# Американский Научный Журнал METHODOLOGY DETERMINING DISPLACEMENT AND MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF UNMANNED UNDERWATER VEHICLES IN THE EARLY STAGES OF DESIGN

Abstract. The article is devoted to the description of the new method for determining of displacement and
the main dimensions of the remotely operated underwater vehicles. The method is based on polynomial
approximation of data array, the parameters received by results of mathematical modeling the teithed survey,
inspection and universal working vehicles. The method is based on the calculation of payload mass. The ROV
weight load includes the possibility to use modular elements. As an example, the calculation of the main
dimensions of the real vehicle builed in Nikolayev in 1993-94 is given. Скачать в формате PDF

36 American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 20 19

behavior is complicated by num ber of external and

internal causes, since it allows them to re move

aggression, cope with isolation and passivity. At the

same time, the school teacher often faces another

problem - when an auspicious and generally successful

student, believing that succes s is guaranteed by

previous merit, stops making efforts in scho ol, lets

everything take its course. In this case, the situation of

success, created by the teacher, takes the form of a kind

of puff pie, where between the layers of the test

(between two situ ations of success) the filling is located

(the situation of fai lure).

Computer technologies help to qualitatively

change the content, methods and organizational forms

of training and under certain conditions can contribute

to the disclosure, preservation a nd development of the

individual abilities of the students, the ir personal

qualities; the formation of cognitive abilities; the

intention for self -improvement. Multimedia computer

technologies allows to replace almost all the traditional

technical training means. In many cases, such a

replacement turns out to be more effectively, allows the

teacher to operatively combine various means that

contribute to a deeper and more conscious mastering of

the material being studied, saves lesson time, fills it

with inf ormation. Therefore, it is completely natural to

introduce thes e means into the modern educational

process. Multimedia means allow to provide the best,

in comparison with other technical teaching means, the

realization of the principle of visibility, which plays a

leading role in the educational technologies of primar y

school. In addition, multimedia is given the task of

providing effective support for game forms of the

lesson, active “student -computer” dialogue, and all this

contributes to success in the e ducational process.

Thus, success as a process and a psychologi cal -

pedagogical concept is necessary for a modern teacher,

parent and junior student, the result of which is self -

realization of the pupil and feeling of satisfaction from

the work done.

REFERENCES

1.Slastenin V.A. Pedagogica. –M.:Akademia,

2003. – 576 p. (in Russion)

2.Kulyatkin Yu., Tarasov S. Educational

environment and personal development.// Novie

znanie. – 2001. – № 1.(in Russion)

3.Andreeva Yu.V. Teaching practice. Primary and

basic general education. Optimistic strategy of creating

a situation of success in the educational activities of

adolescents. –Ufa: East University, 2000. – 128 p.

METHODOLOGY DETERMIN ING DISPLACEMENT AND MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF UNMANNED

UN DERWATER VEHICLES IN THE EARLY STAGES OF DESIGN

Pyshniev S.N.

Ph.D.(Technical Sciences),

associate Prof essor of Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding ,

Nikolayev, Ukraine.

Сhangli Yu

Ph.D, .(Technical Sciences),

associate Professor of Harbin Institute of Technology,

Weihai, P.R. China.

Abstract . The article is devoted to the description of the new method for determining of displacement and

the main dimensions of the remote ly operated underwater vehicles. The method is based on polynom ial

approximation of data array, the parameters received by results of mathematical modeling the teithed survey,

inspection and universal working vehicles. The method is based on the calculatio n of payload mass. The ROV

weight load includes the possibility to use modular elements. As an example, the calculation of the main

dimensions of the real vehicle builed in Nikolayev in 1993 -94 is given.

Keywords : unmanned underwater vehicle, displacement calculation, main dimensions calculation, weight

load calculati on, payload.

Defining the basic parameters of the object being

developed has always been and remains the most

important task for the designer. The efficiency of the

solution method is the hig her the more accurate the

calculations can be made at the first steps of the project

task.

The most important dependencies used to

determine of the displacement and dimensions of the

vehicles are balance equations, or the equations of the

existence of the vehicles, such as the equa tion of

masses, volumes, energy margin, and information

exchange.

Setting the task: correct determination of

displacement and main dimensions of unmanned

underwater vehicles (ROV) presents a difficult task for

the designer, especi ally if there is no close prototype.

[9]. The designer often has face to face a situation

where he, apart from the terms of reference, does not

have the necessary information for the future of the

project.

The object of the study is tied uninhabited

under water vehicles.

The main tasks , which were solved during the

study - development and justification of methods of

calculation of displacement and main dimensions of

American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 2019 37

underwater vehicles according to the data of the

technical assignment.

Research methods - approximation of artificial

data array, the calculated for the searching, inspection

and working vehicles.

It is known that the mass equation analytically

represents the fact that the displacement of the vehicle

is the functional sum of the masses constitut ing the load

[3],

��= ∑�(��,�)+��� , (1)

Where m inv - invariant, independent of mass

displacement, determined before the beginning of

dimensions calculation, based on the technical

assignment for design, for example, manipulator , TV

camera, depth sensors, ROVs positions, etc.

mi (mo, r) are masses that ma ke up the remaining

load items and depend both on the total mass of the

future apparatus and on its tactical and technical

characteristics (TTC). In fact, the mass of the light

body, electric cables, propulsions and other equipment

of the vehicles depends in one way or another on its

size, and therefore, form the total mass of the object. At

the same time, some load items are linear, and others

do not change linearly with the gro wth of the total mass

of the vehicles [4].

Referring to the division of all masses of the

vehicles into two categories by the nature of the

dependence on the total mass, equation (1) will be

written as:

��= (�ЛК +�АКК +�ДРК +�ПЛ )��2/3+(�УР +�КДС +�ЗВ)��+��� , (2)

where m O - mas s of fully loaded apparatus;

qI - mass meters proportional to m O2/3 ;

aI[ are the proportional coefficients of the masses

proportional to the m O.

In this equation, the non -linear depende nce

(degree 2/3) is accepted for the weight of the light body,

accumulators, propulsion -steering complex, float, and

the linear dependence for the equalizing, roll -trimming

systems and the buoyancy margin of the apparatus.

Solving this cubic relative to mo 1/3 equation, we find

the normal displacement of the apparatus.

There are three canonical methods of determining

the displacement of ROV [6], which have passed from

the theory of surface vessel design. One of which, as

shown above, is based on the solution of the algebraic

equation, the second on the differential reco unt of the

vehicles load articles, and the third uses Newton 's

graph -analytic method, successively approaching the

solution with the reclusive formula

mi+1= m 1 – F(m 1)/F’(m 1) (3)

This proces s is described in more detail in [5].

All of the above methods have certain

disadvantages. First of all, it is a great dependence on

the accuracy of the original data. Most often it is

information about the articles of load of a close

prototype, which is o ften erroneous. It is essential that

for surface vessels it is much easier to find such

information than for underwater vehicle equipment [8].

To date, statistical material on ROVs is extremely

limited.

Description of the method - the author tried to

chang e the approach to solving this problem, and will

focus on the " independent" components of the load of

the apparatus. There are two good reasons. First, these

"independent" load elements typically constitute a

payload that enables the apparatus to perform t he main

task. Second, the technical data for these load element s

are the most reliable. They are specified in the

specification or in the documentation.

In order to start calculation of characteristics, we

need to know the following conditions: ROV

assignm ent; search area, m 2; Depth and hydrology in

the area of work; Design speed of ROV, m/s;. In

addition, will be assumed that the architectural and

structural type of ROV is defined.

The author 's method of determining the main

characteristics of ROV is prop osed. The method is

based on the statistical material received by data

processing of hypothetical prototypes of two types

calculated on mathematical models of the ROV - the

searching and inspection and universal workers. In the

future, the obtained data ar e clarified through the

project load table and for 2 -3 iteratio ns lead us to the

completed result. The technique is quite versatile and

produces reliable results for a wide range of underwater

vehicle designs. One of the key issues in determining

the displ acement and main dimensions of the ROV is

the correct determina tion of the value of the GWP

payload corresponding to the nature of the work

performed. By payload we will understand all

equipment and devices that provide the solution of the

task. The list o f this equipment belongs to the category

of so -called "independ ent" variables, the modification

of the list of which changes the characteristics of the

entire set.

For selection of main dimensions of ROV and

determination of its displacement in the first

approximation, consider the example of inspection

ROV "Diaf 600, " the sckim of which is shown in Fig.1.

38 American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 20 19

Fig.1. Skim of inspection ROV "Diaf 600."

Payload of ROV "Diaf -600" includes two TV

cameras, four la mps, multi -beam sonar, depth sensors,

radioactivity, magnetometer, manipulator -grip,

navigation system and control system. In total, more

than 10.0 kg. of payload. Flight speed of ROV is 2.5

m/s. The calculation is performed in the following

sequence [4]: The e xpected value of ROV displacement

in the first approximation is determined by the formula:

ПА = ГР

ГР where ήГР the coefficient of utilization of

displacement counted on the following dependence:

ГР = (�−�⋅Р⋅10−3+ )⋅10−2+0,045 ; where

�= 10 ,8+0,024 ГР +9,2⋅10−6ГР2;

�= 1,18 +0,003 ГР;

= 1,55 −1,33 �ПА.

In this case, it is considered that the residual buoyancy of the payload PГР = 10 kg; H P =600 m; V ПА = 2.5

m/s. At these numerical values:

�= 10 ,8+0,024 ⋅10 +9,2⋅10−6⋅100 = 11 ,118 ;

�= 1,18 +0,030 = 1,21 ;

= 1,55 −1,33 ⋅2,5= −1,78 .

ГР = (11 ,118 −1,0⋅1,21 −1,78 )⋅10−2+0,045 = 0,126 .

ROV displacement in the first approximation will

be equal to:

ПА = 10

0,126 = 79 ,36 к.

In calculations we accept Δ ПА 80 .0 kg. This Δ ПА

value is indicative and will be refined on subsequent

iterations.

Data on foreign prototypes ROV "ECA H800" and

"Predator 300" [11] give Δ ПА values in the range of 96

- 67 kg with a pay load value of 34 and 11 kg.

The main dimensions of the Diaf 600 vehicles in

the first approximation are determined by the formulas:

ПА = (0,085 ⋅√ПА +0,22 �ПА1,2)−0,1;

�ПА = 0,08 ⋅√(ПА +2) 3 −0,06 ;

ПА = 0,092 ⋅√(ПА +3,5) 3 −0,09 ;

If the ROV architecture represents a "frame"

layout w ithout a streamlined light hull, the overall

completeness factor can be calculated using the

formula; = �−(�,� )

in our case, δ = 0.78.

According to the calculation results i n the first

approximation the dimensions of ROV "Diaf - 600"

will be: L = 1 .27 m, B = 0.64 m, H = 0.72 m. Then it

is possible to go to estimation of masses and volumes

of components of weight load of the vehicle.

The frame

Frame is based on sandwich panels include

fibreglass -sintaktik -fibreglass. The weight of these

elements can be estimated using the factors of total

ROV completeness of the and filling the volume of the

surface housing k v. Works [4. 6] estimate the range of

kv, which for thi s type of ROV under consideration will

be about 0.48. The integral mass density of these

structural elements at the density of the syntactic of 500

kg/m 3 [6] will be 700 kg/m 3.

�НР = 1,03 ⋅(� )⋅�⋅�ЗП ⋅�СФ ;

�НР = 1,03 ⋅(1,08 ⋅0,65 ⋅0,6)⋅0,585 ⋅0,18 ⋅700 = 32 кг.

American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 2019 39

The floating volume of these structural elements will be:

�НР = 32

70 0= 0,0457 м3.

Propulsion complex

The required power for ROV movement in three planes is determined by the method [2, 7]

Nx= R xvx; или Nx= 0,5(ρv x3)CxSx;

Ny= R yvy; или Ny= 0,5(ρv y3)CySy ;

Nz= R zvz; или Nz= 0,5(ρv z3)CzSz

In our case V x = 2.5m/s; V y = 1.2 m/s; V z = 0.8 m/s; Cx=0,32; Cy=0,72; Cz=0,82; S x=HB ψ =0,33 м2;.

Sy=LH = 0,53 м2 ; S z=LB α =0,58 м2;

Nx= 0,5 1020 (2,5) 30,32 0,33 = 842 Вт

Ny= 0,5 1020 (1,2) 30,53 0,72 = 336 Вт ;

Nz= 0,5 1020 (0,8) 30,82 0,58 = 123 Вт ;

For design reasons we choose asynchronou s 400 Hz motors with a powerfull of 200 W for steering devices

and 900 W for cruise motor

The weight and volume of electric drives are determined by the method [8]:

�ПР = 0,9⋅(6,05 ЭЛ0,667 −�ЭЛ4ЭЛ), где NЭЛ=0,2 кВт.

�ПР = ,0,9(6,05 ⋅0,20,667 −0,2

4)= 2,0кг

�ПР = �ПР

3300 = 2,199

3300 = 0,66 ⋅10−3м3.

Considering that 3 steering drives are installed on the ROV, their total weight will be 6.0 kg, and the volume,

respectively, 1, 98 x 10 -3 m 3.

�ПР = 0,59 (6,05 ⋅0,90,667 −0,2

4)= 3,33 кг

�ПР = �ПР

3300 = 3,33

3300 = 1,04 ⋅10−3м3.

The weight and volumes of the propellers will be accepted according to the prototype data.

�ГВ = 4⋅0,23 = 0,92 кг;

�ГВ = 0,92

1730 = 0,53 ⋅10−3м3.

Pressure hulls (PH) of the ROVs contr ol system.

Weight of electronic units of the ROV monitoring and control syste m is determined by statistical dependence:

�СУ = 0,503 ⋅√�� ;

�СУ = 0,503 ⋅√91 ,5= 4,81 кг

.

Based on the condition of electronic control

boards placement in the PH, the d iameter of micro PC

format is assigned structurally dVH = 0.12 m. Given

that the density of installation of the elector units is mo

= 350 -450 gr/dm3, in calculations we accept mo = 400

gr/dm3, the internal volume of the PH should be not

less than The lengt h of the cylindrical insert of the PH

will be determinate

�Ц= 4�ПК

�⋅�ВН2;

�Ц= 4⋅0,0132

3,14 ⋅(0,12 )2= 1,168 м.

It is structurally d efined that the number of the

pressure hulls is equal 4 with a length of cylindrical

insert of 0.32 m. Covers of the personal computer have

the hemispherical f orm with a m R=0.15 radius.

Predesign of durability of a structure of cylindrical

buildings is ca rried out by a technique [1, 10], the

Cylindrical part of the personal computer is made of the

thermo strengthened aluminum alloy of B 95 type with

[] = 420 MPs. Wall thickness of the cylindrical part of

the hull

t= ��

[]−�� ;

t = 14 0,12/ (420 -14) = 0,0042 м

Structurally accept the wall thickness of the

cylindrical part 6 mm. Covers are 10 mm thick and are

made of aluminum alloy of 6061 -Т6 type. The strength

test calculation confirms the selected PH thicknesses in

terms of the strength and stability of the shell for a

working depth of 600 m with a safety factor of 1.45.

The mass -dimensional characteristics of the PH

adopted in the first approxima tion are:

40 American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 20 19

�ПК = 4,1(�ПК ′�Ц�

4 ⋅(12−22)+1,1��КР12

4 ⋅2700 );

where �Ц= 3,2дм ,�КР = 0,14 дм ,1= 1,78 дм ,2= 1,6дм ,�ПК ′= 620 кг/м3. mph = 3.1 kg; Volume 5.43dm 3; Total weight of hulls in assemb ly 12.4 kg; Floating volume = 20.92 dm3.

Television complex

The navigation camera is fixed in the upper part of

the bow part of ROV and is a sealed container with an

internal diameter of 0.14 meters, length of 0.22 meters,

ending in front of a transparen t hemispherical window.

The strength of the window corresponds to a working

depth of 600 meters. The telebox is made in a separate

pressure hull and forms a single structure located in the

central part of the ROV location. The calculation is

carried out in the same way as in the previous

subsection. The results of th e calculations are presented

as a weight load table.

Having the data on the equipment composition,

the next step of the design will be a graphical and sketch

study of the general arrangement o f the vehicle, which

gives us the opportunity to determine the real

dimensions of the L 2,B2,H2 design and to compare them

with the initial values of the L 1,B1,H1. Correction factor

kL [5] is calculated,

kL = √Δ1

Δ0

3 ; kL = (75,91/80) 0,33 =0,98

The main dimensions of the first iteration of the

L1, B 1, H 1 are multiplied by the obtained k L factor, and

adjustments are made to the weight load table. This

operation is continued until the displacement of the set

of tw o adjacent iterations differs by 0.5% [6].

Typically, the number of steps to refine the princip al

dimensions is 2 -3.

Conclusions

1. The proposed method of determining

displacement and main dimensions of uninhabited

vehicles allows to find with sufficient accuracy the

parameters of underwater carrier of equipment

according to the technical assignmen t and to go to the

stage of sketch design.

2. The proposed method is quite versatile and can

be applied to different types of underwater carriers. The

error of t he first iteration is 8 -10%.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. Shimansky, Y. I. Handbook of structural

mechanics of a ship constructors. State Union Edition

of shipbuilding enterprise/ Laningrad, 1958, 528 p.

2. Vashedchenko A. N., Pyshniev S. N., Rodichev

A. P. Some estimates in the design of underwater

vessels. Uch. POS – Nikolaev: UGNTU, 1997, 66 p.;

ill.

3. Vashedchenko A. N. Computeraided design of

ships. Uch. POS. - L.: Shipbuilding, 1985. - 164 sec –

4. Vashedchenko, A. N., Pyshniev S. N. Design

features of se lf-propelled underwater vehicles. Uch.

POS. - Nikolaev: NKI, 1992 -56c.

5. Vashedc henko A. N. The theory of ship design:

Proc.benefit. Part I -Nikolayev, 1978. - 42 p.

6. Vashedchenko A. N. The definition of the main

elements of the underwater vehicle: Proc. benefit. -

Nikolaev: NKI, 1991. - 46 p.

7. Vashedchenko A. N., Pyshniev S. N. The

definition of the main elements of underwater vehicles.

Textbook. - Nikolaev: NKI, 1991, - 65C.

8. Pyshniev S. N., Neckora B. V., Shovkoplyas,

M.N. Determination of the effec tiveness of propulsion -

rudder complexes underwater vehicles. // Proceedings

of th e international conference UEES 97. – Alushta,

Crimea. - volume 2. - p. 133 -137.

9. Shostak V. p. Efficiency of ocean development

techniques. Areas of project research. - Kyiv : Naukova

Dumka, 2002, - 324c.

10. Shostak, V. P., Underwater vehicles, robots

and manipulators. - Moscow: GEOS: 2009, - 114s.

11. Robert D. Christ Robert I. Wernli Sr. The ROV

Manual. A User Guide for Remotely Operated

Vehicles. Is a imprint of Elsevier 2 25 Wyman Street,

Waltham, MA 02451, USA.

behavior is complicated by num ber of external and

internal causes, since it allows them to re move

aggression, cope with isolation and passivity. At the

same time, the school teacher often faces another

problem - when an auspicious and generally successful

student, believing that succes s is guaranteed by

previous merit, stops making efforts in scho ol, lets

everything take its course. In this case, the situation of

success, created by the teacher, takes the form of a kind

of puff pie, where between the layers of the test

(between two situ ations of success) the filling is located

(the situation of fai lure).

Computer technologies help to qualitatively

change the content, methods and organizational forms

of training and under certain conditions can contribute

to the disclosure, preservation a nd development of the

individual abilities of the students, the ir personal

qualities; the formation of cognitive abilities; the

intention for self -improvement. Multimedia computer

technologies allows to replace almost all the traditional

technical training means. In many cases, such a

replacement turns out to be more effectively, allows the

teacher to operatively combine various means that

contribute to a deeper and more conscious mastering of

the material being studied, saves lesson time, fills it

with inf ormation. Therefore, it is completely natural to

introduce thes e means into the modern educational

process. Multimedia means allow to provide the best,

in comparison with other technical teaching means, the

realization of the principle of visibility, which plays a

leading role in the educational technologies of primar y

school. In addition, multimedia is given the task of

providing effective support for game forms of the

lesson, active “student -computer” dialogue, and all this

contributes to success in the e ducational process.

Thus, success as a process and a psychologi cal -

pedagogical concept is necessary for a modern teacher,

parent and junior student, the result of which is self -

realization of the pupil and feeling of satisfaction from

the work done.

REFERENCES

1.Slastenin V.A. Pedagogica. –M.:Akademia,

2003. – 576 p. (in Russion)

2.Kulyatkin Yu., Tarasov S. Educational

environment and personal development.// Novie

znanie. – 2001. – № 1.(in Russion)

3.Andreeva Yu.V. Teaching practice. Primary and

basic general education. Optimistic strategy of creating

a situation of success in the educational activities of

adolescents. –Ufa: East University, 2000. – 128 p.

METHODOLOGY DETERMIN ING DISPLACEMENT AND MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF UNMANNED

UN DERWATER VEHICLES IN THE EARLY STAGES OF DESIGN

Pyshniev S.N.

Ph.D.(Technical Sciences),

associate Prof essor of Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding ,

Nikolayev, Ukraine.

Сhangli Yu

Ph.D, .(Technical Sciences),

associate Professor of Harbin Institute of Technology,

Weihai, P.R. China.

Abstract . The article is devoted to the description of the new method for determining of displacement and

the main dimensions of the remote ly operated underwater vehicles. The method is based on polynom ial

approximation of data array, the parameters received by results of mathematical modeling the teithed survey,

inspection and universal working vehicles. The method is based on the calculatio n of payload mass. The ROV

weight load includes the possibility to use modular elements. As an example, the calculation of the main

dimensions of the real vehicle builed in Nikolayev in 1993 -94 is given.

Keywords : unmanned underwater vehicle, displacement calculation, main dimensions calculation, weight

load calculati on, payload.

Defining the basic parameters of the object being

developed has always been and remains the most

important task for the designer. The efficiency of the

solution method is the hig her the more accurate the

calculations can be made at the first steps of the project

task.

The most important dependencies used to

determine of the displacement and dimensions of the

vehicles are balance equations, or the equations of the

existence of the vehicles, such as the equa tion of

masses, volumes, energy margin, and information

exchange.

Setting the task: correct determination of

displacement and main dimensions of unmanned

underwater vehicles (ROV) presents a difficult task for

the designer, especi ally if there is no close prototype.

[9]. The designer often has face to face a situation

where he, apart from the terms of reference, does not

have the necessary information for the future of the

project.

The object of the study is tied uninhabited

under water vehicles.

The main tasks , which were solved during the

study - development and justification of methods of

calculation of displacement and main dimensions of

American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 2019 37

underwater vehicles according to the data of the

technical assignment.

Research methods - approximation of artificial

data array, the calculated for the searching, inspection

and working vehicles.

It is known that the mass equation analytically

represents the fact that the displacement of the vehicle

is the functional sum of the masses constitut ing the load

[3],

��= ∑�(��,�)+��� , (1)

Where m inv - invariant, independent of mass

displacement, determined before the beginning of

dimensions calculation, based on the technical

assignment for design, for example, manipulator , TV

camera, depth sensors, ROVs positions, etc.

mi (mo, r) are masses that ma ke up the remaining

load items and depend both on the total mass of the

future apparatus and on its tactical and technical

characteristics (TTC). In fact, the mass of the light

body, electric cables, propulsions and other equipment

of the vehicles depends in one way or another on its

size, and therefore, form the total mass of the object. At

the same time, some load items are linear, and others

do not change linearly with the gro wth of the total mass

of the vehicles [4].

Referring to the division of all masses of the

vehicles into two categories by the nature of the

dependence on the total mass, equation (1) will be

written as:

��= (�ЛК +�АКК +�ДРК +�ПЛ )��2/3+(�УР +�КДС +�ЗВ)��+��� , (2)

where m O - mas s of fully loaded apparatus;

qI - mass meters proportional to m O2/3 ;

aI[ are the proportional coefficients of the masses

proportional to the m O.

In this equation, the non -linear depende nce

(degree 2/3) is accepted for the weight of the light body,

accumulators, propulsion -steering complex, float, and

the linear dependence for the equalizing, roll -trimming

systems and the buoyancy margin of the apparatus.

Solving this cubic relative to mo 1/3 equation, we find

the normal displacement of the apparatus.

There are three canonical methods of determining

the displacement of ROV [6], which have passed from

the theory of surface vessel design. One of which, as

shown above, is based on the solution of the algebraic

equation, the second on the differential reco unt of the

vehicles load articles, and the third uses Newton 's

graph -analytic method, successively approaching the

solution with the reclusive formula

mi+1= m 1 – F(m 1)/F’(m 1) (3)

This proces s is described in more detail in [5].

All of the above methods have certain

disadvantages. First of all, it is a great dependence on

the accuracy of the original data. Most often it is

information about the articles of load of a close

prototype, which is o ften erroneous. It is essential that

for surface vessels it is much easier to find such

information than for underwater vehicle equipment [8].

To date, statistical material on ROVs is extremely

limited.

Description of the method - the author tried to

chang e the approach to solving this problem, and will

focus on the " independent" components of the load of

the apparatus. There are two good reasons. First, these

"independent" load elements typically constitute a

payload that enables the apparatus to perform t he main

task. Second, the technical data for these load element s

are the most reliable. They are specified in the

specification or in the documentation.

In order to start calculation of characteristics, we

need to know the following conditions: ROV

assignm ent; search area, m 2; Depth and hydrology in

the area of work; Design speed of ROV, m/s;. In

addition, will be assumed that the architectural and

structural type of ROV is defined.

The author 's method of determining the main

characteristics of ROV is prop osed. The method is

based on the statistical material received by data

processing of hypothetical prototypes of two types

calculated on mathematical models of the ROV - the

searching and inspection and universal workers. In the

future, the obtained data ar e clarified through the

project load table and for 2 -3 iteratio ns lead us to the

completed result. The technique is quite versatile and

produces reliable results for a wide range of underwater

vehicle designs. One of the key issues in determining

the displ acement and main dimensions of the ROV is

the correct determina tion of the value of the GWP

payload corresponding to the nature of the work

performed. By payload we will understand all

equipment and devices that provide the solution of the

task. The list o f this equipment belongs to the category

of so -called "independ ent" variables, the modification

of the list of which changes the characteristics of the

entire set.

For selection of main dimensions of ROV and

determination of its displacement in the first

approximation, consider the example of inspection

ROV "Diaf 600, " the sckim of which is shown in Fig.1.

38 American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 20 19

Fig.1. Skim of inspection ROV "Diaf 600."

Payload of ROV "Diaf -600" includes two TV

cameras, four la mps, multi -beam sonar, depth sensors,

radioactivity, magnetometer, manipulator -grip,

navigation system and control system. In total, more

than 10.0 kg. of payload. Flight speed of ROV is 2.5

m/s. The calculation is performed in the following

sequence [4]: The e xpected value of ROV displacement

in the first approximation is determined by the formula:

ПА = ГР

ГР where ήГР the coefficient of utilization of

displacement counted on the following dependence:

ГР = (�−�⋅Р⋅10−3+ )⋅10−2+0,045 ; where

�= 10 ,8+0,024 ГР +9,2⋅10−6ГР2;

�= 1,18 +0,003 ГР;

= 1,55 −1,33 �ПА.

In this case, it is considered that the residual buoyancy of the payload PГР = 10 kg; H P =600 m; V ПА = 2.5

m/s. At these numerical values:

�= 10 ,8+0,024 ⋅10 +9,2⋅10−6⋅100 = 11 ,118 ;

�= 1,18 +0,030 = 1,21 ;

= 1,55 −1,33 ⋅2,5= −1,78 .

ГР = (11 ,118 −1,0⋅1,21 −1,78 )⋅10−2+0,045 = 0,126 .

ROV displacement in the first approximation will

be equal to:

ПА = 10

0,126 = 79 ,36 к.

In calculations we accept Δ ПА 80 .0 kg. This Δ ПА

value is indicative and will be refined on subsequent

iterations.

Data on foreign prototypes ROV "ECA H800" and

"Predator 300" [11] give Δ ПА values in the range of 96

- 67 kg with a pay load value of 34 and 11 kg.

The main dimensions of the Diaf 600 vehicles in

the first approximation are determined by the formulas:

ПА = (0,085 ⋅√ПА +0,22 �ПА1,2)−0,1;

�ПА = 0,08 ⋅√(ПА +2) 3 −0,06 ;

ПА = 0,092 ⋅√(ПА +3,5) 3 −0,09 ;

If the ROV architecture represents a "frame"

layout w ithout a streamlined light hull, the overall

completeness factor can be calculated using the

formula; = �−(�,� )

in our case, δ = 0.78.

According to the calculation results i n the first

approximation the dimensions of ROV "Diaf - 600"

will be: L = 1 .27 m, B = 0.64 m, H = 0.72 m. Then it

is possible to go to estimation of masses and volumes

of components of weight load of the vehicle.

The frame

Frame is based on sandwich panels include

fibreglass -sintaktik -fibreglass. The weight of these

elements can be estimated using the factors of total

ROV completeness of the and filling the volume of the

surface housing k v. Works [4. 6] estimate the range of

kv, which for thi s type of ROV under consideration will

be about 0.48. The integral mass density of these

structural elements at the density of the syntactic of 500

kg/m 3 [6] will be 700 kg/m 3.

�НР = 1,03 ⋅(� )⋅�⋅�ЗП ⋅�СФ ;

�НР = 1,03 ⋅(1,08 ⋅0,65 ⋅0,6)⋅0,585 ⋅0,18 ⋅700 = 32 кг.

American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 2019 39

The floating volume of these structural elements will be:

�НР = 32

70 0= 0,0457 м3.

Propulsion complex

The required power for ROV movement in three planes is determined by the method [2, 7]

Nx= R xvx; или Nx= 0,5(ρv x3)CxSx;

Ny= R yvy; или Ny= 0,5(ρv y3)CySy ;

Nz= R zvz; или Nz= 0,5(ρv z3)CzSz

In our case V x = 2.5m/s; V y = 1.2 m/s; V z = 0.8 m/s; Cx=0,32; Cy=0,72; Cz=0,82; S x=HB ψ =0,33 м2;.

Sy=LH = 0,53 м2 ; S z=LB α =0,58 м2;

Nx= 0,5 1020 (2,5) 30,32 0,33 = 842 Вт

Ny= 0,5 1020 (1,2) 30,53 0,72 = 336 Вт ;

Nz= 0,5 1020 (0,8) 30,82 0,58 = 123 Вт ;

For design reasons we choose asynchronou s 400 Hz motors with a powerfull of 200 W for steering devices

and 900 W for cruise motor

The weight and volume of electric drives are determined by the method [8]:

�ПР = 0,9⋅(6,05 ЭЛ0,667 −�ЭЛ4ЭЛ), где NЭЛ=0,2 кВт.

�ПР = ,0,9(6,05 ⋅0,20,667 −0,2

4)= 2,0кг

�ПР = �ПР

3300 = 2,199

3300 = 0,66 ⋅10−3м3.

Considering that 3 steering drives are installed on the ROV, their total weight will be 6.0 kg, and the volume,

respectively, 1, 98 x 10 -3 m 3.

�ПР = 0,59 (6,05 ⋅0,90,667 −0,2

4)= 3,33 кг

�ПР = �ПР

3300 = 3,33

3300 = 1,04 ⋅10−3м3.

The weight and volumes of the propellers will be accepted according to the prototype data.

�ГВ = 4⋅0,23 = 0,92 кг;

�ГВ = 0,92

1730 = 0,53 ⋅10−3м3.

Pressure hulls (PH) of the ROVs contr ol system.

Weight of electronic units of the ROV monitoring and control syste m is determined by statistical dependence:

�СУ = 0,503 ⋅√�� ;

�СУ = 0,503 ⋅√91 ,5= 4,81 кг

.

Based on the condition of electronic control

boards placement in the PH, the d iameter of micro PC

format is assigned structurally dVH = 0.12 m. Given

that the density of installation of the elector units is mo

= 350 -450 gr/dm3, in calculations we accept mo = 400

gr/dm3, the internal volume of the PH should be not

less than The lengt h of the cylindrical insert of the PH

will be determinate

�Ц= 4�ПК

�⋅�ВН2;

�Ц= 4⋅0,0132

3,14 ⋅(0,12 )2= 1,168 м.

It is structurally d efined that the number of the

pressure hulls is equal 4 with a length of cylindrical

insert of 0.32 m. Covers of the personal computer have

the hemispherical f orm with a m R=0.15 radius.

Predesign of durability of a structure of cylindrical

buildings is ca rried out by a technique [1, 10], the

Cylindrical part of the personal computer is made of the

thermo strengthened aluminum alloy of B 95 type with

[] = 420 MPs. Wall thickness of the cylindrical part of

the hull

t= ��

[]−�� ;

t = 14 0,12/ (420 -14) = 0,0042 м

Structurally accept the wall thickness of the

cylindrical part 6 mm. Covers are 10 mm thick and are

made of aluminum alloy of 6061 -Т6 type. The strength

test calculation confirms the selected PH thicknesses in

terms of the strength and stability of the shell for a

working depth of 600 m with a safety factor of 1.45.

The mass -dimensional characteristics of the PH

adopted in the first approxima tion are:

40 American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 20 19

�ПК = 4,1(�ПК ′�Ц�

4 ⋅(12−22)+1,1��КР12

4 ⋅2700 );

where �Ц= 3,2дм ,�КР = 0,14 дм ,1= 1,78 дм ,2= 1,6дм ,�ПК ′= 620 кг/м3. mph = 3.1 kg; Volume 5.43dm 3; Total weight of hulls in assemb ly 12.4 kg; Floating volume = 20.92 dm3.

Television complex

The navigation camera is fixed in the upper part of

the bow part of ROV and is a sealed container with an

internal diameter of 0.14 meters, length of 0.22 meters,

ending in front of a transparen t hemispherical window.

The strength of the window corresponds to a working

depth of 600 meters. The telebox is made in a separate

pressure hull and forms a single structure located in the

central part of the ROV location. The calculation is

carried out in the same way as in the previous

subsection. The results of th e calculations are presented

as a weight load table.

Having the data on the equipment composition,

the next step of the design will be a graphical and sketch

study of the general arrangement o f the vehicle, which

gives us the opportunity to determine the real

dimensions of the L 2,B2,H2 design and to compare them

with the initial values of the L 1,B1,H1. Correction factor

kL [5] is calculated,

kL = √Δ1

Δ0

3 ; kL = (75,91/80) 0,33 =0,98

The main dimensions of the first iteration of the

L1, B 1, H 1 are multiplied by the obtained k L factor, and

adjustments are made to the weight load table. This

operation is continued until the displacement of the set

of tw o adjacent iterations differs by 0.5% [6].

Typically, the number of steps to refine the princip al

dimensions is 2 -3.

Conclusions

1. The proposed method of determining

displacement and main dimensions of uninhabited

vehicles allows to find with sufficient accuracy the

parameters of underwater carrier of equipment

according to the technical assignmen t and to go to the

stage of sketch design.

2. The proposed method is quite versatile and can

be applied to different types of underwater carriers. The

error of t he first iteration is 8 -10%.

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ill.

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