaganyan Edgar Garrievich
postgraduate,
chair of electric technology, heat technology and renewable sources of energy
FSBEI HE «Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T.Trubilin»,
Krasnodar, Russia
Dvorniy Vladimir Viktorov ich
postgraduate,
chair of electric technology, heat technology and renewable sources of energy
FSBEI HE «Kuban State Agrarian University name d after I.T.Trubilin»,
Krasnodar, Russia

Abstract . The analysis of the efficiency of the solar power plant for integrated power supply on the example
of the building of mechanization and transport service (MTS) of the branch of PJSC “Kubanenergo” of the S ochi
electric network in Sochi, provided partial replacement of energy received from existing networks of centra lized
heat and power supply. The calculation of parameters of heat and hot water supply system for a building MTS was
made. There was estimated the economic feasibility of using agg hybrid solar power plant for integrated power
supply of an administrative building in climatic conditions of Sochi.
Keywords: renewable energy sources, solar energy, hybrid solar collector, energy supply, energy saving .

Introduction
Rising energy prices are forcing consumers to find
alternative sources of heat and electricity, one of which
is solar energy, which can be converted into a used by
a man form with the help of solar collectors and
photovoltaic panels.
The economic feasibility of construction of a solar
power supply system is mainly determined by costs of
equipment an d renewable energy.
The analysis of efficiency of solar energy system
for integrated power supply is ma de on the example of
the construction of mechanization and transport service
(MTS) of the branch of PJSC “Kubanenergo” of Sochi
electric networks, the ap pearance of which is shown in
Figure 1, it operates under the partial replacement of
energy received fr om existing networks of centralized
heat and power supply.

American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 41

Figure 1. The building of mechanization and transport service (MTS) of the branch of PJSC
“Kubanenergo” of Sochi electric networks in Sochi

Objec t of location
For calculation there was used the climatic data for
Sochi according to Building Codes and Regulations
(BCR) 2.04.05 -91 [1]:
Estimated summer temperature + 28 °C;
Estimated winter tempe rature + 4 °C;
Temperature of the coldest five -day period is 6 °C;
The heating period lasts 126 days.
The building of the mechanization and transport
service (MTS) of the branch of PJSC “Kubanenergo”
of Sochi electric networks in Sochi is made of
reinforce d concrete with insulation, the roof of th e
building is made of reinforced concrete slabs (1.5 x 6.0
m) with a heater made of claydite and several layers of
roofing felt (Figure 2), this design has sufficient
bearing capacity to accommodate solar collector s of the
power supply installation.

Figure 2. Roofing pie

42 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
The temperature inside the building during the
heating period should not fall below + 18 ° C.



Parameters of heat s upply system
The calculation of parameters of heating and hot
water supply system for the MTS building. According
to Table 1 the data of energy survey of the MTS
building are used for it.
Table 1
DATA OF SPECIFI C INDICATORS OF HEAT ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR HEATING,
VENTILATION AND HOT WATER SUPPLY PER 1 M 2

When calculating the solar heat supply system
(SHSS) and hot water is taken into account the year -
round operation. The heating capacity of solar heat
supply system and hot water annual period of its
op eration (QS) is determined by the equation:
(1)
where f - share of total average annual heat load
from solar energy 2.5%; Q – total annual load of heat
supply, kW/h, so Q с=0,025 х41,25=1,095k/Wh, with
regard to the area of the MTS building; S=825,4m 2 ,
Qс=903,81kW/h or Q с=0,777 Gcal:
Specific annual heat supply is determined by the
formula
(2)
where F – area of the solar collection unit surface,
the area of one solar collector F=2,049 m 2, so the area
for 16 units is F=32,79 m 2
�= 903 ,81
32 ,79 = 27 ,56 �� ∙ℎ/�2 per year
The specific annual heat capacity is a function of
following parameters: geographical and climatic
characteristics ( φ, Н, tнв); features of solar collector
(UL, ( τα), Fr, ε); controlled parameters (t г, t х, g);
parameters of the s ystem ( ε1, Va, f).
Solar collector characteristics of different designs
are generalized in three types - I, II, III, which are used
in finding the specific annual heat output SHSS q and
are given in [5].
In our case, the solar collector refers to the II type
of solar collectors. It is recommended to use a si ngle -
glass selective collector (type II) and a two -glass non -
selective collector (type III) for SHSS. For heat water
supply systems - single -glass collectors (types I, II).
The schematic diagram of sol ar heating system is
shown in Fig. 1 and provides the o peration of the
installation in different modes of heat supply.
The main parameter SHSS is the annual specific
heat capacity determined for the equation
q = а + b·(I - 1000), kW/h /m 2, (4)

where I – average annual total solar radiation to
horizontal sur face, kW · h/m 2 ; we obtain it from [5] for
Sochi, I=1365 kW · h/m 2; а, b – parameters determined
from the equations (4) and (5)

a = ( α1+ α2r+ α3r2) + ( α4+ α5r+ α6r2)f + ( α7+ α8r + α9r2)f2; (5)
b = ( β1+ β2r + β3r2)+( β4+ β5r + β6r2)f + ( β7+ β8r+ β9r2)f2; (6)

The r - characteristic of heat -insulating properties
of the building fenced structures at a fixed load value
of a solar collector presents the ratio of daily load of
heating at external temperature of 0 °C to da ily load of
the solar collector. The greater the r, the larger the share
of heating load compared with the share of load of a
solar collector and the construction of the building in
terms of heat losses is absolute; r = 0 is taken when
calculating only the hot water system of the solar
collector.
Define parameters а and b:
а = (607,0 -1340+1900) = 1167;
b = (1,177 -2,6+3,35) = 1,927.
α1 ... α9; β1 .... β9 – coefficients which are in
Tables 2 and 3;
Table 2
VALUES OF THE COEFFI CIENT Α FOR SOLAR COLL ECTORS OF II AND III TYPES
Type of the
solar
Values of coefficient
α1 α2 α3 α4 α5 α6 α7 α8 α9
II 607,0 -80,0 -3,0 -1340,0 437,5 22,5 1900,0 -1125,0 25,0
III 298,0 148,5 -61,5 150,0 1112,0 337,5 -700,0 1725,0 -775,0

Table 3
VALUES OF THE COEFFI CIEN T Β FOR SOLAR COLLECTOR S OF II AND III TYPE S
Type of the
solar
Values of coefficient
β1 β2 β3 β4 β5 β6 β7 β8 β9
II 1,177 -0,496 0,140 -2,6 3,6 -0,995 3,350 -5,05 1,400
III 1,062 -0,434 0,158 -2,465 2,958 -1,088 3,550 -4,475 1,775

American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 43

The equation (4) i s applied to use the scheme shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Basic scheme of solar hot water supply system

The equation (4) is applied at values:
1050  I  1900; 1  r  3; 0,2  f  0,4. The total area
of the solar collector surface can be found accor ding to
the formula
F = Q с/q, m 2. (7)
Calculation of solar hot water supply system
Specific annual heat capacity (scheme in Figure 3)
is defined by the formula
q = а + b(Is - 1050), k W · h/m 2 (8)
Value of coefficients а and b are in Table 4.
q = 355 + 0,8(1365 - 1050)=607 kW·h/m 2

Table 4
VALUES OF COEFFICIEN TS А AND B IN DEPENDENCE ON THE TYPE OF A SO LAR
COLLECTOR
Type of the solar Values of coefficient
a b
I 235 0,75
II 355 0,80
The equation (8) is true at f = 0,5 and 1050  I 
1900. We wi ll find specific annual productivity for hot
water supply
q = а + b·(Is - 1050), kW · h/m 2
For other values of the coefficient f replacement
for studied types of solar collectors I and II, the value
of specific annual heat capacity q should be increased
(reduced) in accordance with the data in Table. 4 and is
determined by the formula
qi = q·(1 + Δq/100) , kW · h/m 2 , (9)
where qi – specific annual heat capacity at values
f, different from 0,5;
Δq – change of annual specific heat capacity of
solar collect ors, %.
Table 5
CHANGE IN THE VALUE OF SPECIFIC ANNUAL H EAT CAPACITY ΔQ FROM ANNUAL
OUTPUT OF SOLAR RADI ATION ON THE HORIZON TAL SURFACE H AND CO EFFICIENT F
Values H, kW· h/m2 Values Δq, % at
f = 0,3 f = 0,4 f = 0,5 f = 0,6
Less than 1500 +17 +9 0 -10
More than 1500 +10 +5 0 -6
The value f of larger than 0,6 is obtained at
H≥1700.
The solar radiation is recalculated when rays fall
on the inclined plane, which is characterized by
coefficients of the location of a solar collector for direct
Ps and Pg of the inclined radiation [2].
The coefficient of the location of a solar collector
for direct radiation Ps is a function of latitude φ=43.59
º for Sochi, the angle of inclination of the collector β,
the angle of declination of the Sun δ, which in turn
depends on time. The coefficient of the location of a
solar collector for scattered radi ation is determined by
the equation

44 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
= ��� 2
2 (10)
where β – angle of solar collector’s inclination to
the horizon 45º. So,
�= ��� 245 ,02
2 = 0,75
�= ��� 245
2 = 0,76
The angle β is recommended to be taken equal to
the latitude of the locality, β = φ for year -round systems
and β = φ - 15º for systems operating in the summer.
The intensity of falling solar radiation for each
light day i s determined by the expression
�= �·�+�·� (11)
where (Is) – direct intensity in the upper line; 1365
kW·h/m 2 ; (Ig). – scattered intensity in the lower line
1099 kW·h/m 2
Then,
�= 0,96 ·1365 +0,76 ·1099 = 1310 +835 ,24
= 2145 ,24 �� ∙ℎ/�2��� ����
Calculate the intensity of solar radiation in the
coldest month and the warmest one [5]
For January, where Is =37 kW·h/m 2; where
Ig =65,8 kW·h/m 2
�я= 0,96 ·37 +0,76 ·65 ,8= 85 ,53 �� ∙ℎ/�2
For July, where Is=206,8 kW·h/m 2;
Ig=95 ,78 kW·h/m 2
�и= 0,96 ·206 ,8+0,76 ·95 ,78
= 271 ,32 �� ∙ℎ/�2
The intensity of solar radiation qi varies
throughout the year. Therefore, the efficiency of the
installation will also change. The efficiency of the
installation is determined by the expressio n [8]
�= 0,8(�−8���
� ) (12)
where θ – a given optical characteristic of a solar
collector are taken for single -glass collectors θ = 0,73
[6], for double -glass ones θ = 0,63 [6]; k – given
coefficient of heat capacity of a solar collector, for
sing le-glass ones – k = 8 W/(m 2 ·К), for double -glass –
k = 5 W/(m 2 ·К) [6] ; Δt – difference between average
temperature of boiled water and average temperature of
external air. Find the coolant temperature at the inlet
and outlet of the collector with regard to ambient
temperature;
�1= ��+5; �2= �г+5 (13)
where t х and t г – water temperature at inlet and
outlet of the collector; t х=10º С; tг=70º С, then t 1=15 º С;
t2=75 º С; �нср = 7,4 ºС
Then the difference between the average
temperature of the coolant and the average daily
temperature of the outside air will be
∆�= 0,5∙(�1−�2)−�нср
∆�= 22 ,6 �� (14)
There was made the calculation of the efficiency
of the solar collector in winter (January)
�= 0,8(0,7−8���
� )
�= 0,8(0,7−8∙8∙22 ,6
85530 )= 0,55
There was made the calculation of the efficiency
of the solar collector in summer (June)
tх=17ºС; t г=100ºС, then t1=15 ºС; t 2=75 ºС;
�нср = 29 ,8 ºС; ∆�=11,7 ºС
�= 0,8(0,7−8∙8∙11 ,7
271320 )= 0,56
The total surface area of solar collectors with hot
water is determined by the formula
(15)
Economic efficiency
The following formula is used to determine the
economic payback of solar collectors with thermal
backup:
��� = ( K г - Кт )/( Q · CТ ) (16 )
where Q — annual ( seasonal ) amount of heat
energy produced by the solar collector Q с=0,777 Gcal;
Kг and Кт — investments in solar collectors and
renewable traditional energy source Кг=1014000 rub.,
CТ— cost of renewable energy 1 Gcal=1820 rub. for
Sochi.
Solar installations of the objects which are not
demanding the rigid maintenance of temperature of hot
water and respectively duplication by the traditional
power source (for example, showers or recreation
centers), the term of economic payback can be
calculated by the formula
��� = ����∙ � (17)
The results of economic calculations of solar
insta llations is reasonable as shown in [7], to
supplement in some cases the calculations of terms of
energy payback, when compared with the amount of
energy produced by th e solar installation and spent on
the production of materials and its installation.
Formu las (15) and (16) are given for the conditions of
absence of interest rate for a bank loan, in the presence
of which the formula (18) (by the analogy with the
method o f Doctor of Technical Sciences V. G. Gagarin
[6] is taken the form:
(18)
where П — annua l interest rate for loan; 11%.
Then,
In energy sector, the optimal payback period is
from 5 to 7 years, in our case, the payback meets these
indicators. According t o the calculations, the efficiency
of the installation was η=0.55 for the warm period and
η=0.56 for the coldest month in the year, the efficiency

American Scientific Journal № (2 9) / 2019 45

can be increased if the calculation takes into account
the electric module for electricity production. The
payback period was one year. When adjusting the
payback can be changed to an increase for another year,
the MTS of building in Sochi can be 2 years with regard
to the tests of the solar collector. The average payback
time in energy sector is 5 -7 years.
Hybri d solar collector
The use of hybrid plants for the productio n of
electric and thermal energy has previously been
considered in researches of scientists (for example, All -
Russian Institute of Agricultural Electrification,
Moscow [5]), but structurally solar collectors were
developed in separate buildings, which redu ced their
overall efficiency.
The main features that characterize the developed
combined solar collector:
• Single form factor: sandwich panel consisting of
solar and solar collector elements to g enerate electric
and thermal energy, respectively. At the sa me time, the
solar collector, in addition to the main function,
performs the function of an effective coolant of the
solar panel, which increases its reliability and service
life, and the solar pa nel in turn increases the efficiency
of the solar collector.
• Due to the single structure and combination of
solar collector panels, reduction of occupied area on the
roof, reduction of wind loads and, as a consequence,
load on the roof itself is achieved .
• The use of solar infrared battery can increase its
effic iency by generating electricity not only from the
visible part of solar spectrum, but also from the infrared
region.
• The application of the solar collector allows you
to save energy resources on lighting by up to 50 % and
locally to organize hot water su pply of the building.
• One panel of the solar collector (Figure 4) with
overall dimensions of 1910 х1073 х55 mm allows to
generate electric power to 135 W, heat power up to 700
W.

Figure 4. Appe arance of combined solar collector.

It is supposed to install the solar collector on the
roof (semicircle, in direction of Sun) in two rows at a
distance of 1.9 m between rows, with the angle of
panels’ inclination to the horizon - 45º. This locality
(Fi gure 5) is optimal for roof area, it d oes not allow
shading the solar collector with its own structures and
provides maximum insolation in accordance with
recommendations [1,2,4,5].

46 American Scientific Journal № ( 29 ) / 20 19
Figure 5. Location of combined solar collector panels while installing on flat roof

Structurally, the system of autonomous electric
and thermal power supply with the use of solar
collectors consists of: solar collector with a heat
exchanger tank in a protective housing with transparent
coating and heat insulating l ayer, in verter, circulation
pump, metering and measuring energy parameters, cold
water supply pipeline to heat exchange tank, hot water
removal pipeline from heat exchange tank to hot water
supply system.
Cold water from water supply system enters the
coil located in heat exchanger, where it is heated and
enters the coil of storage tank of hot water supply
system, gives its heat and the process is repeated again.
The cavity of heat exchanger is filled with non -freezing
liquid to prevent damage during low am bient
temperatures. In the period of high temperatures, in the
case of coolant’s overheating, it is provided a pipeline
for removal of hot water from the coil of heat exchanger
to hot water supply system.
To select the optimal configuration and
parameters of the s ystem of autonomous energy saving
of buildings, it is necessary to take into account the
following factors affecting its performance: climatic
features of the region, intensity of solar irradiation,
parameters of existing power supply system of the
buildin g. The number and type of solar collectors used
as well as the necessary set of metering devices and
control parameters of solar collectors are determined on
the basis of these data.

References
1. Experience of NRES use in the recreational
regio n of Soc hi/ P. V. Sadilov, V. А. Leonov, К. А.
Glazov et al. — in the book: Non -traditional and
renewable sources in XXI century: Materials of
International Scientific Research seminar. Sochi: RIO
SGUT and KD, 2001.
2. Amerkhanov R. A., Garkaviy K. A., Trubilin A .
I. Necessity to solve the problems of saving energy
resources through use of modern energy -saving
technologies / Proceedings of Kuban State Agrarian
University, Issue № 3 (36). - Krasnodar: KubSAU,
2012. ISBN 5 - 94672 -211 -5. p.281 -283.
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of solar energy use in the Russian Federation. —
Energy policy, 2001, Vol. 3 – p. 51 -59.
4. GOST R ISO/TO 10217 -2010 Solar energy.
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Introduction. December, 23, 2010, p.6.
5. Guidelines for calculation and design of solar
heating systems. — Moscow: Ministry of Energy,
1990. RD 34.20.115 -90. p.28.
6. Gagarin V.G. On payback of thermal protection
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