Американский Научный Журнал USAGE FEATURES OF THE ELECTRONIC INDICATORS FOR SHIP’S AND SHORE POWER SUPPLY FOUR– STROKE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES (DIESEL ENGINES) (14-20)

The present publication illuminate the tasks as follows: Electronic indicator proper usage at four–stroke internal combustion engines (diesel engines) indication; Indication results & diagram proper transfer to PC; indicator diagram top dead center TDC correction and engine performance data output values such as PMI– mean indicated pressure, PME–mean effective pressure, NIND–indicated power and NEFF–effective power proper calculations for each cylinder and engine total. Скачать в формате PDF
14 American Scientific Journal № ( 36 ) / 2020
«DIESELSIM DPS –100» . Parts 1 & 2, Novorossiysk,
Admiral F.F. Ushakov State Maritime University,
201 0.
3. A.G. Taranin, The ship’s equipment
operational instructions elements with usage of the ER
simulator «DIESELSIM DPS –100», Novorossiysk,
Admiral F.F. Ushakov State Maritime University,
2020.
4. A.G. Taranin, The ship’s equipment
operational instructions elem ents with usage
of the ER simulator «NEPTUNE MC90 –IV»,
Novorossiysk, Admiral F.F. Ushakov State Maritime
University, 2020.

USAGE FEATURES OF THE ELECTRONIC INDIC ATORS FOR SHIP’S AND SHOR E POWER
SUPPLY FOUR –STROKE I NTERNAL COMBUSTION E NGINES (DIESEL ENGIN ES)

Taranin Aleksandr G.
Ex.technical superintendent for trouble shooting of worldwide trading
and repairing company PT. Goltens (New York, USA, branch office – Jakart a, Indonesia),
Chief engineer of worldwide shipping company International Tanker Management (Dubai, UAE),
PhD, docent of F.F.Ushakov State Maritime University «Ship Power Plant Operation» department
(F.F.Ushakov State Maritime University, Novorossiysk, Russia).
Tel: +7 962 861 2522

Annotation . The present publication illuminate the tasks as follows: Electronic indicator proper usage at
four –stroke internal combustion engines (diesel engines) indication; Indication results & diagram proper transfer
to PC; indicator diagram top dead center TDC correction and engine performance data output values such as P MI–
mean indicated pressure, P ME–mean effective pressure, N IND –indicated power and N EFF –effective power proper
calculations for each cylinder and engine total.
Keywords: Engine indication, performance data, electronic indicator, mean –indicated & mean –effective
pressure, indi cated & effective power.

Introduction
Currently on the worldwide fleet motor –vessels
and shore diesel power plants for internal combustion
engines –diesel engines indication and performance
data measurement readings carrying –out the micro –
processing gauging and systems, such as Doctor –
Engine, Diesel –Doctor and Electronic indicators
(different kind of brands and manufacturers) are used
in most of cases. However, actually they are not
carrying –out the functions of the engines technical
condition (cylinder tightness, fuel injection equipment
condition and turbocharger system condition)
diagnostic and analysis, overload/download analysis
and load distribution between the cylinders analysis,
but they are electronic gauges for compression
pressures P COM , maximum combustion pressures P MAX
measurement by open indicator diagrams (Fig.1) and
closed indicator diagrams (Fig.2) for each cylinder and
for engine speed measurement at each cylinder
indication. All others values are required for the engi ne
technical condition diagnostic and analysis has
determined by calculation from indicator diagrams or
entered manually to the electronic equipment tables.
Examine the engine indication results from
Electronic indicator type HLV –2005 MK
(Praezisionsmesste chnik Beawert GMBH, Germany):
The values are calculated from the indicator
diagrams:
– Cylinders indicator diagrams area A D (mm 2);
– Cylinders mean –indicated pressure P MICYL
(bar) (Fif.3);
– Cylinders mean –effective pressure P MECYL
(bar);
– Cylinders indicated pow er N IND CYL (IKW)
(Fif.3);
– Cylinders effective power N EFF CYL (EKW);
– Engine average mean –indicated pressure
PMIENG (bar) (Fig.3);
– Engine average mean –effective pressure
PMEENG (bar);
– Engine indicated power N IND ENG (IKW)
(Fif.3);
– Engine effective power N EFF ENG (EKW);
– Engine mechanical efficiency η MEC (%).
1) The values are entered manually to the
electronic equipment tables (Fig.3):
– Scavenging air temperature after turbocharger
or before scavenging air cooler T SCBC (OC);
– Scavenging air temperature after scavenging
air cooler T SCAC (OC);
– Scavenging air pressure after scavenging air
cooler P SCAC (bar);
– Exhaust gas temperature after turbocharger
TEXH ATC (OC);
– Turbocharger speed n TC (rpm);
– Cylinders exhaust gas temperatures T EXH CYL
(OC);
– Cylinders fuel rack p osition FRP (fuel pump
index FPI) (mm);
Note: However, the mentioned above values are
not enough for the engine technical condition full
diagnostic and analysis (cylinder tightness, fuel
injection equipment condition and turbocharger system
condition).
In completion of indication data entering to the PC
without TDC correction the engine average mean –
indicated pressure & indicated power calculation can
give tolerance up to +10%, while the same values
calculation from indicator diagrams are taken by
mechanical indicator with usage of computerized
technology gives tolerance up to +0.5% only.

American Scientific Journal № ( 36 ) / 2020 15

The engine average mean –indicated pressure and
indicated power calculation tolerance up to +10% is not
satisfactory for the engine technical condition (cylinder
tightness, fuel injection equipment condition and
turbocharger system condition) diagnostic and analysis,
overload/download analysis and load distribution
between the cylinders analysis.
Thereby we suggest the engine (4 –stroke engine)
indicated power accurat e calculation procedure,
afterwards it is possible a TDC accurate correction for
each cylinder, and then a cylinders mean –indicated
pressure P MICYL , cylinders indicated power N IND CYL &
engine average mean –indicated pressure P MIENG same
accurate calculation within tolerance +0.5%.
Work object
The high accuracy obtaining in the indicator
diagram treatment and as results high accuracy in the
cylinder power calculation , determination of load
distribution between cylinders and cylinders /engine
condition diagnost ic & analysis without engine
dismantling.
Ways of investigation
Investigations has carried out on the vessel's and
shore engines (with effective power from 300 EKW up
to 6600 EKW ) with different kind of micro –processing
gauging and systems (Doctor –Engine, Diesel –Doctor
and Electronic indicator) & with mechanical indicators.
Investigation results and discussion about
1. The indicator diagrams TDC correction and
each cylinder/total engine output data calculation after
the 4 –stroke Generator Engin e MAN –B&W type
6L23/30 indication by Electronic indicator type HLV –
2005 MK.
The Generator Engine performance data some
measurement readings are taken at each cylinder
indication and its average values calculation (table 1):

Table 1

The generator calculated active load by the
average values of voltage V, amperage A and power
factor cosφ measurement readings at each cylinder
indication from the table 1:
P = √� ⋅ V ⋅ A ⋅ cos
1000 = √3 ⋅ 440.17 ⋅ 1030 ⋅ 0.664
1000 = 521.17 KW
where: m = 3 – NOs of phases. The generator active load by the kilo –wattmeter
measurement readings at each cylinder indication from
the table 1:

P = 521.17 KW
The generator calculated reactive load by the
average values of active load P and power factor cosφ
measurement readings at each cylinder indication:
Q = P ⋅ tg(arccos (cos φ) = 521.17 ⋅ tg(arccos (0.664 )) = 587.39 KVAr
The generator calculated total load by the average
values of voltage V, amperage A and measurement
readings at each cylinder indication:

S = √� ⋅ V ⋅ A
1000 = √3 ⋅ 440.17 ⋅ 1030
1000 = 785.26 KVA
or S = √�2 + Q2 = √521.1 72 + 587.3 92 = 785.26 KVA
The Generator Engine measurement readings data
are taken from the shop trial test results (table 2): CYLINDER No. 1 2 3 4 5 6
FW TEMPERATURE C 72 73 73 73 74 74,5 AVERAG 73,3
TEMPERATURE C IN 70,5
EG TEMPERATURE C 320 353 342 350 380 337 AVERAG 347
FUEL PUMP INDEX mm 20,5 21,5 19,5 19 20 20 AVERAG 20,1
COSINUS PHY (-) 0,66 0,66 0,66 0,66 0,66 0,66 AVERAG 0,664
FREQUENCY Hz 60 60,1 60 60 60 59,8 AVERAG 59,98
CURRENT A 1040 1030 1030 1030 1025 1025 AVERAG 1030
VOLTAGE V 440 443 442 440 438 438 AVERAG 440,17
ACTIVE POW ER kW 528 512 522 524 524 517 AVERAG 521,2

16 American Scientific Journal № ( 36 ) / 2020
Table 2
Draw the diagram of alternator total load factor dependence of total load from shop trial test results table
and found its dependence function by the trend line (Diagram 1):

Diagram 1

The alternator calculated total load factor by the
function is founded from the diagram 1:
�ATL = 5.551340 · 1 0–13· S4– 1.871722 · 1 0–9· S3+ 2.403963 · 1 0–6· S2– 1.432312 · 1 0–3· S +
+ 1.205615 = 5.551340 · 1 0–13· 785.2 64– 1.871722 · 1 0–9· 785.2 63+
+ 2.403963 · 1 0–6· 785.2 62– 1.432312 · 1 0–3· 785.26 + 1.205615 = 0.868

The engine calculated indicated power by the
engine & alternator performance data results:
�IND = S ⋅ FATL = 785.26 ⋅ 0.868 = 681.6 IKW
Enter the engine indication and performance data
to the PC (Fig.1, Fig.2, Fig3):
Co nclusion: As we have seen from the Fig.1 and
Fig.2 the engine all cylinders indicator diagrams
compression lines are in different position (arrow 1),
that is what can not be for the same designed cylinders.
They are should be in one line, that is can be ad justed
by cylinders TDC correction individually (arrow 2). As
we have seen from the Fig.3 the engine indicated power
is 719.02 IKW instead of calculated in item 9 – 681.6
IKW, that is become 5.5% tolerance, which is not
acceptable for the engine technical condition diagnostic
and analyses. We have to correct the engine cylinders
TDC totally.
The engine cylinders TDC angles (Fig.1) in
degreases of crank angle CA:
Cylinder 1 TDC = 0 O CA; Cylinder 2 TDC = 1 O
CA; Cylinder 3 TDC = 1 O CA;
Cylinder 4 TDC = 0 O CA; Cylinder 5 TDC = 0 O
CA; Cylinder 6 TDC = 2 O CA;
Correct the engine cylinders TDC first of all
individually for making the diagrams compression lines
in one line (arrow 1), then totally for making the engine
indicated power same as calculated in item 9 (arrow 2),
(Fig.4, Fig.5, Fig6):
Cylinder 1 TDC = 2 O CA; Cylinder 2 TDC = 2 O
CA; Cylinder 3 TDC = 1 O CA; Alternator frequency F Hz by observation 60 60 60 60 60
Alternator current I A by observation 1323,26 1204,1 903,72 599,8 292,52
Alternator voltage U V by observation 450 450 450 450 450
Alternator active load P KW by observation 825,1 750,8 563,5 374 182,4
Alternator reactive load Q KVAr Q = P · tgφ 618,825 563,1 422,625 280,50 136,8
Alternator total load S KVA S = m 0,5 · U · I / 10 3 1031,38 938,503 704,38 467,50 228,0
Alternator total load S KVA S = (P 2 + Q 2)0,5 1031,38 938,5 704,375 467,50 228,0
Alternator power factor cosφ - by observation 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8
Engine indicated power NIND IKW by indication results 887,2 809,2 614,2 419,2 224,2
Alternator total load factor FATL IKW F ATL = N IND / S 0,86021 0,86223 0,87198 0,89668 0,98333 ·10 The alternator total load factor F ATL dependence of total load S diagram
FATL =5,551340·10 -13 ·S 4-1,871722·10 -9·S 3+2,403963·10 -6·S 2-1,432312·10 -3·S+1,205615
0,86
0,87
0,88
0,89
0,9
0,91
0,92
0,93
0,94
0,95
0,96
0,97
0,98
0,99
200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100
Alternator total load - S (KVA)
Alternator total load factor - F
ATL

American Scientific Journal № ( 36 ) / 2020 17

Cylinder 4 TDC = 1 O CA; Cylinder 5 TDC = 2 O
CA; Cylinder 6 TDC = 2 O CA;
Conclusion: As we have seen from the Fig.4 and
Fig.5 the engine all cylinders indicator diagrams
compression lines are in one line (arrow 1) after TDC
correction (arrow 2), that is what to be for the same
designed cylinders. As we have seen from the Fig.6 the
engine indicated power is 674.06 IKW and almost the
same with calculated in item 9 – 681.6 IKW, that is
become – 1.1% tolerance, which is perfect for the
engine technical condition diagnostic and analyses.
The Generator Engine mechanical loss pressure
from shop trial test results:

�ENG = 720 rpm → �MEC = 0.68 bar
The Generator Engine mean –effective pressure
calculation:
�ME = PMI – PMEC = 15.69 – 0.68 = 15.01 bar
where: P MI = 15.69 bar – from the engine
performance data results table (Fig.6);
PMEC = 0.68 bar – from item 13).

Figure 1. Cylinder open indicator diagrams before TDC correction
2
1
Fig.1. Cylinders open indicator diagram s before TDC correction

18 American Scientific Journal № ( 36 ) / 2020
Figure 2 . Cylinder closed indicator diagrams befo re TDC correction

Figure 3. Cylinders indication & performance data results table before TDC correction
Fig. 2. Cylinders closed indicator diagram s before TDC correction
Fig. 3. Cylinders indication & performance data results table before TDC correction

American Scientific Journal № ( 36 ) / 2020 19

Figure 4 . Cylinder open indicator diagrams after TDC correction
Figure 5. Cylinder closed indicator diagrams after TDC correction
1
2
Fig.4. Cylinders open i ndicator diagrams after TDC correction

Fig. 5. Cylinders closed indicator diagrams after TDC correction

20 American Scientific Journal № ( 36 ) / 2020

The Generator Engine effective power
calculation:
�EFF = �⋅�ME ⋅�⋅� = 0.0099357 ⋅15.01 ⋅719.8 ⋅6 = 644.1 EKW
where: k = 1.3084 · D 2 · S · m = 1.3084 · 0.225 2 ·
0.3 · 0.5 = 0.0099357 – cylinder constant;
D = 0.225 mtr – cylinder diameter;
S = 0.3 mtr – piston stroke;
m = 1 – stroke factor (for 4 –strik e engine m = 0.5;
for 2 –stroke engine m = 1).
Conclusion
As we have seen from mentioned above
information for Diesel Generators indicator diagrams
TDC correction the generator unit (alternator) electric
performance data measurement readings to be taken,
recorded & output data are effected to the TDC
correction to be calculated.

References
V.I. Korolev, A.G. Taranin, Training of engineers
on watch with usage of the engine room simulator
«DIESELSIM DPS –100» . Parts 1 & 2, Novorossiysk,
Admiral F.F. U shakov State Maritime University,
2010.
V.I. Korolev, A.G. Taranin, Unattended machine
service of a ship’s power plant with simulator
«DIESELSIM DPS –100» . Parts 1 & 2, Novorossiysk,
Admiral F.F. Ushakov State Maritime University,
2010.
A.G. Taranin, The sh ip’s equipment operational
instructions elements with usage of the ER simulator
«DIESELSIM DPS –100», Novorossiysk, Admiral F.F.
Ushakov State Maritime University, 2020.
A.G. Taranin, The ship’s equipment operational
instructions elements with usage of the ER simulator
«NEPTUNE MC90 –IV», Novorossiysk, Admiral F.F.
Ushakov State Maritime University, 2020.

Figure 6. Cylinders indication & performance data results table after TDC correction


Fig.6. Cylinders indication & performance data results table after TDC correction