Американский Научный Журнал QUARTZ VARIOMETER

Abstract. This paper considers a new version of the compact design of the quartz variometer based on quartz magnetic sensors and photoelectric converter, made on the basis of transistor optopara and based on them magnetomeasuring converter. The proposed design of the two-component quartz magnetic sensors in the practice of quartz magnetometric instrumentation is carried out for the first time. The two-component sensor is designed for modern magnetic variation stations, which are used for work in field and expeditionary conditions, as well as for special research and work Скачать в формате PDF
American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 2019 31

По полученным ранее данным была созданы
карты, в трехмерном пространстве с учетом
рельефа и проницаемости почв. Для этого были
взяты две карты: карта с рельефом и карта почв с
преобладающим механическим составом почв, в
базу данных которой были внесены рассчитанные
ранее коэффициенты фильтрации. Моделирование
осуществлялось в ArcView GIS . Написаны
скрипты, позволяющий объединить дв е выбранные
темы. Исходными данными для отобр ажен ия
разлива жидкостей являются: карта в трехмерном
пространстве с учетом рельефа и проницаемости
почв, общий объем вытекшей жидкости,
влажность, температура воздуха, средняя глубина
пропитки грунта, время ист ечения жидкости из
поврежденного трубопровода.
Моделирование рассчитываемого объема с
соответствующим расходом нефти по этапам
проводилось с использованием
скорректированного модуля hydro
пространственного анализа ( Spatial Analyst )
ArcView GIS с учетом ге офильтрации грунтов и
рельефа местности. При запо лнении пространства
вокруг места аварии, и, соответственно,
определение площади разлива, учитывается объем
жидкости впитавшейся в грунт. Проделанная
работа позволяет получить площадь загрязненных
земель (для нефти, бензина др.), что позволит
рассчитать сте пень загрязнения компонентов
окружающей природной среды и величину ущерба,
нанесенного окружающей природной среде в
результате данной аварии.
В расчетах использовалась нечеткая логика.
Применение такого род а систем для решения
данной задачи обусловлено сл едующими
причинами:
во-первых, большая часть величин,
используемых при расчетах, в силу различного
рода упрощений, допущенных при выводе формул,
имеют неточный, приблизительный характер,
погрешности величин, определяемых путем
различного рода оперативных и змерений,
достаточно велики;
во-вторых, допущения о постоянстве
отдельных коэффициентов в расчетных формулах
не являются достаточно обоснованными; более
корректным является предположение о возможных
изменени ях этих коэффициентов;
в-третьих, некоторые величины могут быть
неизвестны, и в расчете в этом случае используются
экспертные оценки, которые, естественно,
находятся в некотором интервале и принципиально
нечеткий характер.
Таким образом, следует говорить о расчетах в
условиях, к огда компоненты расчетных формул
заданы не точечными значениями, а
интервальными. Однако простое использование
интервальных оценок недостаточно информативно.
Более интересным является использование
интервалов в совокупности с вероятн остной
оценкой – степен и принадлежности параметров
выбранному интервалу, то есть необходимо
осуществить переход к использованию в расчетах
нечетких чисел.
Применение аппарата нечетких чисел при
расчетах, определяющих величину ущерба при
авариях на нефтепро дуктопроводах, целесооб разно
еще и потому, что они дают не только значения
наиболее благоприятного, но и наиболее
неблагоприятного развития событий. Последнее
позволит хотя бы на стадии предварительной
проработки подготовить мероприятия для
предотвращения наихудшего варианта.

Ли тература
1. Зуев К.И. Использование ГИС -технологий
при моделировании чрезвычайных ситуаций и
промышленных задач водоснабжения,
теплоснабжения. Х МНПК « Фундаментальные и
прикладные исследования, разработка и
применение высоких технологи й в
промышленности ». г. Санкт -Петербург, 2010.
2. Басниев К.С. Нефтегазовая
гидродинамика. - М.: Издательсво МГУ, 2005. –
479 –480с.
3. Самарский А.А., Гулин А.В. Численные
методы.. М.: Наука, 1989. – 430с.

QUARTZ VARIOMETER

Vladimir V. Lyubimov
Senior researc her
Pushkov institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere
and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN) of RAS
Moscow, Troitsk, Russia

Abstract. This paper considers a new version of the compact design of the quartz variometer based on quartz
magnetic sensors an d ph otoelectric converter, made on the basis of transistor optopara and based on them magneto -
measuring converter. The proposed design of the two -component quartz magnetic sensors in the practice of quartz
magnetometric instrumentation is carried out for t he f irst time. The two -component sensor is designed for modern
magnetic variation stations, which are used for work in field and expeditionary conditions, as well as for special
research and work.
Keywords: magnetic observatory, quartz magnetic sensors, ma gne tic variation stations, magneto -measuring
converter, magnetic field

32 American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 20 19
In IZMIRAN for many years and on an ongoing
basis, scientific research is being conducted related to
the creation of high -precision equipment based on
quartz magnetic sensors ( QMS ). Th is class of
instruments is designed to register and study
geomagnetic variations. Most of Russia's magnetic
observat ories ( MO ) are equipped with such equipment,
as well as many foreign observatories. The long -term
experience allows further improvement of q uartz
magnetovariation stations ( MVS ), the basis of which is
a magneto -measuring converter ( MMC ).
In some ways, this branch of magnetic
instrumentation has always been related to nano
technologies in terms of creating and manufacturing
QMS , the sensitive e lement of which was hung in
various ways on quartz thread, the thickness of which,
as a rule, was less the thickness of the human hair and
was about 15...30 microns. At the same time, the
suspension of QMS in the latest models of variometers
was performed in anti -seismic and anti -slant versions
of performance. The quartz variometers have always
differed from other type of magnetometers in that they
had significantly higher characteristics in
thermostability, interference and stable operation at a
long inter val of time.
This paper considers a new version of the compact
design of the two -component quartz variometer ( TQV )
based on QMS and photoelectric converter ( PEC ),
made on the basis of transistor optopara ( TOP ) and
based on them MMC.
The proposed design of the compact QMS in the
practice of quartz magnetometric instrumentation is
carried out for the first time and is in tended for modern
MVS, which are used for work in field and
expeditionary conditions, as well as for the special
studies and works. Some res ults of tests of the
prototype of the device under the conditions of the
MOSCOW observatory are presented.
NEW DESI GN OF THE MVS
The concept of the new QMS design was born out
of the considerations of maximum miniaturization and
minimal consumption of the MVS, coupled with new
methods of obtaining digital information, storing it
and/or wireless transmission MVS data lo cated in the
field. At the same time, QMS should have a sufficiently
high resolution ability and stable characteristics at a
fairly large tim e interval of their application.

Figure 1. The general view of the two -compon ent QMS design.

Figure 1 shows the general look of QMS and
individual sensor elements design and elements of the
PEC. Both QMS (see Figure 1a ) are located
orthogonally togethe r at the lowest possible distance,
which excludes their interinfluence, and are fixed
rigidly on the basis that has the ability to level both
QMS s simultaneously in a horizontal plane. Figure 1b
shows the design of individual elements of QMS and
PEC ( top v iew ) and a fragm ent of the suspension of one
of the magnets on the quartz thread ( QT ). Two variants
of QMS execution were created during the
development process. They differed only by the design
and installation of the PEC. The first variant of the use
of PEC is shown on Figure 1b , when the reflective
mirror ( RM ) was attached to the most
magnetosensitive element ( MSE ), - on the magnet. To
eliminate the effect on the MSE of the PEC power
source, the QMS suspension design has been modified,
as shown in Figure 2. That is, the RM was made on a
quartz thread ( QT ) at some distance below the MSE.
This made it possible to exclude the effect of the PEC
power source on the results of measurements.
FUNCTIONAL SCHEME OF THE TQV
The functional scheme of the TQV is shown in
Figure 2 . T his scheme includes three successive
converters: magnetic field/constant current,

American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 2019 33

current/voltage and voltage/digital code. At the same
time, the TQV has a digital output of measured data to
connect (using interface RS -232) to a personal
comp uter ( PC ).
Th e magnetic field/current converter is designed
on the basis of QMS and PEC. The current/voltage
converter is made on the basis of a DC amplifier
(DCA ), and the voltage converter/digital code is made
on the basis of an analog -digital converter (ADC ). At
the same time, the blocks of QMS and PEC in the
design of the MMC, as a rule, are (to exclude
electromagnetic influence on the results of
measurements) at some distance from the electronic
unit ( EU ). MMC consists of the following main blocks
- the QMS and the EU, which are powered by an
external DC source.
The EU includes DCA, ADC and power supply
(PS ) schemes. A network adapter ( NA ) or accumulator
battery ( AB ) is used to power all TQV schemes. EU
also includes a temperature sensor ( TS ), a sensit ive
element of which is installed near one of the QMS's and
allows you to control the temperature of the QMS
inside the protective casing with an accuracy of 0.1 °С.
The QMS block includes a quartz frame ( QF ) on
which the MSE and RM is fixed with the help of the
QT, as w ell as the PEC installed in and opposite in the
immediate vicinity. Unlike the PEC scheme (shown in
Figure 1b , where the MSE is fixed on the mobile RM
and is located in the co -center of the PCE), the proposed
scheme of the RM is located with a shift from t he center
of the MSE - at the distance of 25 mm. This
significantly reduces the impact on the MSE of the
source of current feeding the PEC scheme ( Figure 2
designated as SC ). In this design, the MMC scheme of
linear and angular movements is made on the bas is of
the TOP with an open optical channel [5].

Figure 2. Functional scheme of the TQV.

Figure 2 shows elements of the MMC measuring
channel sch eme – three coils of copper wire with
different number of turns and diffe rent thickness of
wire, which are screwed on quartz frames and fixed on
a common quartz vertical base rod (see Figure 1a and
Figure 1b ). These coils are designed for the initial
insta llation (rewind of the IC ) and calibration ( CC ) of
the MSE, as well as maintaining the stability of its work
by carrying out negative feedback (coil of the NF ) of
the DCA scheme connected to the exit of the PEC.
The EU scheme (see Figure 2 ) includes a sign al
amplifier consisting of three functional no des: pre -
amplifier ( MDM ), DCA and integrator ( INT ). The
preliminary amplifier is made on the basis of a low
noise DCA with its own internal NF and MDM -
transformation. It provides the main amplification of
the i nput from the PEC scheme. The DCA scheme,
toge ther with INT, achieves the required output level of
analog voltage for ADC and performs filter functions
with a cut -off frequency of 3...5 Hz. The use of a special
differential amplifier with MDM -conversion in the
DCA scheme has led to a decrease (up to 3 ...5 pT) the
MMC's own noises and the overall stability of the
DCA, both over time and when the ambient
temperature changes widely. At the same time, the NF
realizes a dynamic range of geomagnetic variations
me asurement by the MMC measuring channel ± (4... 6)
mkT with the possibility of increasing it.
The 24 -bit ADC scheme provides a digitization of
analog voltage from the release DCA output at a
frequency of 16 Hz. At the same time the resolution of
the MMC mea suring channels (which are visualized on

34 American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 20 19
the c onnected PC display) is realized at the level of 0.1
nT and more precisely.
The microcontroller ( MC ) transmits digital ADC
data, exchanges information and management teams
through a sequential port (RS -232) fro m a PC at a
distance of 3 to 25 m. Microcontro ller activates the
work of the MMC, sends control programs associated
with setting up and verifying the health of the QMC
work on the control unit ( CU ). MC also manages the
built -in timer, and if available and necessary, it
supports the GPS receiver connec ted to the PC, has a
GPS synchronization channel and the ability to correct
of the real -time clock. The PS is built using DC -DC
converters, powered by both an external DC source
(AB) voltage of 7...24 V, and fr om the standard NA
voltage of 12 ± 5 V. The PS provides power to all
electronic schemes of EU and PEC with the help of
three stabilized SC voltage ± 5 V and 12 V. At the same
time, the power consumed by the TQV is no more than
2.7...3.0 W.
The software fo r the TQV provides the
organization of the dat abase, its visualization during the
work on the PC display and the ability to process data
for use in a format suitable for participation in
international data collection programs.

Figure 3 . Results of the T QV tests. Fragment of a two -day simultaneous recording of the Earth magnetic field
variations measuring channels of TQV and MVS in the MOSCOW observatory.

CONCLUSION
As a result of the research and experimental work
carried out, a new design of the TQV ha s been created.
This technical solution of the MMC has the following
distinctive features from all previously created similar
devices:
1) High stability of work in time (which is
important for long -term research in MO conditions)
and good stability, wor k at changes in ambient
temperature in broad ranges (which is important in field
and expeditionary work).
2) Low level of own noises of the measuring
channel, the amplitude of which is no more than 3...5
pT.
3) Low energy consumption, which allows
effici ent use of MMC in the construction of
autonomous stations powered by AB or solar batteries.
The prototype of the TQV has been successfully
tested in the MOSCOW observatory (IZMIRAN). A
fragmen t of a two -day recording of one of the
measuring channels of t he TQV constituents of the
Earth magnetic field together and in sync with the
recordings of a nearby quartz MVS and records of the
MOSCOW observatory variometers is presented on
Figure 3 .

Refe rences:
1. Bobrov V.N., Lyubimov V.V. Digital
Magnetovariation station // Sensors and Systems / New
devices. Moscow: SenSiDat Ltd., 2005. No.2. S.40 -42.
2. Belov B.A., Burtsev Y.A., Kiriakov V.H.,
Lyubimov V.V. Digital quartz magnetovariation
stations / E conomy and production. /Technology,

American Scientific Journal № ( 32) / 2019 35

equipment, materials / Jou rnal of the organizers of
production. Moscow, 2005. No.4. S.73 -77.
3. Burtsev Y.A., Kiriakov V.H., Lyubimov V.V.
Digital Magnetovariation Station "KVARTS -4" //
Sensors and Systems / New Devices . Moscow:
SenSiDat Ltd., 2006. No.1. S.45 -48.
4. Lyubimov V.V . Magnetomeasuring converter
based on quartz sensors / International Science Project,
Turku, Finland, 2018. Part 1, No.21. S.13 -20.
5. Optopara transistor with an open optical
channel. OAO ”OPT RON”. http://optron.ru/electronic -
components/60/329.
6. Lyubi mov V.V. Magnetomeasuring converter
for digital variation stations / Pribory, Moscow, 2019.
No.8 (230). S.11 -16.

INVESTIGATION OF COA L DUST FORMATION UND ER CYCLIC CRYOGENIC INFLUENCES

Obozhina Elena
Cand. of Science (Engineering),
modeling laboratory of the Scientific center of geomechanics and mining issues,
Saint -Petersburg mining university,
Saint -Petersburg

Abstract. Analysis of the need to consider the fractional compositio n of coal dust in the calculation of the
dust load is carried out. The impact of cycles of freezing and thawing on the fractional composition of the dust
generated during mechanical destruction of coal marks D are found. T o achieve this goal, in vitro expe riments
were carried out with coal mark D of the Tugnuisky deposit. The collected sample was split into smaller samples
and, with the help of mechanical crushing followed by classifying, the following fractions were obtain ed: 1 mm,
1 + 0.63 mm, 0.4 mm -0.6 3, -0.4 +0 25 mm, -0.25 mm + 0.2, 0.2 + 0.14 mm, -0.14 mm. For determining the
fractional composition of the coal, depending on the degree of hydration was used Camsizer XT installation, which
allows obtaining a density di stribution of particles in a sampl e. Altogether were conducted 80 trials, of which 40 -
in the natural moisture and 40 - with artificial moisture (full saturation).
The experimental results showed that there is a relationship between the fractional composi tion of the sample,
its moisture c ontent and the number of cycles of freezing and thawing. It is shown that the level of dust, depending
on the number of cycles at increasing humidity is substantially reduced: by the degree of destruction of 7 -fold
effect of the dry coal is 1 -fold to humid ified coal.
Also was found the effect size fractions on the degree of destruction. In particular, the processing of the
experimental data showed that the initial fraction of less than 0.14 mm output of fine dust does not change, and
further research may b e excluded from the analysis. The maximum degree of destruction observed dust sample
fractions 1 + 0.63 mm, which should be used in determining the impact of man -made laws of moisture on the
fractional composition of the d ust in the cyclic cryogenic effect s. The established regularities will continue to
develop the best plan of experimental work to achieve this goal for different marks of coal.
Keywords: dust concentration, fractional composition, coal, pneumoconiosis, cyc les of freezing and thawing,
dusti ng, respirable fraction.

Introduction. Currently, there is no unified
system for measuring the dust content in the working
area. Each country adheres to its own way of
normalizing the dust content in the air of the workin g
area and, accordingly, its dust suppression measures.
The only thing that is similar in all countries is the
rationing of coal dust depending on the content of
silicon dioxide in it, because this compound has a
negative impact on the early appearance of
pneumoconiosis in workers. Table 1 shows the
maximum permissible concentrations of coal dust in
different countries. The table shows that Russia is the
most" loyal " to dust: the content of silicon dioxide can
reach up to 70%, which is unacceptable in most
developed countries [1, 19].
Tab le 1
Indicative data on the measurement and assessment of dust concentration in the coal industry in
Germany, France, the UK, the USA and Russia.
Indicator Germany France The UK The USA Russia
Maximum permissible dust
concentration, mg/m 3 10 13,5 7 2 10
Assessment of quartz content
q>5% with a
coefficient К=1;
0,7 и 0,3
Fixed
q>7%
At the
testing
stage
Fixed
q>7%
q>10%, 2
mg/m 3,
q<10% -
10 mg/m 3

Over the past 10 years, it has been revealed that
the incidence of workers is affected not only by the
content of free silicon dioxide, but also by the fractional
composition of dust (the most dangerous is the dust
fraction from 2 to 5 microns, since it is retained in the
alveoli of the lungs and remains there in 50 -90% of