Американский Научный Журнал METHODOLOGY DETERMINING DISPLACEMENT AND MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF UNMANNED UNDERWATER VEHICLES IN THE EARLY STAGES OF DESIGN

Abstract. The article is devoted to the description of the new method for determining of displacement and the main dimensions of the remotely operated underwater vehicles. The method is based on polynomial approximation of data array, the parameters received by results of mathematical modeling the teithed survey, inspection and universal working vehicles. The method is based on the calculation of payload mass. The ROV weight load includes the possibility to use modular elements. As an example, the calculation of the main dimensions of the real vehicle builed in Nikolayev in 1993-94 is given. Скачать в формате PDF
36 American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 20 19
behavior is complicated by num ber of external and
internal causes, since it allows them to re move
aggression, cope with isolation and passivity. At the
same time, the school teacher often faces another
problem - when an auspicious and generally successful
student, believing that succes s is guaranteed by
previous merit, stops making efforts in scho ol, lets
everything take its course. In this case, the situation of
success, created by the teacher, takes the form of a kind
of puff pie, where between the layers of the test
(between two situ ations of success) the filling is located
(the situation of fai lure).
Computer technologies help to qualitatively
change the content, methods and organizational forms
of training and under certain conditions can contribute
to the disclosure, preservation a nd development of the
individual abilities of the students, the ir personal
qualities; the formation of cognitive abilities; the
intention for self -improvement. Multimedia computer
technologies allows to replace almost all the traditional
technical training means. In many cases, such a
replacement turns out to be more effectively, allows the
teacher to operatively combine various means that
contribute to a deeper and more conscious mastering of
the material being studied, saves lesson time, fills it
with inf ormation. Therefore, it is completely natural to
introduce thes e means into the modern educational
process. Multimedia means allow to provide the best,
in comparison with other technical teaching means, the
realization of the principle of visibility, which plays a
leading role in the educational technologies of primar y
school. In addition, multimedia is given the task of
providing effective support for game forms of the
lesson, active “student -computer” dialogue, and all this
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Thus, success as a process and a psychologi cal -
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the work done.

REFERENCES
1.Slastenin V.A. Pedagogica. –M.:Akademia,
2003. – 576 p. (in Russion)
2.Kulyatkin Yu., Tarasov S. Educational
environment and personal development.// Novie
znanie. – 2001. – № 1.(in Russion)
3.Andreeva Yu.V. Teaching practice. Primary and
basic general education. Optimistic strategy of creating
a situation of success in the educational activities of
adolescents. –Ufa: East University, 2000. – 128 p.

METHODOLOGY DETERMIN ING DISPLACEMENT AND MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF UNMANNED
UN DERWATER VEHICLES IN THE EARLY STAGES OF DESIGN


Pyshniev S.N.
Ph.D.(Technical Sciences),
associate Prof essor of Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding ,
Nikolayev, Ukraine.
Сhangli Yu
Ph.D, .(Technical Sciences),
associate Professor of Harbin Institute of Technology,
Weihai, P.R. China.


Abstract . The article is devoted to the description of the new method for determining of displacement and
the main dimensions of the remote ly operated underwater vehicles. The method is based on polynom ial
approximation of data array, the parameters received by results of mathematical modeling the teithed survey,
inspection and universal working vehicles. The method is based on the calculatio n of payload mass. The ROV
weight load includes the possibility to use modular elements. As an example, the calculation of the main
dimensions of the real vehicle builed in Nikolayev in 1993 -94 is given.
Keywords : unmanned underwater vehicle, displacement calculation, main dimensions calculation, weight
load calculati on, payload.

Defining the basic parameters of the object being
developed has always been and remains the most
important task for the designer. The efficiency of the
solution method is the hig her the more accurate the
calculations can be made at the first steps of the project
task.
The most important dependencies used to
determine of the displacement and dimensions of the
vehicles are balance equations, or the equations of the
existence of the vehicles, such as the equa tion of
masses, volumes, energy margin, and information
exchange.
Setting the task: correct determination of
displacement and main dimensions of unmanned
underwater vehicles (ROV) presents a difficult task for
the designer, especi ally if there is no close prototype.
[9]. The designer often has face to face a situation
where he, apart from the terms of reference, does not
have the necessary information for the future of the
project.
The object of the study is tied uninhabited
under water vehicles.
The main tasks , which were solved during the
study - development and justification of methods of
calculation of displacement and main dimensions of

American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 2019 37

underwater vehicles according to the data of the
technical assignment.
Research methods - approximation of artificial
data array, the calculated for the searching, inspection
and working vehicles.
It is known that the mass equation analytically
represents the fact that the displacement of the vehicle
is the functional sum of the masses constitut ing the load
[3],
��= ∑�(��,�)+��� , (1)
Where m inv - invariant, independent of mass
displacement, determined before the beginning of
dimensions calculation, based on the technical
assignment for design, for example, manipulator , TV
camera, depth sensors, ROVs positions, etc.
mi (mo, r) are masses that ma ke up the remaining
load items and depend both on the total mass of the
future apparatus and on its tactical and technical
characteristics (TTC). In fact, the mass of the light
body, electric cables, propulsions and other equipment
of the vehicles depends in one way or another on its
size, and therefore, form the total mass of the object. At
the same time, some load items are linear, and others
do not change linearly with the gro wth of the total mass
of the vehicles [4].
Referring to the division of all masses of the
vehicles into two categories by the nature of the
dependence on the total mass, equation (1) will be
written as:

��= (�ЛК +�АКК +�ДРК +�ПЛ )��2/3+(�УР +�КДС +�ЗВ)��+��� , (2)

where m O - mas s of fully loaded apparatus;
qI - mass meters proportional to m O2/3 ;
aI[ are the proportional coefficients of the masses
proportional to the m O.
In this equation, the non -linear depende nce
(degree 2/3) is accepted for the weight of the light body,
accumulators, propulsion -steering complex, float, and
the linear dependence for the equalizing, roll -trimming
systems and the buoyancy margin of the apparatus.
Solving this cubic relative to mo 1/3 equation, we find
the normal displacement of the apparatus.
There are three canonical methods of determining
the displacement of ROV [6], which have passed from
the theory of surface vessel design. One of which, as
shown above, is based on the solution of the algebraic
equation, the second on the differential reco unt of the
vehicles load articles, and the third uses Newton 's
graph -analytic method, successively approaching the
solution with the reclusive formula
mi+1= m 1 – F(m 1)/F’(m 1) (3)
This proces s is described in more detail in [5].
All of the above methods have certain
disadvantages. First of all, it is a great dependence on
the accuracy of the original data. Most often it is
information about the articles of load of a close
prototype, which is o ften erroneous. It is essential that
for surface vessels it is much easier to find such
information than for underwater vehicle equipment [8].
To date, statistical material on ROVs is extremely
limited.
Description of the method - the author tried to
chang e the approach to solving this problem, and will
focus on the " independent" components of the load of
the apparatus. There are two good reasons. First, these
"independent" load elements typically constitute a
payload that enables the apparatus to perform t he main
task. Second, the technical data for these load element s
are the most reliable. They are specified in the
specification or in the documentation.
In order to start calculation of characteristics, we
need to know the following conditions: ROV
assignm ent; search area, m 2; Depth and hydrology in
the area of work; Design speed of ROV, m/s;. In
addition, will be assumed that the architectural and
structural type of ROV is defined.
The author 's method of determining the main
characteristics of ROV is prop osed. The method is
based on the statistical material received by data
processing of hypothetical prototypes of two types
calculated on mathematical models of the ROV - the
searching and inspection and universal workers. In the
future, the obtained data ar e clarified through the
project load table and for 2 -3 iteratio ns lead us to the
completed result. The technique is quite versatile and
produces reliable results for a wide range of underwater
vehicle designs. One of the key issues in determining
the displ acement and main dimensions of the ROV is
the correct determina tion of the value of the GWP
payload corresponding to the nature of the work
performed. By payload we will understand all
equipment and devices that provide the solution of the
task. The list o f this equipment belongs to the category
of so -called "independ ent" variables, the modification
of the list of which changes the characteristics of the
entire set.
For selection of main dimensions of ROV and
determination of its displacement in the first
approximation, consider the example of inspection
ROV "Diaf 600, " the sckim of which is shown in Fig.1.

38 American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 20 19
Fig.1. Skim of inspection ROV "Diaf 600."

Payload of ROV "Diaf -600" includes two TV
cameras, four la mps, multi -beam sonar, depth sensors,
radioactivity, magnetometer, manipulator -grip,
navigation system and control system. In total, more
than 10.0 kg. of payload. Flight speed of ROV is 2.5
m/s. The calculation is performed in the following
sequence [4]: The e xpected value of ROV displacement
in the first approximation is determined by the formula:
ПА = ГР
ГР where ήГР the coefficient of utilization of
displacement counted on the following dependence:

ГР = (�−�⋅Р⋅10−3+ )⋅10−2+0,045 ; where
�= 10 ,8+0,024 ГР +9,2⋅10−6ГР2;
�= 1,18 +0,003 ГР;
= 1,55 −1,33 �ПА.
In this case, it is considered that the residual buoyancy of the payload PГР = 10 kg; H P =600 m; V ПА = 2.5
m/s. At these numerical values:
�= 10 ,8+0,024 ⋅10 +9,2⋅10−6⋅100 = 11 ,118 ;
�= 1,18 +0,030 = 1,21 ;
= 1,55 −1,33 ⋅2,5= −1,78 .
ГР = (11 ,118 −1,0⋅1,21 −1,78 )⋅10−2+0,045 = 0,126 .

ROV displacement in the first approximation will
be equal to:
ПА = 10
0,126 = 79 ,36 к.
In calculations we accept Δ ПА 80 .0 kg. This Δ ПА
value is indicative and will be refined on subsequent
iterations.
Data on foreign prototypes ROV "ECA H800" and
"Predator 300" [11] give Δ ПА values in the range of 96
- 67 kg with a pay load value of 34 and 11 kg.
The main dimensions of the Diaf 600 vehicles in
the first approximation are determined by the formulas:
ПА = (0,085 ⋅√ПА +0,22 �ПА1,2)−0,1;
�ПА = 0,08 ⋅√(ПА +2) 3 −0,06 ;
ПА = 0,092 ⋅√(ПА +3,5) 3 −0,09 ;

If the ROV architecture represents a "frame"
layout w ithout a streamlined light hull, the overall
completeness factor can be calculated using the
formula; = �−(�,� )

in our case, δ = 0.78.
According to the calculation results i n the first
approximation the dimensions of ROV "Diaf - 600"
will be: L = 1 .27 m, B = 0.64 m, H = 0.72 m. Then it
is possible to go to estimation of masses and volumes
of components of weight load of the vehicle.
The frame
Frame is based on sandwich panels include
fibreglass -sintaktik -fibreglass. The weight of these
elements can be estimated using the factors of total
ROV completeness of the and filling the volume of the
surface housing k v. Works [4. 6] estimate the range of
kv, which for thi s type of ROV under consideration will
be about 0.48. The integral mass density of these
structural elements at the density of the syntactic of 500
kg/m 3 [6] will be 700 kg/m 3.

�НР = 1,03 ⋅(� )⋅�⋅�ЗП ⋅�СФ ;
�НР = 1,03 ⋅(1,08 ⋅0,65 ⋅0,6)⋅0,585 ⋅0,18 ⋅700 = 32 кг.

American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 2019 39

The floating volume of these structural elements will be:
�НР = 32
70 0= 0,0457 м3.
Propulsion complex
The required power for ROV movement in three planes is determined by the method [2, 7]
Nx= R xvx; или Nx= 0,5(ρv x3)CxSx;
Ny= R yvy; или Ny= 0,5(ρv y3)CySy ;
Nz= R zvz; или Nz= 0,5(ρv z3)CzSz

In our case V x = 2.5m/s; V y = 1.2 m/s; V z = 0.8 m/s; Cx=0,32; Cy=0,72; Cz=0,82; S x=HB ψ =0,33 м2;.
Sy=LH = 0,53 м2 ; S z=LB α =0,58 м2;

Nx= 0,5 1020 (2,5) 30,32 0,33 = 842 Вт
Ny= 0,5 1020 (1,2) 30,53 0,72 = 336 Вт ;
Nz= 0,5 1020 (0,8) 30,82 0,58 = 123 Вт ;
For design reasons we choose asynchronou s 400 Hz motors with a powerfull of 200 W for steering devices
and 900 W for cruise motor
The weight and volume of electric drives are determined by the method [8]:
�ПР = 0,9⋅(6,05 ЭЛ0,667 −�ЭЛ4ЭЛ), где NЭЛ=0,2 кВт.
�ПР = ,0,9(6,05 ⋅0,20,667 −0,2
4)= 2,0кг
�ПР = �ПР
3300 = 2,199
3300 = 0,66 ⋅10−3м3.
Considering that 3 steering drives are installed on the ROV, their total weight will be 6.0 kg, and the volume,
respectively, 1, 98 x 10 -3 m 3.
�ПР = 0,59 (6,05 ⋅0,90,667 −0,2
4)= 3,33 кг
�ПР = �ПР
3300 = 3,33
3300 = 1,04 ⋅10−3м3.
The weight and volumes of the propellers will be accepted according to the prototype data.
�ГВ = 4⋅0,23 = 0,92 кг;
�ГВ = 0,92
1730 = 0,53 ⋅10−3м3.
Pressure hulls (PH) of the ROVs contr ol system.
Weight of electronic units of the ROV monitoring and control syste m is determined by statistical dependence:


�СУ = 0,503 ⋅√�� ;
�СУ = 0,503 ⋅√91 ,5= 4,81 кг
.
Based on the condition of electronic control
boards placement in the PH, the d iameter of micro PC
format is assigned structurally dVH = 0.12 m. Given
that the density of installation of the elector units is mo
= 350 -450 gr/dm3, in calculations we accept mo = 400
gr/dm3, the internal volume of the PH should be not
less than The lengt h of the cylindrical insert of the PH
will be determinate
�Ц= 4�ПК
�⋅�ВН2;
�Ц= 4⋅0,0132
3,14 ⋅(0,12 )2= 1,168 м.

It is structurally d efined that the number of the
pressure hulls is equal 4 with a length of cylindrical
insert of 0.32 m. Covers of the personal computer have
the hemispherical f orm with a m R=0.15 radius.
Predesign of durability of a structure of cylindrical
buildings is ca rried out by a technique [1, 10], the
Cylindrical part of the personal computer is made of the
thermo strengthened aluminum alloy of B 95 type with
[] = 420 MPs. Wall thickness of the cylindrical part of
the hull
t= ��
[]−�� ;
t = 14 0,12/ (420 -14) = 0,0042 м

Structurally accept the wall thickness of the
cylindrical part 6 mm. Covers are 10 mm thick and are
made of aluminum alloy of 6061 -Т6 type. The strength
test calculation confirms the selected PH thicknesses in
terms of the strength and stability of the shell for a
working depth of 600 m with a safety factor of 1.45.
The mass -dimensional characteristics of the PH
adopted in the first approxima tion are:

40 American Scientific Journal № ( 31) / 20 19
�ПК = 4,1(�ПК ′�Ц�
4 ⋅(12−22)+1,1��КР12
4 ⋅2700 );
where �Ц= 3,2дм ,�КР = 0,14 дм ,1= 1,78 дм ,2= 1,6дм ,�ПК ′= 620 кг/м3. mph = 3.1 kg; Volume 5.43dm 3; Total weight of hulls in assemb ly 12.4 kg; Floating volume = 20.92 dm3.

Television complex
The navigation camera is fixed in the upper part of
the bow part of ROV and is a sealed container with an
internal diameter of 0.14 meters, length of 0.22 meters,
ending in front of a transparen t hemispherical window.
The strength of the window corresponds to a working
depth of 600 meters. The telebox is made in a separate
pressure hull and forms a single structure located in the
central part of the ROV location. The calculation is
carried out in the same way as in the previous
subsection. The results of th e calculations are presented
as a weight load table.
Having the data on the equipment composition,
the next step of the design will be a graphical and sketch
study of the general arrangement o f the vehicle, which
gives us the opportunity to determine the real
dimensions of the L 2,B2,H2 design and to compare them
with the initial values of the L 1,B1,H1. Correction factor
kL [5] is calculated,
kL = √Δ1
Δ0
3 ; kL = (75,91/80) 0,33 =0,98
The main dimensions of the first iteration of the
L1, B 1, H 1 are multiplied by the obtained k L factor, and
adjustments are made to the weight load table. This
operation is continued until the displacement of the set
of tw o adjacent iterations differs by 0.5% [6].
Typically, the number of steps to refine the princip al
dimensions is 2 -3.
Conclusions
1. The proposed method of determining
displacement and main dimensions of uninhabited
vehicles allows to find with sufficient accuracy the
parameters of underwater carrier of equipment
according to the technical assignmen t and to go to the
stage of sketch design.
2. The proposed method is quite versatile and can
be applied to different types of underwater carriers. The
error of t he first iteration is 8 -10%.

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